• Active living in municipal parks and recreation : a case study

      Stewart, Virginia.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2009-02-01)
      If quality of life is an important recreation outcome, then municipal parks and recreation management's efforts have to change because:· Over one-third of all the little kids in schools will be diabetic in their lifetime if the trends we are looking at continue. The average loss of life is about 15 years, and there is an average reduction in quality oflife by about 20 years (Jackson, 2007). This thesis is about municipal parks and recreation, an agency that controls and limits physical activity opportunity. It is also about active living; from an ecological perspective, a multi-disciplinary approach to incorporate physical activity into more 111 people's daily lives. In particular, this thesis examines one case --'. the Donutville Case - . with the intent of providing an explanation of how municipal parks and recreation can advance its management efforts to improve health outcomes of people suffering from daily physical activity deficits. More specifically, how can the tension between external and internal environments to municipal parks and recreation be better balanced to affect the change needed? Given that changing the current social reality is through making decisions, decision-making functions connected with systems theory helps identify how recreation authorities can more effectively influence environmental physical activity determinants. , Sallis et al.' (2006) ·social ecological model provides the a priori focus on active living decision-making. An integrated analogous emerging logic model is developed and presented as an efficacious strategy for how municipal parks and recreation decisionmakers can affect change. Keywords: physical activity, benefits outcomes, healthy livable community, quality of life, systems thinking, social ecological model, deci~ion-making, logic modeling, municipal parks and recreation, active living.
    • Active2010 and the Ontario School System: A Top-Down Policy Implementation Analysis

      Puillandre, Michael; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2012-07-19)
      In 2004, the Ontario Ministry of Health Promotion and Sport (MHPS) established Active2010: Ontario’s Sport and Physical Activity Strategy. Active2010 demonstrates a strong provincial government policy emphasis regarding sport participation and physical activity (PA), and identifies the school system as a primary vehicle for enhancing PA levels. This study examines the sport and PA initiatives MHPS is undertaking within the school system. Theoretical context regarding neo-liberalism in Canada and Canadian sport frames this study, while a revised version of Van Meter and Van Horn’s (1975) top-down model of policy implementation guides the research process. A case study of the school-based PA system is conducted which relies on the analysis of 11 semi-structured interviews and 47 official organizational documents. Four emergent categories of Jurisdictional Funding, Coercive Policy, Sector Silos, and Community Champions are identified. Additional insight is provided regarding neo-liberalism, provincial level government, interministerial collaboration, and government/non-profit sector partnership.
    • Actual and perceived coaches' sportspersonship behaviours and their relationship with young athletes' sportspersonship orientations

      Kenworthy, Laurissa C.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2011-03-08)
      Hom' s (2008) model of coaching effectiveness provides a framework that outlines the antecedent factors that influence coaches' behaviours as well as the way in which coaches' behaviours can influence the psychosocial development of athletes. Perceived coaches" behaviours have been shown to predict the self-reported unsportspersonlike behaviours of young athletes (Shields et aI., 2007). However, very few studies have examined actual coaches' sportspersonship behaviours (Arthur-Banning et aI., 2009; Cote et aI., 1993; Trudel e t aI., 1991). The purpose of this exploratory study was to investigate the relationships between coaches' and athletes' sportspersonship orientations and behaviours. Participants included competitive male basketball coaches (N = 5) and their male athletes aged 10 to 13 (N= 48). Two investigators systematically observed coaches' sportspersonship behaviours. Subsequently, coaches and athletes completed questionnaires based on the Multidimensional Sportspersonship Orientations Scale (MSOS; Vallerand et aI., 1997). The results showed that coaches' self-reported sportspersonship orientations and athletes' perceptions of their coaches behaviours were consistent with coaches' actual behaviours for respect for the rules and officials as well as for social conventions. A series of multiple regressions were conducted in order to determine whether or not athletes' perceptions of their coaches' sportspersonship behaviours predicted the sportspersonship orientations of athletes. The only significant regression model was for athletes' negative approach toward sport participation. The results also suggest that the MSOS has reliability and validity issues.
    • Affect, ontology, and pedagogy: An autoethnographic study on student-teacher relationships

