• Deception in Sport: A Conceptual and Ethical Analysis

      Pfleegor, Adam; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2011-02-03)
      In 1973, Kathleen Pearson offered a pivotal first step into understanding deception in competitive sport and its many intricacies. However, the analysis falls short of truly deciphering this widespread phenomenon. By creating a taxonomy based on Torres (2000) understanding of various types of skills in an athletic contest, a wider array of deceptive practices are encompassed. Once the taxonomy is put forth, weighing the categories against the three-pronged ethical permissibility test established utilizing elements from formalism, conventionalism and broad internalism sheds lights on what deceptive practices should be deemed ethically permissible for use and which tactics should not be a part of an athlete’s repertoire. By understanding which categories of deception are permissible, the most fair and athletically excellent contest can be created between the opposing players of teams.
    • Decisions, Decisions … Understanding the Brand Associations Attached to U Sports Hockey: A Means-End Analysis of U Sports Hockey Players Who Transferred from The NCAA

      Medeiros, Sean; Applied Health Sciences Program
      The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) is often considered the pinnacle of colligate sports, drawing athletes from around the world to compete at one of its 1,281 institutions. Of the thousands of athletes imported to the NCAA each year, Canada who themselves bolster comprehensive colligate sport organizations (U Sports), experience the greatest exodus of athletes. While there is still a tremendous number of Canadian athletes heading to the NCAA, statistics have shown that many of these athletes return to Canada after at least one year since the recent adjustments to U Sports policy. As these student athletes begin to return to Canada at a rapidly growing rate, an opportunity to explore their unique brand perceptions has emerged. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the effect of brand associations on student athletes school choice selection as they return to Canada. Brand associations can be characterized as the attributes, benefits and personal values that consumers attach to a product or service to help develop their perception of it. To investigate the current study, 12 interviews were conducted using a laddering interview technique. Findings indicate that there a complex web of six attributes, nine benefits, and five personal values that are the most influential in student athlete school choice selection. Some of these include: location, coach, academics, comfort, relationship, family, achievement, safety and belonging. The intricate relationship that exists amongst these attributes, benefits and personal values is discussed in detail, and recommendations for industry practitioners is suggested.
    • Deconstructing Child Youth Care: an autoethnographic exploration of physical restraints in children’s residential settings

      Parsons, Monika Agata; Department of Child and Youth Studies
      This thesis is written through the front-line perspective of a child/youth worker who has experienced ‘rupture’ in her personal understanding of the Child Youth Care (CYC) practice. Using a collection of personal journal entries written about her individual experiences of CYC education, mentorship/training, front-line residential practice and frequently used interventions, this thesis takes the reader (and the writer) on a discovery of prominent discourses that exist within the residential CYC profession. Focusing on the use of physical restraints on children by residential Child/Youth Workers, this research project utilizes Deconstructive Discourse Analysis and Liberation Psychologies to illustrate a critical examination of power-knowledge and scientific/medical discourses in CYC practice. By focusing on Foucault’s concepts of disciplinary power, binary division and theory of panopticism, the writer seeks to explore a personal reflection and comprehension of how power is used to assert control over children/youth through mental health treatment and physical interventions.
    • The Demonstration Effect of Hosting a Major Games: A Case Study of Figure Skating and the Vancouver 2010 Olympic Winter Games

      Starr, Ryan; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Developed by Hindson, Gidlow, and Peebles (1994), the trickle-down effect and more specifically, the demonstration effect, are based on the idea that performances of a host nation’s athletes will inspire the population to become active in sport. The Vancouver 2010 Olympic Winter Games presented an opportunity for Canadian sport organizations to promote sport participation. The purpose of this study was to determine if the demonstration effect occurred in Canada, and determine the reasons why or why not. The sport of figure skating was selected. Quantitative data were collected from Skate Canada on club membership rates from 2003 to 2013. Results showed small increases in participation, however there was little change following the Vancouver 2010 Olympic Winter Games. Qualitative data showed that already active sport participants became more active, following these Games. The findings demonstrate that the demonstration effect occurred, however only for a select group of individuals.
    • A demonstration of educational craft : an outdoor educator's autoethnography

