• Bargaining Power Dynamics and the Negotiation of Commercial Rights and Obligations: A Case of Athlete Agreements

      Arsenault, Craig; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2013-10-10)
      This qualitative case study explored how the structural power imbalance in high performance sport influenced the bargaining process and resulting commercial rights and obligations of a single Canadian national sport organization’s (NSO1) Athlete Agreement. Principles comprising the doctrine of unconscionability, specifically the identification of a power imbalance between contracting parties, and the exploration of how that power imbalance influenced the terms of the contract, provided a framework to analyze factors influencing the commercial contents of NSO1’s Athlete Agreement. The results of this analysis revealed that despite the overarching influence of the inherent structural power imbalance on all aspects of NSO1 and its membership, an athletes’ level of commercial appeal can reach such heights as to balance the bargaining positions of both parties and subsequently influence the commercial contents of the Athlete Agreement.
    • Basic Psychological Needs as mediators: An examination of the relationship between exercise and well-being

      Meldrum, Lindsay S.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2013-08-22)
      Grounded in Basic Psychological Needs Theory (Deci & Ryan, 2002), the present investigation examined whether psychological need satisfaction mediated the relationship between moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and well-being. Adopting a longitudinal design participants (N= 147) completed questionnaires assessing MVPA, well-being and perceived psychological need satisfaction in exercise contexts on three occasions separated by three weeks. A pattern of small-to-moderate correlations were noted between MVPA and indices of well-being (r12's ranged from .16 to .29). Multiple mediation analysis indicated that perceived psychological need satisfaction mediated the relationship between MVPA and well-being with perceived competence emerging as a unique mediator. Serial mediation analyses indicated the importance of ongoing psychological need satisfaction to well-being. Contexts that afford individuals the opportunity to engage in MVPA, as well as supports their need for competence, would be most advantageous for the promotion of psychological well-being.
    • A Basis for Understanding Volunteer Coach Retention in Youth Sports

      Broer, Richard; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2012-07-23)
      Youth sport organizations depend on volunteers to coach the teams in the organization. The purpose of this quantitative study was to develop a further understanding of volunteer coach retention in youth sport. The data was collected through a quantitative questionnaire which used close-ended and Likert-scale questions. The questionnaire collected data on the modified Model of Volunteer Retention in Youth Sports, reasons to withdraw from coaching and human resource management. There were 126 surveys collected from members of the three largest youth sport associations in the town of Aylmer, Ontario. The study found that Person-Task fit was the best predictor of volunteer coach retention as it significantly correlated to one’s intention to continue coaching (p< 0.01). Furthermore, additional reasons were found to explain withdrawal from coaching - if one’s child stops playing the sport or if coaching is too time consuming. The retention of volunteer coaches in youth sport organizations requires a multi-dimensional approach in understanding how to best retain volunteer coaches.
    • Basketball Court Counter-Stories from Youth in Public Housing: A Critical Race Approach

      Collymore, Tyler; Applied Health Sciences Program
      This research inquiry used critical race methodology to unearth the counter-stories of young people from Liberty Village, a public housing community based in the Niagara region. The community is highly racialized, low income and possesses a lingering, though unwarranted, reputation for crime and violence. The majoritarian or traditional story of the community and its residents perpetuates a negative image, one that often goes unchallenged. The counter-stories produced by the young people of the Liberty Village community actively challenge the status quo and highlight participant experiences with racism, and its intersections with oppression and marginality. These counter-stories highlight the importance of sport and, in particular, the community basketball/sport court, as a significant place in the lives of young people in Liberty Village. Their accounts also highlight the day-to-day racism that exists and the micro-aggressions subtly produced by the racial majority. These stories produce significant knowledge to help better understand marginalized youth experiences, sport for development programs, and the impact of racialized micro-aggressions.
    • Becoming Peer Health Leaders: A Mixed-Methods Evaluation of a Youth Leadership Camp Preparing Peer Leaders for Participation in a Health Promotion Initiative.

