• Evaluating three self-help smoking cessation interventions for post-secondary smokers : a randomized controlled trial on six Ontario campuses

      Travis, Heather E.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2003-05-21)
      Objective. Smoking prevalence is highest among the young adult cohort. Postsecondary students are no exception. Although many students intend to quit smoking, no research has established what methods best promote reductions in, or complete abstinence from smoking. This randomized controlled trial examined the effectiveness of three self-help smoking cessation interventions. Method. On six post-secondary campuses, 483 smokers who voluntarily accessed Leave The Pack Behind (a tobacco control initiative) were randomly assigned to one of three smoking cessation interventions: One Step At A Time (a 2-booklet, *gold standard' program for adults); Smoke|Quit (a newly-developed 2-booklet program for young adult students); and usual care (a 'Quit Kit' containing a booklet on stress management, information about pharmacological quitting aides and novelty items). All participants also received one proactive telephone support call from a peer counsellor. During the study, 85 participants withdrew. The final sample of 216 students who completed baseline questionnaires and 12-week follow-up telephone interviews was representative of the initial sample in terms of demographic characteristics, and smokingquitting- related variables. Results. Whether participants quit smoking depended upon treatment condition, ^(2, N=2\6) = 6.34, p = .04, with Smoke|Quit producing more successfijl quitters (18.4%) than One Step At A Time (4.5%) or the Quit Kit (1 1.4%). On average, participants had quit 53.46 days, with no significant difference across treatments. Selfefficacy also increased. Use of the intervention or other quitting aides was not associated with treatment condition. Among the 191 participants who did not quit smoking, treatment condition did not influence outcomes. Overall, 46.2% had made a quit attempt. Significant decreases in weekly tobacco consumption and increases in self-efficacy to resist smoking were observed from baseline to follow-up. Conclusion. Post-secondary institutions represent a potentially final opportunity for age-targeted interventions. Self-help resources tailored to students' social and contextual characteristics will have considerable more impact than stage-only tailored interventions. Both reduction and abstinence outcomes should be emphasized to positively support students to stop smoking.
    • Self-reported health status and lifestyle behaviours of the residents of the Town of Fort Erie, Ontario, as related to the Canadian Community Health Survey

      Morris-Tries, Deanna Elizabeth.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2004-07-14)
      The purpose of this cross sectional survey design was to examine self-reported health status and lifestyle behaviours of the residents of the Town of Fort Erie, Ontario, as related to the Canadian Community Health Survey. Using a mail-out survey, entitled the Fort Erie Survey of Health (FESH), a probability cluster sampling technique was used to measure self-reported health status (present health, health conditions, health challenges, functional health limitations) and lifestyle behaviour (smoking, alcohol use, drug use, physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption, body weight, and gaming). Each variable was described and analyzed in relation to socio-economic variables, age and gender. The findings from this study were compared to the Canadian Community Health Survey 2000/2001. Overall, 640 surveys were completed. The majority of Fort Erie residents rated their present health as good and were satisfied with their overall health and quality of life. The main chronic conditions reported were arthritis, back pain and heart disease. Other main health problems reported were vision, sleeping and chronic pain. Overall, 14.6% smoke; 58.8% engaged in physical activity either occasionally or never as opposed to regularly engaging in physical activity; 52.1% did not eat the required daily fruits and vegetables; and 40.0% were in the overweight category. Persons who practiced one healthy lifestyle behaviour were more likely to practice other healthy promoting behaviours. Therefore, health promotion programs are best designed to address multiple risk factors simultaneously. The ffiSH was generally consistent with the Canadian Community Health Survey in the overall findings. A small number of inconsistencies were identified that require further exploration to determine if they are unique to this community.
    • Psychographic characteristics of weekend wine tourists : a multiple case study of four wineries in the Niagara Region