      Kalfleish, Luke; Department of Child and Youth Studies
      In studying affect within the realm of student-teacher relationships my thesis project use the concept of “affect” as composed by Baruch Spinoza (1992, 2007). I focus specifically on how Deleuze (1988) interprets and implements the term within his own philosophy, as well as on Antonio Negri’s (2011, 1991) work on Spinoza including his and Michael Hardt’s (2000, 2004, 2009) more recent works. This thesis will explore Spinoza’s affect within the discourse of Affective Pedagogy and Critical Pedagogy while remaining committed to a Spinoizist ontology as outlined by Deleuze (1988). I used artefacts from my past experiences as a student and teacher to produce evocative writing pieces which act as affective continuances of my past experiences as a student, student-teacher, and teacher, and the relationships of affect that composed them. This project used these artefacts and the writings they produced as sites of intensity that are carried through from traces, to evocative thresholds, to concepts, and finally into analysis.
    • An Analysis of Minor Hockey Officials and Perceived Organizational Support

      Eckford, Shawn; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2014-06-06)
      Recent research suggests organizational factors should be considered in order to better understand the attrition of minor hockey. Consequently, the purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the extent to which minor hockey officials perceive organizational support (POS) from the minor hockey system, and to compare POS among minor hockey officials according to demographics. A total of 261 minor hockey officials were surveyed with the Survey of Perceived Organizational Support (SPOS). Results indicated significant differences according minor hockey official experience, certification level and extra-role performance. The findings are discussed in relation to POS and human resource management literature, and recommendations are made as to how administrators can better support these officials.
    • An analysis of the relationship between self-efficacy and performance in a continuous gymnastic routine

      LaForge, Kaitlyn; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2011-05-17)
      Research has shown a consistent correlation between efficacy and sport performance (Moritz, et aI., 2000). This relationship has been shown to be dynamic and reciprocal over seasons (e.g., Myers, Payment, et aI., 2004), within games (e.g., Butt, et aI., 2003), and across trials (e.g., Feltz, 1982). The purpose of the present study was to examine selfefficacy and performance simultaneously within one continuous routine. Forty-seven undergraduate students performed a gymnastic sequence while using an efficacy measure. Results indicated that the efficacy-performance relationship was not reciprocal; previous performance was a significant predictor of subsequent performance (p < .01; f3s ranged from .44 to .67). Results further revealed significant differences in efficacy beliefs between groups with high and low levels of performance [F (1,571) = 7.16,p < .01]. Findings suggest that high levels of performance within a continuous physical activity task result in higher performance scores and higher efficacy beliefs.
    • Analyzing the learning of the taking personal and social responsibility model within a new physical education undergraduate degree program in El Salvador

      Andre, Mauro Henrique; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2010-10-26)
      EI Salvador presents an unfortunate history that includes a military regime and a civil war that together created a legacy of violence in which the country still struggle nowadays. Salud Escolar Integral (SEI) was created in 2005 as a program to combat youth violence throughout the re-formulation of physical education (PE) classes in public schools, promoting life skills learning that supports the resolution of conflicts with nonviolent ways. In 2007, SEI supported the creation of a physical e~ucation teacher education (PETE) degree at the Universidad Pedag6gica de EI Salvador (UPES), having the goal to assist pre-service teachers with a better understanding of humanistic principles. The present research analyzed if after attending all three years ofUPES PETE program, students presented high self-perception levels of competence and confidence related to attitude, skills and knowledge to teach PE within humanistic principles. Taking Personal and Social Responsibility (TPSR) was the theoretical framework used to analyze the development of humanistic principles. The study had a mixed-method longitudinal design that included questionnaires, reflection templates and interviews. In conclusion, although it is suggested that UPES should provide better support for the development of the teaching principles of empowering students and transfer learning, most of the humanistic principles were highly promoted by the program. At last, it is suggested that future research should track teachers' progress while teaching in schools, in order to analyze if the theory of promoting humanistic principles have also become a daily practice.
    • Assessing the Occupational Leadership Efficacy of Sport Management Students