      Humphrys, Kathryn; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2014-03-24)
      Youth are critical partners in health promotion, but the process of training young people to become meaningfully involved is challenging. This mixed-methods evaluation considered the impact of a leadership camp in preparing 42 grade seven students to become peer health leaders in a ‘heart health’ initiative. The experiences of participants and their sense of agency were explored. Data were collected from pre and post camp surveys, focus groups, student journals and researcher observations. Findings indicate that relationships with peers and adults were key to agency development, and participants appeared to broaden their perspectives on the meanings of ‘health’ and ‘leadership.’ Significant changes on two sub-scales of the Harter Perceived Competence Scale for Children were also found. Suggestions for practice and further research are provided.
    • Being Relational With Underserved Youth: A Reflective Process

      Fortnum, Andrew; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2013-04-30)
      When working with under-served youth, possibly the most important, yet often times the most difficult, thing for practitioners to do is to build positive, trusting, open relationships. This study aims to address this challenge. Two groups of under-served youth were examined, one being teens deemed “at-risk” and one being youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). This study was novel in its approach as all efforts were made to ensure the youth's opinions on how to be relational with them were heard. Two youths with ASD were nonverbal and a special picture interview procedure was developed to allow their participation. Three thematic statements emerged from the data collected: 1. Youth need low anxiety relationships. 2. Youth need novel forms of engagement. 3. Youth need us to understand that their actions reflect their histories. The analyses that lead to these statements are described as well as the reasoning and implications of these statements.
    • Best Practices of Sport For Development: A Case Study of An African Organization

      Rose, Stewart; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2014-12-03)
      Sport-for-development is the active practice of achieving social ideals through the use of sport and other traditional development programs. The purpose of this thesis was to evaluate SFD best practices from the context of an African organization development project. The case was a development organization in Zambia, Africa that was utilizing sport within its strategy. The data collection and analysis framed using Curado and Bontis (2007) MIC Matrix, the Sport For Development International Working Group’s (2007) best practices model, and B. Kidd’s (2011) Sport-in-Development Logic Model. The research supports that a SFD project is multi-faceted and should include the employment of strategic community programming on the basis of collaborative and integrative sport, health care and education. Further, the researcher found that the best practices include setting specific goals and objectives, as well as instituting regular monitoring and evaluation strategies
    • BP BLOGGER: DESCRIPTIVE STUDY OF ELECTRONIC KNOWLEDGE DISSEMINATION IN LONG TERM CARE

      Tassonyi, Ann; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2013-11-05)
      Little is known of the uptake and use of knowledge disseminated in electronic formats, especially in Long Term Care (LTC) settings. The purpose of this descriptive study was to examine the dissemination of the BP Bloggers, a series of brief, evidence summaries designed to meet the knowledge needs of LTC staff. Guided by Rogers’ (2003) Diffusion of Innovations theory, the study documents dissemination of the BP Blogger and examines factors affecting dissemination, awareness, perceptions and its use. The survey of BP Blogger recipients was conducted electronically (n=114) online (n=10), by telephone (n=55), and print (n=144). Managers usually received the newsletter electronically while staff in LTC were more likely to receive printed copies. Participants disseminated the newsletter through paper, email, or posting in the workplace. Most participants rated the content, format, and usefulness of the BP Blogger as good or excellent. Time and lack of email access were barriers to dissemination.
    • Brand Associations of Minor Hockey Tournaments: Understanding the Rep Hockey Parents' Perspective

      Wigfield, Daniel; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Tournaments and other hockey-related activities have been calculated to be a significant driver of tourist dollars for many regions across Canada. The competition to attract teams to participate in tournaments, which benefit the tournament organizers and the communities in which they reside, is significant. Consequently, the purpose of the study was to assess the brand associations that representative (rep) minor hockey parents from Ontario’s Greater Golden Horseshoe Region perceive as relevant when considering ideal tournaments for their child to participate in. Brand associations have been classified as the attributes, benefits, or attitudes one uses to develop a perception of a product or service. To investigate the current study, 30 interviews were conducted using a laddering interview technique. Findings indicate that there are seven attributes and nine benefits that impact a tournament’s brand association including: competition, tournament operations, accommodations, bonding, fun, parity, and time management. The interrelationship between the identified attributes and benefits is discussed while recommendations and directions for future research are presented.
    • Breaking down barriers: An analysis of pre-service health and physical education teachers’ beliefs and preparation for working with LGBTQ students