      Borland, James.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2009-01-28)
      Ellis (2004) argues that auto ethnography is a methodology that begins with the researcher as the site of study. Employing a qualitative storytelling structure shows, instead of tells. As the audience reads, they are encouraged to relate the research to their experiences, provoking reflective knowledge development. As an outdoor educator, I began to question the nature of my craft and how it was being shaped by my personal educational philosophy. So, drawing on a reflective journal I kept while employed as an outdoor educator in 2007, three outdoor educators published narratives, and a historical review of newspaper articles about Ontario-based outdoor education, conducted an autoethnographic inquiry and built a fictional story about my craft. I exposed five faultlines or areas of ideological tension, shaping my views about outdoor education and my craft.
    • Determining the Effectiveness of the Therapeutic Recreation Specialist - Certified Training at Baycrest Health Sciences

      Hirshfeld, Karen; Applied Health Sciences Program
      The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of the “Champion” training of the Therapeutic Recreation Specialist – Certified (TRSC) at Baycrest Health Sciences (BHS). BHS recently implemented a new model for Therapeutic Recreation Services that employs the model of champion for implementation of both best and next practices within the organization. This mixed methods study used both case study and program evaluation in order to understand whether the training that comprised of five different topics allowed the six participants to develop the skills needed to be champions. The results supported that learning did occur during the training and that the experience was positive for the participants. The overall finding from this study is that while the training was useful, the participants did not feel confident about utilizing these skills without further training; hence, this training can only be considered an introduction to the concepts presented.
    • Developing Life Skills through Physical Activity: A Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility Model Approach

      Beamish, Nick; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2012-11-07)
      Ethnographic methods were used to study a weekly after-school physical activity program over an eight-month period. Based on Hellison’s Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility (TPSR) model, the program sought to foster positive life skills amongst youth. The study investigated how the developed program influenced this life skills education experience. Several themes were identified from the data revolving around culture, life skills, pedagogy, and lessons learned. Data suggests that the positive environment developed within the program positively influenced youths’ life skill education experience. The topic of ethnicity as it relates to the experience of marginalized youth in physical activity settings is also discussed. This study supports TPSR literature and suggests that effort to establish caring relationships and empower youth contribute to the establishment of a positive atmosphere where life skills education can occur. Beyond this, practical tools were developed through this study to help others deliver life skill education.
    • The Development of a Survey to Assess the Type of Capacity within Nonprofit Sport Organizations

      Morrison, Christopher; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2011-02-28)
      The topic of organizational capacity and organizational capacity-building has gained importance among Canadian nonprofit sport organizations. This is illustrated by practitioners calling for increased attention to the capacity-building matters of nonprofit organizations, and two critical Canadian federal government documents outlining strategic direction for the nonprofit sport sector. Consequently, the purpose of this quantitative research study was to develop a valid and reliable survey to categorize nonprofit sport organizations into capacity types identified by Stevens (Stevens, 2006). This quantitative research study offers a preliminary development towards achieving a reliable and valid tool for assessing types of nonprofit sport organizational capacity. This research provides interesting insight into what capacity means by organizing the all-encompassing literature into an easy to understand framework. In addition, it sets the stage for future researchers to build upon this survey development process to achieve a reliable and valid capacity measuring tool.
    • Does Education Setting Influence the Relationship between Substance use and Depression among Post Secondary Students

      Tester, Patricia; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2012-08-09)
      Background. This study examined whether experiences of and relationships between depressive symptoms and substance use differs for first year college and university students. Methods. A proportionate stratified random sample of 6,100 university students and a census sample of 7,300 college students were invited to anonymously complete the National College Health Assessment. The final sample included 444 young adult first year university (n = 298) and college (n = 146) students. Results. More college than university students used tobacco (26.7; 11.1%) and marijuana (26.7%; 20.8%). Similar proportions consumed alcohol (75.3%; 76.5%). Almost all students reported past-year depressive symptoms. Mean number of symptoms was 5.43. Tobacco, alcohol and marijuana use were each positively associated with depression after adjusting for age and gender. Educational setting moderated the relationship between depression and tobacco use, and depression and marijuana use, with the relationship being stronger for university students. Implications. University campus health professionals especially, need to assess depression among students using substances and vice versa. Differences between college and university students require further attention.
    • Don’t worry, be fulfilled: Exploring employee experience with leadership and fulfillment in the Major Games context