      Dykstra, Michelle; Applied Health Sciences Program
      A cross-sectional study was used to examine how sport management undergraduate students judge their capabilities to occupy leadership positions in the sport industry; their occupational leadership efficacy (OLE). Specifically, this study explored differences in capability judgments between groups of students who were completing sequential courses within a sport management undergraduate program, and if and/or how male and female students differed in OLE. Of a total population of N = 484, n = 154 students of a 4-year Undergraduate Sport Management program were surveyed. An analysis of covariance was completed to determine if significant differences existed between courses completed (i.e., years) and sex. Results indicate no difference in OLE between years or between sex. However, the covariates Sport Employed and Sport Leader had significant impacts on OLE. Sport management educators can use these results to improve undergraduate degree programs. Self-efficacy can be fostered using strategies linked to Bandura’s (1997) four sources.
    • Association between adolescent leisure, peer social capital and academic performance among Canadian youth

      Szybla, Barbara; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2010-10-27)
      Previous research shows discrepant findings between youth leisure programming (before and after school programs, structured summer program, day camp, overnight camp), academic performance and other youth developmental outcomes. Studies underscores the importance of family, community and school social capital in educational success of youth, investigation of peer social capital in the leisure context and academic performance outcomes is limited. This study uses a sample of 10 and 11 year olds (N=1764) from the Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (NLSCY) Cycle 6, to study the association between youth leisure programming, peer social capital and academic performance. Ordinal logistic regression models consistently showed a positive association between overnight camp and academic performance even after controlling for determinants of health, and measures of family, school and community social capital. Similarly, the measure of peer social capital was positively associated with academic performance. Most importantly, the interaction between overnight camp participation and peer social capital was significantly associated with academic performance. Study findings, highlight overnight camp opportunities and peer social
    • Athlete Perceptions of the Impacts of Adapted Performance Profiling Procedures in an Applied Sports Setting

      Drum, Simon; Applied Health Sciences Program
      The Traditional performance profile (Butler & Hardy, 1992) has been endorsed by athletes and consultants as an effective tool in enhancing the delivery of sport psychology training with its ability to increase self-awareness, motivate athletes to improve and as a basis for goal setting. Variations to the Traditional profiling procedure have been developed and employed within applied settings, but have received limited evaluation as to their usefulness and impact. Further, no research has examined performance profiling in regard to its impact on adherence to, or intended participation to a sport psychological skills program. The purpose of this study was to explore and compare athlete perceptions regarding the impacts, usefulness and benefits of Traditional and Adapted performance profiling procedures. Athletes believed that Adapted performance profiling was not only useful, but had a significantly bigger impact on their self-awareness, motivation, and intention to participate in a future psychological skills program, than the impact of Traditional performance profiling.
    • Attachment and Performance Under Pressure on a Sport Motor Task

      Blacker, Mishka; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Attachment theory (Bowlby, 1969/1982, 1973, 1980) asserts that people are born with an innate psychobiological system (the attachment behavioural system) motivating them to seek proximity with significant others (attachment figures) in times of distress. Individual differences in attachment can be measured along two dimensions; avoidance and anxiety, representing the degree to which hyperactivating or deactivating strategies are used as alternative strategies for regulating emotion. People who score low on both dimensions are considered more securely attached, while higher scores on either or both dimensions reflects more attachment insecurity. Forrest (2008) proposed that insecurely attached athletes might be more susceptible to performance deficits under competitive stress compared to securely attached athletes. This study examined whether attachment orientation would predict performance under pressure on a sport motor task. Sixty-four competitive basketball players shot 20 free throws under low and high pressure. It was hypothesized that attachment orientation to parental figures and closest teammate would predict performance changes. Regression analyses showed that attachment orientation was not a significant predictor of performance change under pressure. However, the manipulation check revealed that competitive anxiety did not sufficiently increase from low pressure to high pressure, and significant changes in performance between conditions were not found. This may suggest that the manipulation of high pressure was not realistic or severe enough to threaten the attachment behavioural system in competitive athletes. Results showed that athletes’ attachment orientation to mother correlated with attachment orientation to their closest teammate. Discussion surrounds the difficulty of manipulating pressure in sport research as well as avenues for future research on attachment and sport performance.
    • Bargaining Power Dynamics and the Negotiation of Commercial Rights and Obligations: A Case of Athlete Agreements