      Dougan, Robert A.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2004-11-04)
      The purpose of this study is to examine the psychographic (product attributes, motivation opinions, interest, lifestyle, values) characteristics of wine tourists along the Niagara wine r,~ute, located in Ontario, Canada, using a multiple case study method. Four wineries were selected, two wineries each on the East, and West sides of the wine route during the shoulder-season (January, February, 2004). Using a computer generated survey technique, tourists were approached to fill out a questionnaire on one of the available laptop computers, where a sample ofN=321 was obtained. The study findings revealed that there are three distinct wine tourist segments in the Niagara region. The segments were determined using an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and a K-means cluster analysis: Wine Lovers, Wine Interested, and Wine Curious wine tourists. These three segments displayed significant differences in their, motivation for visiting a winery, lifestyles, values, and wine purchasing behaviour. This study also examined differences between winery locations, on the East and West sides of the Niagara wine route, with respect to the aforementioned variables. The results indicated that there were significant differences between the regions with respect to these variables. The findings suggest that these differences present opportunities for more effective marketing strategies based on the uniqueness of each region. The results of this study provide insight for academia into a method of psychographic market segmentation of wine tourists and consumer behaviour. This study also contributes to the literature on wine tourism, and the identification of psychographic characteristics of wine tourists, an area where little research has taken place.
    • An examination of NHL fans' reactions to the cancelled 2004-2005 season

      Asselstine, Chad.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2007-11-04)
      AN EXAMINATION OF NHL FANS' REACTIONS TO THE CANCELLED 2004- 2005 SEASON Chad Asselstine Faculty of Applied Health Sciences, Brock University Gary Bettman, the Commissioner of the National Hockey League (NHL) stepped in front of the worldwide media on February 16, 2005 to announce that there would be no NHL games played during the 2004-2005 season. Two sides were prominent during the labour dispute; the NHL owners and the NHLP A, however a third side that became the forgotten party was the fans (NHLF A, 2005). The fans are the consumers of the NHL and all the brands associated with its franchises, they are the people who provide the revenues that allow owners to pay the players' salaries. The present study is situated within the sport marketing framework, particularly within the fan loyalty literature to provide an understanding of the impact of the 2004- 2005 lockout on the forgotten party, NHL fans. This study examines 16 fans' experiences in four stages: becoming a fan of the NHL, being a fan prior to the lockout, being a fan during the lockout including their anticipated reaction to the return of the NHL, and their actual reaction to the return of the NHL. Data was collected using face-to-face interviews with each ofthe participants, resulting in 16 fans' stories of how the lockout impacted them specifically. Through analysis of the data themes began to emerge including the fans' understanding that there was a need to restructure game play, the business operations of the NHL, a desire for service recovery strategies which would exceed fans' expectations, 4 and the desire for alternative forms of consumption including alternative hockey leagues as well as the growing popularity of poker playing. The study summarizes the effects that the NHL lockout had on the relationship between 16 individual fan~ and their favourite teams, and concludes with Suggestions for Future Research and Implications for Sport Marketers that emerged from this unique case in the history of North American professional sport.
    • Sources of perceived support from friends in exercise : an application of self-determination theory /

      Muon, Sovoeun.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2008-09-23)
      Background: This study examined three social factors (i.e., autonomy support, structure, and involvement) and their relationship with the motivational processes proposed by Vallerand ( 1 997). This study explored sources of support for exercise participation. -~ ' Methods: Participants (N = 425) completed self-reported instruments which assessed variables outlined within Vallerand's ( 1 997) HMIEM. Results: Structural equation modeling analyses predicting the cognitive/affective and exercise behaviour accounted for 23 percent of variance in positive affect, 10 percent of variance in negative affect, 38 percent of variance in physical self-concept, and 4 percent of variance in exercise behaviour. Exploratory analyses revealed that friends, romantic partners, and educators to be consistent sources for providing autonomy support, structure, and involvement, f !,< r - r* Summary: This study is among the first to examine perceived sources oi autonomy support, structure, and involvement from friends in the exercise context and suggest such perceptions may contribute to motivating exercise behaviour in post-secondary students.
    • The relationship between early age of first sexual intercourse and vulnerability to depression among adolescents