      Smith, Lindsay; Applied Health Sciences Program
      The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between authentic leadership and workplace spirituality on the development of employees’ perceived workplace fulfillment in the Major Games context. Where Major Games organizational contexts are understood as unique, given their high velocity environments that are extremely susceptible to change (Parent, Olver, & Séguin, 2009), employees experience distinct stressors, including time constraints, role ambiguity, job insecurity, and work-life conflict. Given leader impact on employees’ perceived workplace fulfillment remains unknown (Parent et al., 2009), the preposition of this study is such that authentic leaders – said to positively influence employee attitudes, behaviours, and psychological wellbeing through prioritizing employees’ values and by winning employees’ trust and respect (Wang & Hsieh, 2013) – can positively respond to these unique stressors, thereby motivating employees to experience emotionally, spiritually, and intellectually engaging work, a beneficial outcome within this pressure-laden context. For this study, a qualitative research design with a phenomenographical method was applied with 20 Major Games’ employee participants, (i.e., employed from 2010 to present), who engaged in semi-structured interviews. Through open coding and thematic data analyses, the researcher discovered that it is through Major Games leaders applying characteristics of authentic leadership – including empowerment and social support – towards development of positive organizational cultures, Major Games employees may experience value congruence and sense of community (i.e., workplace spirituality), positively influencing the development of employees’ perceived workplace fulfillment in the Major Games industry.
    • Drafting Errors and Decision Making Theory in the NBA Draft

      Sailofsky, Daniel; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Even with the recent influx of available data with regards to draft-eligible players and NBA teams investing more resources into scouting than ever before, NBA decision makers still struggle to consistently evaluate talent and select productive players (Berri et al., 2010) in the draft. In this paper, I examine the NCAA statistics and pre-draft player factors that predict both draft position and NBA performance for all NCAA players drafted to the NBA between 2006-2013. Following this analysis, I determine what errors NBA teams are making and how these errors relate to general decision making theory. To compare the predictors of draft position and NBA performance, linear regression models are specified for both draft position and NBA performance. The NBA performance model sample necessarily excludes players whose production cannot be assessed due to not playing a minimum (>=500) amount of NBA minutes, and therefore a Heckman (1971) sample selection correction is applied to the performance model to correct for this non-randomly selected sample. Both models are specified for the entire dataset as well as for subsets for position (Bigs, Wings, Point Guards) and conference size (Big Conference, Small Conference). The findings of this paper demonstrate that NBA decision makers continue to base their draft selections on factors that do not actually predict future NBA success, such as scoring, size, and college conference. Many of the decisions made by NBA decision makers relate to Heath and Tversky’s (1991) competency hypothesis, as front offices forego the use of reliable distributive data and select players according to their perceived knowledge. NBA decision makers also display risk averse behaviour (Kahneman and Tversky, 1973) and an insistence on sticking with the status quo (Samuelson and Zeckhauser, 1988) in their decisions. More specifically, this study also points to ball control and offensive efficiency as predictors of individual player success. These findings can not only affect NBA decision makers in the factors that they emphasize in player evaluations, but can also be used to change the way that sport executives think about general decision making and their own innate decision making biases.
    • The effect of acute exercise type on body image attitudes

      Drouin, Breanne; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2011-05-17)
      The current study examined the effect of two types of acute exercise (resistance and mind-body yoga) on state body image attitudes, to see which, was most effective at reducing body image concerns. I t was hypothesized that both types of exercise would lead to improvements in body image, with yoga showing the biggest benefits. Collegeaged female non/infrequent exercisers (n = 40) completed state measures of body satisfaction, social physique anxiety (SPA), and appearance orientation prior to and following participation in a single yoga and resistance class. Participation in the yoga class was associated with decreases in SPA and increases in body satisfaction. However, participation in the resistance class was associated with no changes in any of the study variables. These findings indicate participation in a single yoga class may have positive effects on body image attitudes, which may encourage non-exercisers to become more active.
    • The effect of dairy consumption with exercise and healthy eating on the metabolic profile in overweight/obese adolescent girls