      McCaughey, Colin; Applied Health Sciences Program
      In this research, I investigate the values, beliefs and preconceived notions teachers of health & physical education (H&PE) possess as they educate LGBTQ students. H&PE teachers hold a significant responsibility to create safe spaces for LGBTQ students, as PE and sport are contexts in whch LGBTQ students feel especially vulnerable, due to the pervasive cultures of hyper-masculinity and conservatism (Linghede & Larsson, 2017). Yet, little is known about how these teachers are prepared to work with LGBTQ students. In response, my research provides an opportunity for pre-service H&PE teachers to describe their feelings of preparedness and their values, beliefs and preconceived notions to working with this population. Information gathering and analysis was accomplished through a qualitative methodology. Four pre-service H&PE teachers where recruited to partake in three semi-structured interviews utilizing a past, present and future structure. Through this process, three main findings were generated. First, this group of pre-service H&PE teachers possessed varying beliefs in working with LGBTQ students. Secondly, many of the participants articulated a commitment to inclusionary practices. Third, the participants believe that their formal university experiences have not prepared them to teach issues relating to gender and sexuality. As such, participants have taken it upon themselves to learn effective strategies through their own research and personal experiences. Implications for school H&PE, teacher development and future avenues of research are discussed in light of these findings.
    • Bullying in physical education : its prevalence & impact on the intention to continue secondary school physical education

      Hurley, Vanessa.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2010-01-28)
      The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of bullying in physical education and its influence on students' intention to participate in the class in the future. Additionally, the study researched the relationship between bullying and body image as well as bullying and physical competency in physical education. A survey was utilized that collected both quantitative and qualitative data about students' experiences in physical education. Two-hundred and thirty-four grade 10 students (144 female and 90 male) from 8 different secondary schools participated in the study. Data analyses were completed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16.0. Results showed thaLapproximately 18.3% of respondents had .experienced physical bullying in physical education; 23.7% had experienced verbal bullying; and 20.4% experienced social bullying. Furthermore, those who experienced frequent bullying in physical education did not intend on taking the class in the future. The relationship between body image and bullying was not found to be significant. However, physical competence was found to significantly predict bullying in physical education. These results show how prevalent bullying is in physical education classes and how it negatively impacts future participation in the class.
    • Can a Manipulated Mind Alter Matter? : The Effects of Verbal Feedback on Self-Efficacy, Exercise Intention, and Exercise Behaviour among Low-Active College-Aged Women

      Oda, Christyn J. Y.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2013-11-05)
      Self-efficacy (SE), a person’s confidence in the ability to perform a task, is an important predictor of the adoption and maintenance of physical activity. The present study examined the effects of SE manipulated through verbal persuasion on exercise intentions and behaviour during a 4-week follow-up period and investigated the role of social physique anxiety (SPA) as a moderator. Female college infrequent exercisers (n = 66) were randomly assigned into one of three groups (high-efficacy [HE], low-efficacy [LE], or control) and asked to complete several questionnaires at baseline. The HE and LE groups were provided with positive and negative exercise adherence feedback, respectively. The HE group reported higher SE from pre- to post-feedback. Both the HE and LE groups reported increases in exercise behaviour at the 4-week follow-up. Pre- to post-feedback changes in SE, exercise intention, and exercise behaviour did not depend on level of SPA reported.
    • Can Mixed Martial Arts be Ethically Defended?: Autonomy, Paternalism and the Harm Principle