      Jamieson, Luanne K.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2008-11-04)
      Past empirical literature has provided conflicted results regarding the association between adolescent coitus and depression. While some studies conclude that those youth who are sexually active may be at risk for depression, others provide contrary results, or findings that are only representative of high-risk sexual behaviors such as intercourse without a condom. Thus, the results are unclear as to whether depression results directly from coitus, or if this relationship is spurious; that is, there may be biological, psychological, or sociological variables that may predict both depression and early sexual intercourse. Using the Add Health restricted dataset, I analyzed the depressive symptomatology of adolescents over a seven-year time period. The final sample (n=6,51O) was comprised of 49.35% male (n=3,213) and 50.65% female (n=3,297) participants. Results indicated that the relationship between earlier adolescent sexual intercourse and later depressive symptomatology is spurious. Although an earlier age of first coitus is predictive of later depressive symptomatology, both variables appear to be concomitant outcomes of the biopsychosocial process. Thus, while one may be able to use early coitus as a marker for subsequent depressive symptomatology, it does not occur because of early coitus. Furthermore, the reverse relationship was not found to be significant in this study. That is, higher levels of depressive symptomatology do not predict an earlier age of first sexual intercourse in adolescents.
    • Motivation and psychological need salience in the experiences of initiating and maintaining exercise as an older female adult

      LeBlanc, Meghan E.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2008-11-04)
      Objectives: The primary objective ofthis study was to explore motivation and psychological need salience in the initiatory and maintenance experiences of older female exercIsers. Methods: Female initiates (n = 3) and reflective maintainers (n = 3) 65 years of age or older (M = 76 years; SD = 5.37) participated in semi-structured interviews. Data were analyzed holistically and categorically, following a hermeneutic approach to inquiry. Results: Perceived importance of exercise benefits appeared to be the strongest motive for initiates at this stage of life and connections to others were perceived as valued, but less important in exercise contexts. Also, listening to one's body over instructions from the exercise leader emerged as a key factor to success. Conclusions: Overall, the results ofthis study implicate more self-determined than controlled motives as sources of regulation in older females' exercise initiation experiences. Evidence for psychological needs was more heterogeneous and less conclusive.
    • A case study of the Ottawa Valley whitewater rafting industry : standards and risks

      Howard, Ryan.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2009-01-28)
      This qualitative case study identifies and discusses the standards and risk management practices of the Ottawa Valley whitewater rafting industry and the impacts of the government enforced Special-purpose Vessels Regulations are discussed. Data collection occurred using a single case study design, which included interviews and document analysis. This study found that internal, industry, and actual standards are influenced through a variety of sources. These standards were found to affect the risk management practices of commercial whitewater rafting providers. In general, these standards promoted a high level of risk management within the Ottawa Valley rafting industry. The Special-purpose Vessels Regulations were found to be non-influential in raising the risk management standards of the Ottawa Valley whitewater rafting industry.
    • A demonstration of educational craft : an outdoor educator's autoethnography

      Borland, James.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2009-01-28)
      Ellis (2004) argues that auto ethnography is a methodology that begins with the researcher as the site of study. Employing a qualitative storytelling structure shows, instead of tells. As the audience reads, they are encouraged to relate the research to their experiences, provoking reflective knowledge development. As an outdoor educator, I began to question the nature of my craft and how it was being shaped by my personal educational philosophy. So, drawing on a reflective journal I kept while employed as an outdoor educator in 2007, three outdoor educators published narratives, and a historical review of newspaper articles about Ontario-based outdoor education, conducted an autoethnographic inquiry and built a fictional story about my craft. I exposed five faultlines or areas of ideological tension, shaping my views about outdoor education and my craft.
    • Canadian curling coaches' use of psychological skills training