      Caetano Feitoza, Natalie; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Childhood obesity is a major health concern. Strategies to reduce this condition, including lifestyle modification with exercise and healthy nutrition, can reduce disease risk. Canada’s Food Guide (CFG) recommends a well balanced and healthy diet, however, children and adolescents are not meeting these recommendations, and this too is associated with poorer health. It has been proposed that the intake of dairy products can improve cardiometabolic risk factors in adults. However, research findings are inconsistent for dairy and cardiometabolic variables among adolescents. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the effect of dairy consumption, as part of a 12-week exercise and nutrition program, on fasting serum lipids (total cholesterol, LDL-c, HDL-c, triglycerides), insulin and glucose in overweight (OW) and obese (OB) adolescent girls. Twenty adolescents (10-18 years) were randomly assigned to two groups: recommended dairy (RDa, n=9) or low dairy (LDa, n=11). The RDa group consumed CFG’s recommended servings of dairy (4 servings/d), and the LDa group consumed ≤ 1 serving/d (reflecting habitual intakes). All participants followed an exercise program (three 60-minute sessions/wk) and a eucaloric weight management diet. There were no changes in the metabolic profile following the intervention, and no differences were seen between groups. Waist circumference (p=0.003) and fat mass (p<0.001) decreased and lean mass (p=0.01) increased after 12 weeks, with no differences between groups. Significant correlations were seen between body mass change and insulin change, waist circumference change and total cholesterol, insulin and HOMA-IR changes, and QUICKI change and body fat percent change. Further analysis with a larger sample size is required to determine the effect of increased dairy consumption as part of a lifestyle intervention on metabolic variables in OW/OB adolescent populations.
    • The effect of different phases of synchrony on the synchrony effect

      Rickers, Katelyn; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Synchronization of behaviour between individuals has been found to result in a variety of prosocial outcomes. The role of endorphins in vigorous synchronous activities (Cohen, Ejsmond-Frey, Knight, & Dunbar, 2010) may underlie these effects as endorphins have been implicated in social bonding (Dunbar & Shultz, 2010). Although research on synchronous behaviour has noted that there are two dominant phases of synchrony: in-phase and anti-phase (Marsh, Richardson, Baron, & Schmidt, 2006), research on the effect of synchrony on endorphins has only incorporated in-phase synchrony. The current study examined whether both phases of synchrony would generate the synchrony effect. Twenty-two participants rowed under three counterbalanced conditions - alone, in-phase synchrony and anti-phase synchrony. Endorphin release, as measured via pain threshold, was assessed before and after each session. Change in pain threshold during the in-phase synchrony session was significantly higher than either of the other two conditions. These results suggest that the synchrony effect may be specific to just in-phase synchrony, and that social presence is not a viable explanation for the effect of synchrony on pain threshold
    • The effect of synchronized group activities on pain threshold as a predictor of cooperation

      Gagnon, Morgan; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2013-10-10)
      Recent research suggests that participating in vigorous synchronized physical activity may result in elevated levels of endorphins, which may in turn affect social bonding (Cohen et. al., 2009). The present research aimed to examine whether or not the change in pain tolerance would be able to predict participants’ willingness to cooperate after statistically controlling for the groups’ condition. Participants were asked to run on a treadmill for 30 minutes under one of two conditions (control vs. synchronized). Prior to and after the run participants underwent a pain tolerance test. Once completed, a second activity was introduced to the participants; a cooperative game. A public goods game was used to measure an individual’s willingness to cooperate. The results showed the synchronized condition was able to predict that participants cooperated more during the public goods game (p = .009), however the change in pain threshold was unable to significantly predict cooperation (p = .32).
    • The effects of a general excercise program on task self-efficacy and social physique anxiety in older adults

      Ransom, Kerry; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2011-03-08)
      Older adults represent the most sedentary segment of the adult population, and thus it is critical to investigate factors that influence exercise behaviour for this age group. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of a general exercise program, incorporating cardiovascular, strength, flexibility, and balance components, on task selfefficacy and SPA in older adult men and women. Participants (n=114, Mage = 67 years) were recruited from the Niagara region and randomly assigned to a 12-week supervised exercise program or a wait-list control. Task self-efficacy and SPA measures were taken at baseline and program end. The present study found that task self-efficacy was a significant predictor of leisure time physical activity for older adults. In addition, change in task self-efficacy was a significant predictor of change in SPA. The findings of this study suggest that sources of task self-efficacy should be considered for exercise interventions targeting older adults.
    • The Effects of a Therapeutic Recreation Program on Overall Well-being Among Older-adults with Alzheimer Disease and Their Care Partner