      Kent, Cody; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2014-02-21)
      Abstract Mixed Martial Arts (MMA) and the Ultimate Fighting Championship (UFC) founded in 1993 have been under scrutiny for the past two decades. Unlike boxing, the ethical status of MMA and whether it is morally defensible have rarely been analyzed in the academic literature. I argue that MMA requires such an analysis because it is inherently violent. The purpose of this study was to examine elite-level MMA by referring to the ethical concepts of autonomy, paternalism and the Harm Principle. Findings from interviews with MMA athletes as well as my personal experience of MMA were presented to establish a deeper understanding of the sport and what it means to train and compete in a sport defined as violent. The conceptual analysis and findings of MMA athletes' experiences in this investigation resulted in the conclusion that MMA is ethically defensible. Additional findings, implications and recommendations for further research were also discussed.
    • The Canada Not For Profit Corporations Act: Perceived impact on the governance of federal sport organizations

      Jacobs, Benjamin; Applied Health Sciences Program
      This thesis examined the impact of the Canada Not-for-Profit Corporations Act (2009) on the governance of national sport organizations (NSO). The impact of the legislation was explored through the perceptions of NSO executive leaders and by analyzing the by-laws in effect before the legislation. The legislation was perceived to have the greatest impact on enhancing accountability, specifically affecting membership categories and director selection. The interview data showed that the legislation was necessary to enhance accountability in many NSOs. The Respondents also demonstrated that they understood the goals sought through the legislation. The data also showed that the boards of NSOs were already in alignment with the goals of the legislation. With respect to governance, the data indicated that NSOs rely almost exclusively on their regional sport associations as voting stakeholders. An emerging issue that came out of the results was the role of athletes in the governance of sport organizations.
    • Canadian curling coaches' use of psychological skills training

      Paquette, Kyle J.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2009-01-28)
      Hom's (2008) model of coaching effectiveness proposes a series of direct relationships between the beliefs and values of coaches, their behaviours, and the perceptions of their athletes. One specific area of coaching behaviour that is in need of more research is their use of psychological skills training (PSn. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the beliefs and behaviours of curling coaches with respect to PST, and the perceptions of their athletes. In collaboration with the Canadian Curling Association, data was collected from a national sample of 115 curling teams with varying levels of competition and experience. One hundred and fifteen coaches completed PST attitude (SPA-RC-revised) and behaviour (MSQ-revised) measures, while 403 athletes completed two perception measures (CCS and S-CI). Interclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were calculated to ensure intra-team consistency. All ICCs were positive, ranging from r =.39 to .56, and significant at the p < .01 level. A series of multiple regressions were performed. Three of the four regression models were significant, with coaches' PST behaviours accounting for 16% of the variance in athletes' evaluation of their coaches' competencies (GeC). The models for athletes' PhysicalSport Confidence (P-SC) and Cognitive-Sport Confidence (C-SC) accounted for 15% and 36% of the variation, with GCC and coaches' PST behaviours both being significant predictors of the models. After statistically controlling the influence of GCC, coaches' PST behaviours accounted for 3% and 26% of the variation in athletes P-SC and C-SC. These results provide partial support for Hom's (2008) model of coaching effectiveness, and offer new insight into the benefits of coaches' use of sport psychology-related training behaviours.
    • A Canadian Perspective on the ‘NCLEX-RN World’: Pragmatism When the Stakes are High

      Podwinski, Kerri Ann; Applied Health Sciences Program
      According to the Ontario nursing regulatory body, the American-designed high stakes nursing licensure examination, the NCLEX-RN, is a valid measure to assess the Canadian entry-to-practice competencies requisite of each new graduate registered nurse. This examination is used to “…ensure that it grants registration only to those who demonstrate the nursing knowledge to provide safe care” (para. 1). However, limited research exists that explores, examines and evaluates the impact of the NCLEX-RN in Canada since adoption from the United States of America in January 2015. Particularly, no studies existed that explored the experiences and perceptions of practicing Registered Nurses (RNs) who have written the NCLEX-RN, outside of the first-year test-takers. This thesis document describes the findings of a collective case study to better understand the NCLEX-RN, as experienced by six Canadian RNs from both acute and non-acute healthcare environments in Ontario, Canada. A within-case, document, and cross-case thematic analysis was used. The participants described their experiences with, and perceptions about, the NCLEX-RN within four main themes – influencing preparedness; examining the Canadian RN; becoming ready for safe practice; and reflecting as a practicing RN. The findings of this study support existing literature that a lack of content reflective of Canadian healthcare values exists in the NCLEX-RN. The educational impact and consequences of high stakes testing such as, curricular molding to external evaluation and concerns related to exam validity, are also highlighted. Presently, Canadian nurse educators and future test-takers must approach the NCLEX-RN pragmatically to ensure licensure of graduates with minimal disruption to the Canadian baccalaureate nursing education.
    • A Case Study of Disengaged Students' Experiences with Teaching Games for Understanding