      Paquette, Kyle J.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2009-01-28)
      Hom's (2008) model of coaching effectiveness proposes a series of direct relationships between the beliefs and values of coaches, their behaviours, and the perceptions of their athletes. One specific area of coaching behaviour that is in need of more research is their use of psychological skills training (PSn. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the beliefs and behaviours of curling coaches with respect to PST, and the perceptions of their athletes. In collaboration with the Canadian Curling Association, data was collected from a national sample of 115 curling teams with varying levels of competition and experience. One hundred and fifteen coaches completed PST attitude (SPA-RC-revised) and behaviour (MSQ-revised) measures, while 403 athletes completed two perception measures (CCS and S-CI). Interclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were calculated to ensure intra-team consistency. All ICCs were positive, ranging from r =.39 to .56, and significant at the p < .01 level. A series of multiple regressions were performed. Three of the four regression models were significant, with coaches' PST behaviours accounting for 16% of the variance in athletes' evaluation of their coaches' competencies (GeC). The models for athletes' PhysicalSport Confidence (P-SC) and Cognitive-Sport Confidence (C-SC) accounted for 15% and 36% of the variation, with GCC and coaches' PST behaviours both being significant predictors of the models. After statistically controlling the influence of GCC, coaches' PST behaviours accounted for 3% and 26% of the variation in athletes P-SC and C-SC. These results provide partial support for Hom's (2008) model of coaching effectiveness, and offer new insight into the benefits of coaches' use of sport psychology-related training behaviours.
    • Collegiate volleyball players' need fulfillment, balance and well-being

      Oster, Kristin G.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2009-01-28)
      Proponents of Basic Needs Theory (BNT; Deci & Ryan, 2002) contend that the mechanism underpinning psychological well-being is the fulfillment of basic psychological needs with their fulfillment addressed in an independent (Deci & Ryan, 2002) or balanced manner (Sheldon & Niemiec, 2006). The purpose of this investigation was to explore the associations between the fulfillment of basic psychological needs and two forms of psychological well-being, namely hedonic and eudaimonic indices. Employing purposive sampling and a cross-sectional design, collegiate volleyball players (N = 219; nfemales = 127) completed a battery of self-report instruments assessing psychological need satisfaction and well-being toward the mid-to-end portion oftheir competitive season. Aligned with BNT (Deci & Ryan, 2002) tenets and study hypotheses, results demonstrated that basic psychological need fulfillment was associated with psychological well-being in the context of volleyball. Albeit minimal, balanced need fulfillment was generally predictive of well-being indices beyond independent need contributions with suppressor effects noted. In sum, the results of the present investigation generally coincide with previous sport based BNT (e.g., Reinboth & Duda, 2006) and balanced need satisfaction (e.g., Sheldon & Niemiec, 2006) literature. Additional BNT support has been garnished and suggests that the fulfillment of the basic psychological needs for competence, autonomy, and relatedness may be targeted as the mechanisms to facilitate athletes' psychological well-being. Along with Ryan and Deci's (2007) recommendations, the outcomes of this investigation highlight the need for further empirical study ofBNT's tenets in the realm of sport including assessments of balanced need satisfaction as well as varied hedonic and eudaimonic indices.
    • Examining and describing professional development and continuing education in the personal training and fitness industry : sites and issues of disconnect

      Fielder, Lee E.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2009-01-28)
      The following phenomenologically oriented study examines and describes the relevance and effectiveness of professional development and continuing education programs for real-world situations of personal trainers. The participants were personal trainers, facility managers, and persons involved in the accreditation process. Data collection took place in 3 phases. The first phase consisted of the participants completing the PUMP Questionnaire, followed by focus groups with personal trainers and interviews with managers. The study's 3 data sets required reduction via a content analysis by question, content analysis by existential categories, and further thematic analysis using the lived relation existential dimension. The discussion contains the salient sites and issues of disconnect between clients, personal trainers, and facility managers and how they might affect the personal training experience. The intergenerational disconnect emphasized between Boomers as clients and Millennials as personal trainers requires further exploration and dialogue and underscores the need for different approaches to content and delivery of professional development and continuing education experiences for personal trainers and managers of fitness facilities.
    • Examining sport commitment and intentions to participate in intramural sports : application of the Sport Commitment Model and the Theory of Planned Behaviour in a campus recreational sport setting