      Rolph, Laura; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Background: With the increased pressures that our aging population has on our country, this study looks at the effects that an 8 week Therapeutic Recreation infused program has on the well-being for both individuals with Alzheimer Disease and their Care Partner. Method: Sample of the study is from a single secondary data set. Sampling criteria for the study was individuals with early to mid-stage signs of Alzheimer Disease or other dementias and their Care Partner from across 6 different locations in Ontario, Canada. Pre and Post data from the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-Being Scale was analyzed through a repeated measures ANOVA. Results: Care Partners indicated an increase in well-being slightly higher than that of the Persons With Dementia. This slight increase in well-being was not statistically significant for either the Care Partner or the Person’s with Dementia. Unexpected ANOVA findings revealed that there was a significant between-subject effect as Care Partners showed a higher overall level of well-being. This further emphasizes the importance for early intervention for Persons with Dementia. Conclusion: Overall this program is in the early stages of development. It is still believed that program modifications could facilitate a cost-effective intervention for communities.
    • The Effects of Motivational and Instructional Self-Talk on Cross-Training Exercise Performance

      Sampson, Jack; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Self-talk is a multi-dimensional construct comprised of self-statements that provide instruction, or motivation, for successful task completion. Instructional self-talk has been shown to be more effective during precision tasks, and motivational self-talk has been shown to be more effective during gross motor and exercise tasks. The effects of self-talk on task performance have not been explored through a combination of endurance and precision exercise, or cross-training. The purpose of the present study was to analyze the effectiveness of instructional and motivational self-talk during a cross-training exercise task of running and overhead squatting. 30 participants were evenly divided into three groups (i.e., control, motivational, and instructional), and were examined across three exercise trials. Two 3 x 3 factorial ANOVAs comparing exercise time and mechanical score revealed no significant differences between groups across exercise trials. The results of the present study provide a potential starting point for future self-talk studies analyzing the combination of exercise tasks.
    • Escape and connection : a phenomenological investigation into the meaning of an after-school program for adolescent boys

      Joseph, Thao; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2011-05-17)
      The purpos e of this phenomenological research is to explore the meaning of a YMCA-sponsored after-school recreation program in the lives of four adolescent boys. Listening to youth voice is impor t ant to the ability of othe r s to design, implement and evaluate high-quality programs tha t facilitate learning opportunities tha t a r e meaningful to participants. Within the context of interviews, task-based activities we r e used to ga the r data. Guided by Creswell's analytic spiral (1998), data wa s analyzed according to van Manen's (1990) thematic analysis and Caeilli's (2000) creative narrative analysis. It wa s found tha t this after-school progr am provided the s e adolescents with the opportunity to escape from the i r monotonous after-school activities and the instability of the i r home and school environments. Also, they we r e connected wi th positive peers, caring adults and the wide r community, opportunities tha t we r e limited in othe r aspects of the i r lives. Methodological issues a r e also discussed.
    • The Ethics of Categorization in Sport: An Analysis of the Possible Elimination of Under 19 Lightweight Rowing in Canada

      Giesbrecht, Jacob; Applied Health Sciences Program
      In 2017 a proposed rule change was made by a working group appointed by Rowing Canada Aviron to eliminate the U19 lightweight rowing category in Canada. While this proposal did not come to fruition, it did raise questions about the purpose and ethics of maintaining such a category. The purpose of this study was therefore to explore the perceptions of those closely involved with U19 lightweight rowing in Canada and the ethical considerations and ramifications of a possible ban on this category. Ten interviews were conducted with coaches and administrators closely associated with the topic to ascertain individual and group perceptions of this proposal. Based on Charles Taylor’s hermeneutic phenomenology, this study uncovered and evaluated the ethical implications and validity of the possible elimination of U19 rowing in Canada and provided a commentary on categorization in sport more broadly. The results of the interviews revealed six main emergent themes that included concepts of; natural lightweights, opportunity and fairness, health and harm reduction, education, coaching abuse or neglect, and accountability. After analyzing the perceptions of participants and applying an ethical analysis to the issue, a possible ban of U19 lightweight rowing in Canada was deemed ethically unjustifiable.