      Arsenault, Craig; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2013-10-10)
      This qualitative case study explored how the structural power imbalance in high performance sport influenced the bargaining process and resulting commercial rights and obligations of a single Canadian national sport organization’s (NSO1) Athlete Agreement. Principles comprising the doctrine of unconscionability, specifically the identification of a power imbalance between contracting parties, and the exploration of how that power imbalance influenced the terms of the contract, provided a framework to analyze factors influencing the commercial contents of NSO1’s Athlete Agreement. The results of this analysis revealed that despite the overarching influence of the inherent structural power imbalance on all aspects of NSO1 and its membership, an athletes’ level of commercial appeal can reach such heights as to balance the bargaining positions of both parties and subsequently influence the commercial contents of the Athlete Agreement.
    • Basic Psychological Needs as mediators: An examination of the relationship between exercise and well-being

      Meldrum, Lindsay S.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2013-08-22)
      Grounded in Basic Psychological Needs Theory (Deci & Ryan, 2002), the present investigation examined whether psychological need satisfaction mediated the relationship between moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and well-being. Adopting a longitudinal design participants (N= 147) completed questionnaires assessing MVPA, well-being and perceived psychological need satisfaction in exercise contexts on three occasions separated by three weeks. A pattern of small-to-moderate correlations were noted between MVPA and indices of well-being (r12's ranged from .16 to .29). Multiple mediation analysis indicated that perceived psychological need satisfaction mediated the relationship between MVPA and well-being with perceived competence emerging as a unique mediator. Serial mediation analyses indicated the importance of ongoing psychological need satisfaction to well-being. Contexts that afford individuals the opportunity to engage in MVPA, as well as supports their need for competence, would be most advantageous for the promotion of psychological well-being.
    • A Basis for Understanding Volunteer Coach Retention in Youth Sports

      Broer, Richard; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2012-07-23)
      Youth sport organizations depend on volunteers to coach the teams in the organization. The purpose of this quantitative study was to develop a further understanding of volunteer coach retention in youth sport. The data was collected through a quantitative questionnaire which used close-ended and Likert-scale questions. The questionnaire collected data on the modified Model of Volunteer Retention in Youth Sports, reasons to withdraw from coaching and human resource management. There were 126 surveys collected from members of the three largest youth sport associations in the town of Aylmer, Ontario. The study found that Person-Task fit was the best predictor of volunteer coach retention as it significantly correlated to one’s intention to continue coaching (p< 0.01). Furthermore, additional reasons were found to explain withdrawal from coaching - if one’s child stops playing the sport or if coaching is too time consuming. The retention of volunteer coaches in youth sport organizations requires a multi-dimensional approach in understanding how to best retain volunteer coaches.
    • Basketball Court Counter-Stories from Youth in Public Housing: A Critical Race Approach

      Collymore, Tyler; Applied Health Sciences Program
      This research inquiry used critical race methodology to unearth the counter-stories of young people from Liberty Village, a public housing community based in the Niagara region. The community is highly racialized, low income and possesses a lingering, though unwarranted, reputation for crime and violence. The majoritarian or traditional story of the community and its residents perpetuates a negative image, one that often goes unchallenged. The counter-stories produced by the young people of the Liberty Village community actively challenge the status quo and highlight participant experiences with racism, and its intersections with oppression and marginality. These counter-stories highlight the importance of sport and, in particular, the community basketball/sport court, as a significant place in the lives of young people in Liberty Village. Their accounts also highlight the day-to-day racism that exists and the micro-aggressions subtly produced by the racial majority. These stories produce significant knowledge to help better understand marginalized youth experiences, sport for development programs, and the impact of racialized micro-aggressions.
    • Becoming Peer Health Leaders: A Mixed-Methods Evaluation of a Youth Leadership Camp Preparing Peer Leaders for Participation in a Health Promotion Initiative.