      Bracco, Elizabeth Marie; Applied Health Sciences Program
      The purpose of this research study was to determine if the instructional model, Teaching Games for Understanding (TGfU), would allow for the successful teaching of sport to disengaged female students in Physical Education (PE) classes. An instrumental case study research design was used to determine grade nine female students’ experiences with TGfU, the factors of TGfU that facilitated their engagement, and the ways in which these students resisted engaging in TGfU. Data was collected through a pre and post TGfU unit focus group, participant observation, in-depth interviews, and researcher reflections. Results showed that TGfU caused an increase in the participants’ engagement in PE physically, mentally, and socially/emotionally. Future researchers could structure their entire study holistically and should examine TGfU’s impact on student engagement over the course of an entire semester. Subsequent studies should moreover examine the presence of disengagement within physically skilled students in PE.
    • A Case Study of the Implementation of Experiential Education in Yukon K-12 Schools

      Chinnick, Jarod; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2011-05-06)
      This qualitative case study explored the process of implementing Experiential Education (EXED) in Yukon Territory Kindergarten to Grade 12 (K-12) schools with a particular focus on investigating: (a) understandings of EXED and the drivers behind its implementation, (b) factors contributing to EXED’s suitability for Yukon schools, and (c) factors supporting and challenging the implementation of EXED in Yukon schools. Data collection involved interviews with Yukon Department of Education (YDE) staff members, principals and teachers, document collection, and reflective note collection. Findings indicated that EXED was understood as more of a methodology than a philosophy for teaching and learning. EXED implementation was primarily driven by bottom-up (school/ teacher) initiatives and was secondarily supported by top-down (YDE) efforts. The process of implementation was supported by three main factors and was challenged primarily by six factors. The results also pointed to three factors that made EXED suitable for implementation in Yukon schools.
    • A case study of the implementation of experiential education in Yukon K-12 schools

      Chinnick, Jarod R.; Applied Health Sciences Program (2012-07-05)
      This qualitative case study explored the process of implementing Experiential Education (EXED) in Yukon Territory Kindergarten to Grade 12 (K-12) schools with a particular focus on investigating: (a) understandings of EXED and the drivers behind its implementation, (b) factors contributing to EXED's suitability for Yukon schools, and (c) factors supporting and challenging the implementation of EXED in Yukon schools. Data collection involved interviews with Yukon Department of Education (YDE) staff members, principals and teachers, document collection, and reflective note collection. Findings indicated that EXED was understood as more of a me~odology than a philosophy for teaching and learning. EXED implementation was primarily driven by bottom-up (school! teacher) initiatives and was secondarily supported by top-down (YDE) efforts. The process of implementation was supported by three main factors and was challenged primarily by six factors. The results also pointed to three factors that made EXED suitable for implementation in Yukon schools.
    • A case study of the Ottawa Valley whitewater rafting industry : standards and risks

      Howard, Ryan.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2009-01-28)
      This qualitative case study identifies and discusses the standards and risk management practices of the Ottawa Valley whitewater rafting industry and the impacts of the government enforced Special-purpose Vessels Regulations are discussed. Data collection occurred using a single case study design, which included interviews and document analysis. This study found that internal, industry, and actual standards are influenced through a variety of sources. These standards were found to affect the risk management practices of commercial whitewater rafting providers. In general, these standards promoted a high level of risk management within the Ottawa Valley rafting industry. The Special-purpose Vessels Regulations were found to be non-influential in raising the risk management standards of the Ottawa Valley whitewater rafting industry.