      Jess, Sarah.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2009-01-28)
      Fifty-six percent of Canadians, 20 years of age and older, are inactive (Canadian Community Health Survey, 200012001). Research has indicated that one of the most dramatic declines in population physical activity occurs between adolescence and young adulthood (Melina, 2001; Stephens, Jacobs, & White, 1985), a time when individuals this age are entering or attending college or university. Colleges and universities have generally been seen as environments where physical activity and sport can be promoted and accommodated as a result of the available resources and facilities (Archer, Probert, & Gagne, 1987; Suminski, Petosa, Utter, & Zhang, 2002). Intramural sports, one of the most common campus recreational sports options available for post-secondary students, enable students to participate in activities that are suited for different levels of ability and interest (Lewis, Jones, Lamke, & Dunn, 1998). While intramural sports can positively affect the physical activity levels and sport participation rates of post-secondary students, their true value lies in their ability to encourage sport participation after school ends and during the post-school lives of graduates (Forrester, Ross, Geary, & Hall, 2007). This study used the Sport Commitment Model (Scanlan et aI., 1993a) and the Theory of Planned Behaviour (Ajzen, 1991) with post secondary intramural volleyball participants in an effort to examine students' commitment to intramural sport and 1 intentions to participate in intramural sports. More specifically, the research objectives of this study were to: (1.) test the Sport Commitment Model with a sample of postsecondary intramural sport participants(2.) determine the utility of the sixth construct, social support, in explaining the sport commitment of post-secondary intramural sport participants; (3.) determine if there are any significant differences in the six constructs of IV the SCM and sport commitment between: gender, level of competition (competitive A vs. B), and number of different intramural sports played; (4.) determine if there are any significant differences between sport commitment levels and constructs from the Theory of Planned Behaviour (attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control, and intentions); (5.) determine the relationship between sport commitment and intention to continue participation in intramural volleyball, continue participating in intramurals and continuing participating in sport and physical activity after graduation; and (6.) determine if the level of sport commitment changes the relationship between the constructs from the Theory of Planned Behaviour. Of the 318 surveys distributed, there were 302 partiCipants who completed a usable survey from the sample of post-secondary intramural sport participants. There was a fairly even split of males and females; the average age of the students was twenty-one; 90% were undergraduate students; for approximately 25% of the students, volleyball was the only intramural sport they participated in at Brock and most were part of the volleyball competitive B division. Based on the post-secondary students responses, there are indications of intent to continue participation in sport and physical activity. The participation of the students is predominantly influenced by subjective norms, high sport commitment, and high sport enjoyment. This implies students expect, intend and want to 1 participate in intramurals in the future, they are very dedicated to playing on an intramural team and would be willing to do a lot to keep playing and students want to participate when they perceive their pursuits as enjoyable and fun, and it makes them happy. These are key areas that should be targeted and pursued by sport practitioners.
    • Examining the role of goals and motives for physical activity and eating behaviour in commercial weight-loss program participants

      Grattan, Kimberley.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2009-01-28)
      Background: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between physical activity and healthy eating behaviour with the participant's motives and goals for each health behaviour. Methods: Participants (N 121; 93.2% female) enrolled in commercial weightloss programs at the time of data collection, completed self-reported instruments using a web-based interface that were in accordance with Deci and Ryan's (2002) Self-Determination Theory (SDT). Results: Multiple linear regression models revealed that motivation and goals collectively accounted for between 0.21 to 0.29 percent and 0.03 to 0.16 percent of the variance in physical and healthy eating behaviours in this sample. In general, goals regarding either behaviour did not appear to have strong predictive relationships with each health behaviour beyond the contributions of motives. Discussion: Overall, findings from this study suggest that motives seem to mattermore than goals for both physical activity and healthy eating behaviour in clientele of commercial weight-loss programs. Therefore commercial weight-loss program implementers may want to consider placing more attention on motives I than goals for their clientele when designing weight-loss and weight-maintenance initiatives.
    • Experiences and meaning of the aquatic environment for individuals with physical disabilities