      Humphrys, Kathryn; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2014-03-24)
      Youth are critical partners in health promotion, but the process of training young people to become meaningfully involved is challenging. This mixed-methods evaluation considered the impact of a leadership camp in preparing 42 grade seven students to become peer health leaders in a ‘heart health’ initiative. The experiences of participants and their sense of agency were explored. Data were collected from pre and post camp surveys, focus groups, student journals and researcher observations. Findings indicate that relationships with peers and adults were key to agency development, and participants appeared to broaden their perspectives on the meanings of ‘health’ and ‘leadership.’ Significant changes on two sub-scales of the Harter Perceived Competence Scale for Children were also found. Suggestions for practice and further research are provided.
    • Being Relational With Underserved Youth: A Reflective Process

      Fortnum, Andrew; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2013-04-30)
      When working with under-served youth, possibly the most important, yet often times the most difficult, thing for practitioners to do is to build positive, trusting, open relationships. This study aims to address this challenge. Two groups of under-served youth were examined, one being teens deemed “at-risk” and one being youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). This study was novel in its approach as all efforts were made to ensure the youth's opinions on how to be relational with them were heard. Two youths with ASD were nonverbal and a special picture interview procedure was developed to allow their participation. Three thematic statements emerged from the data collected: 1. Youth need low anxiety relationships. 2. Youth need novel forms of engagement. 3. Youth need us to understand that their actions reflect their histories. The analyses that lead to these statements are described as well as the reasoning and implications of these statements.
    • Best Practices of Sport For Development: A Case Study of An African Organization

      Rose, Stewart; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2014-12-03)
      Sport-for-development is the active practice of achieving social ideals through the use of sport and other traditional development programs. The purpose of this thesis was to evaluate SFD best practices from the context of an African organization development project. The case was a development organization in Zambia, Africa that was utilizing sport within its strategy. The data collection and analysis framed using Curado and Bontis (2007) MIC Matrix, the Sport For Development International Working Group’s (2007) best practices model, and B. Kidd’s (2011) Sport-in-Development Logic Model. The research supports that a SFD project is multi-faceted and should include the employment of strategic community programming on the basis of collaborative and integrative sport, health care and education. Further, the researcher found that the best practices include setting specific goals and objectives, as well as instituting regular monitoring and evaluation strategies

      Tassonyi, Ann; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2013-11-05)
      Little is known of the uptake and use of knowledge disseminated in electronic formats, especially in Long Term Care (LTC) settings. The purpose of this descriptive study was to examine the dissemination of the BP Bloggers, a series of brief, evidence summaries designed to meet the knowledge needs of LTC staff. Guided by Rogers’ (2003) Diffusion of Innovations theory, the study documents dissemination of the BP Blogger and examines factors affecting dissemination, awareness, perceptions and its use. The survey of BP Blogger recipients was conducted electronically (n=114) online (n=10), by telephone (n=55), and print (n=144). Managers usually received the newsletter electronically while staff in LTC were more likely to receive printed copies. Participants disseminated the newsletter through paper, email, or posting in the workplace. Most participants rated the content, format, and usefulness of the BP Blogger as good or excellent. Time and lack of email access were barriers to dissemination.
    • Brand Associations of Minor Hockey Tournaments: Understanding the Rep Hockey Parents' Perspective

      Wigfield, Daniel; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Tournaments and other hockey-related activities have been calculated to be a significant driver of tourist dollars for many regions across Canada. The competition to attract teams to participate in tournaments, which benefit the tournament organizers and the communities in which they reside, is significant. Consequently, the purpose of the study was to assess the brand associations that representative (rep) minor hockey parents from Ontario’s Greater Golden Horseshoe Region perceive as relevant when considering ideal tournaments for their child to participate in. Brand associations have been classified as the attributes, benefits, or attitudes one uses to develop a perception of a product or service. To investigate the current study, 30 interviews were conducted using a laddering interview technique. Findings indicate that there are seven attributes and nine benefits that impact a tournament’s brand association including: competition, tournament operations, accommodations, bonding, fun, parity, and time management. The interrelationship between the identified attributes and benefits is discussed while recommendations and directions for future research are presented.