      Cocchio, Cathleen Anne.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2009-01-28)
      This study examines the experiences and meaning of physical activity in the aquatic environment to enhance social, cultural and political understanding of its impact in the lives of individuals with physical disabilities. Interviews, lived experience descriptions and artifacts present an explanation of the felt sense oftheir bodies as they engage in swimming or scuba diving. 11 Combining written, verbal and visual descriptions generated by informants provides a detailed account of the unique qualities of physical activity in the water for those with physical disabilities. Participants' descriptions highlight that context is an important aspect of physical activity among individuals with physical disabilities through discussion of motility and the role of the lived body. Aspects of the aquatic environment create a setting that facilitates forgetfulness of the lived body's presence. Instructors and participants alike will benefit from learning the difference between the object body and the lived body, listening to the body's voice as they participate in physical activity .
    • Exploring authentic leadership : a narrative case study

      Mahoney, Tarah.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2009-01-28)
      The purpose of this study was to provide an in-depth, life history examination of the leadership qualities of the President of a for-profit sport organization and explore this individual's leadership development within the framework of the Authentic Leadership Development Model (ALDM). A series of semi-structured interviews was conducted, including interviews with the President, three employees within the organization, and three individuals as selected by the President who attested to her authenticity and lifehistory. As well, observations for a period of three months were used to create a lifehistory of the President and determine if she was aligned with the ALDM. Creating a lifehistory of the President allowed the researcher to outline the story of her life up until the conclusion of the study. The narrative case study of the female President of a for-profit sport organization provided a glimpse into the life of a person whose values, beliefs, and actions aligned. The major findings of this study suggested that the President displayed characteristics similar to those identified as outcomes of the ALDM model.
    • Exploring Chinese-Canadians' perspectives on health : a quantitative study

      Chen, Dengshu.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2009-01-28)
      Chinese have unique perspectives on health and illness, which is mostly umecognized by western medicine. Immigration may contribute to problems with health consultations, inconvenience, and dissatisfaction. As the largest visible minority in Canada, Chinese- Canadians' perspectives on health should be studied in order to help Chinese immigrants adapt to a new health-care and health-promotion system, and keep them healthy. A quantitative questionnaire was designed based on the findings from a pilot study and previous literature. A hundred participants were recruited from Toronto, Vancouver, Halifax, and St. Catharines. Descriptive analysis and correlation analysis were used to investigate the structure of the variables. Findings indicated that most oftheir attitudes and corresponding practices to the different health aspects were positive. The relation between dietary practices and attitude was only found in small cities. Their attitudes were impacted by their length of stay in Canada. Their attitudes to regularly timed meals and psychological consultation were related to their acculturation level, as was the regularity of their practice of dental flossing. Their self-evaluated general health levels were also found to be affected by their medical history, education level, feeling to talk about • sexual health, and smoking, particularly in the male subjects of the study. In conclusion, they realized that each health aspect w~s important to their health. However, their practices did not bear a strong relation to their beliefs. Traditional thoughts about health reseeded with time. Acculturation level did not affect most of their attitudes or practices. Under pressure, the priority of the daily health practices decreased. Older persons, those with low incomes, lower education levels or families under stress need to pay more attention to their health level. In-depth future research was recommended.
    • Investigating the association between motor proficiency and body satisfaction in grade 5 children

      Del Ben, Megan.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2009-01-28)
      The inverse relationships between motor proficiency and overweight, and between overweight and body satisfaction have been well documented. However, the association between motor proficiency and body satisfaction has been largely neglected in the literature. Knowledge of the influence that low motor proficiency may have on body satisfaction is essential if the full burden that those children with poor motor abilities face is to be fully recognized, as low body satisfaction has been linked to an increased risk for low self-esteem, depression, and disordered eating. The cohort investigated in this report included 1907 (971 males, 936 female) Grade 5 students from the Physical Health Activity Study Team (PHAST) project in the Niagara Region of Southern Ontario. Children were grouped as overweight or healthy weight (using BMI cut offs for age and gender), and as low motor proficiency or normal motor proficiency (cut-off set at lowest 10% Bruininks Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency-short form (BOTMPsf). It was apparent from analyses of variance (ANOVAs) by gender that boys demonstrated significantly higher motor proficiency scores. As a result separate multiple logistic regressions by gender were used to determine the relationship between body satisfaction, BMI, and motor proficiency. There was a significant relationship between BMI and body satisfaction for both genders (p<0.01) and for males a significant relationship between motor proficiency and body satisfaction (p<0.03). Overweight females were less likely to be satisfied with their bodies with an odds ratio (OR) of 0.33 (CI: 0.23-0.47). The same trend was found in overweight males (OR: 0.42, CI: 0.29-0.59). Males with low motor proficiency were significantly less satisfied with their bodies (OR: 0.53, CI: 0.29-0.97). Males with poor motor proficiency were at greater risk for low body satisfaction regardless of their overweight status. Overweight is known to be prevalent among children with low motor proficiency and, these results indicate that low body satisfaction is also a significant concern. These findings confirm that attention needs to be paid to perceptions of body satisfaction among children with low motor proficiency. This is particularly true for boys, as their bodies may fail them in two common societal expectations, shape and skill and for whom their risk of low body satisfaction is heightened by their poor motor proficiency.
    • Leisure-time physical activity in individuals with osteoporosis : associations with psychological well-being

      Gunnell, Katie E.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2009-01-28)
      With approximately 16% of the Canadian population living with osteoporosis, and rates expected to increase (Osteoporosis Canada, 2009), cost-effective treatment modalities that improve bone health and psychological well-being reflect an important public health agenda. Physical activity has been implicated as one non-pharmaceutical mechanism to help improve psychological well-being in the general population (Fox, Stathi, McKenna, & Davis, 2007) and in people diagnosed with osteoporosis (Osteoporosis Canada, 2007). The purpose of this investigation was to determine the association between leisure-time physical activity (LTP A) and well-being in people diagnosed with osteoporosis. A secondary purpose, using Basic Needs Theory (BNT; Deci & Ryan, 2002) was to determine if the fulfillment of three psychological needs (i.e., competence, autonomy and relatedness) mediated the relationship between LTP A and well-being. People diagnosed with osteoporosis (N= 190; Mage = 68.14; SDage = 11.54) were asked to complete a battery of questionnaires assessing L TP A, hedonic and eudaimonic well-being and perceived psychological need satisfaction in physical activity contexts. Bivariate correlations revealed a pattern of negligible (r's -0.02 to 0.35) to small correlations between LTP A and well-being with contextual positive affect (r = 0.24) and subjective vitality (r = 0.22) demonstrating statistical significance (p < .01). Results of the multiple mediation analysis indicated that perceived satisfaction of the three psychological needs mediated the relationship between LTPA and well-being with perceived competence emerging as a unique mediator. As such, LTP A was positively associated with well-being in people who are diagnosed with osteoporosis, and the fulfillment of the three psychological needs may be the mechanism through which this 111 effect is carried. Health promotion specialists and practitioners should encourage patients with osteoporosis to engage in LTP A, and support their needs for competence, autonomy and relatedness. Practical implications for researchers and health promotion specialists are discussed in terms ofthe results of this investigation.
    • Participation factors in optional high school health and physical education

      Pybus, Colin M.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2009-01-28)
      Student enrolment rates in optional health and physical education (HPE) classes have been steadily declining, to the point where most Ontario students stop taking HPE after completion of their one required credit, typically taken in grade nine. This study looked at factors that could contribute to HPE enrolment, sampling 227 grade ten students from five schools. These factors included selfefficacy (SE), perceived autonomy support (PAS), task value (TV), motivational regulation (autonomous, AR; controlled, CR), HPE grade average and body size discrepancy (BSD). Qualitative information was also gathered from students regarding likes and dislikes ofHPE, as well as reasons for their HPE enrolment choice. Cronbach Alpha values of each scale fell within acceptable values. ANOVA analysis revealed differences between enrolment groups in SE, TV, AR, HPE grade average, and BSD (p < .05). Reasons students reported for not taking HPE included a dislike of health classes, scheduling challenges, not needing HPE for future endeavors, concerns about social self-presentation, and a dislike of sports and/or competition. This research shows important differences between students and their HPE class choices and calls for a re-evaluation of how HPE classes are structured, advertised and scheduled by high school practitioners. Future works should look toward what other factors could be at play in students' decisions for or against optional HPE and how those factors interact with the constructs that were found to be of significance in this study. Keywords: Health and physical education, high school students, participation.