Now showing items 1-20 of 448

    • Book Review: Rabbits

      Ribaric, Tim (2600 Enterprises, Inc., 2021)
      Book Review of 'Rabbits' written by Terry Miles.
    • Evaluating and Visualizing Drivers of Coastline Change: A Lake Ontario Case Study

      Caspell, Meredith; Vasseur, Liette (MDPI, 2021-06-02)
      Environmental and climatic changes are disproportionately felt in coastal communities, where drivers of coastline change are complicated with continued development. This study analyzed the coastline change of Lake Ontario in the Town of Lincoln, Ontario, Canada, using a mixed-methods two-phased approach that is novel to the study area. The first phase of the methodology included a coastline change analysis using historical aerial photographs in a geographic information system to identify the most vulnerable sections of the coastline. To better understand the calculated changes, the second phase explored the roles of select climatic and non-climatic drivers of coastline change, such as historic storms and land use changes. The results indicated that four main areas of Lincoln’s coast were more vulnerable, with rates of erosion between 􀀀0.32 and 􀀀0.66 m/yr between 1934 and 2018. Sections of coastline that had less erosion included those that were more heavily vegetated, attempted a cooperative protection approach, or utilized revetment stones in areas without steep banks. This methodology can help municipalities understand coastline change in a more holistic way to increase their adaptive capacity and allows for the creation of useful visualizations that better communicate to residents and town staff the level of vulnerability of their coasts.
    • Relationships between increases in Canadian cannabis stores, sales, and prevalence

      Armstrong, Michael J. (Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 2021-09-22)
      Background: This study estimated the relationships between increases in legal cannabis stores, legal cannabis sales, and cannabis prevalence in Canadian provinces between 2018 and 2020. Method: Government data were used to calculate changes in licensed store numbers, retail sales dollars, and past-three-month users in 10 provinces across six time periods. The resulting N = 60 observations were standardized per million residents aged 15 and up, and then analyzed via linear regression. Results: Store growth explained 46.3% of the variation in provincial sales growth; each added store was associated with added quarterly sales of $305 (95% CI: $208 to $402) thousand. By contrast, store growth explained only 7.7% of the variation in provincial user growth; each added store was associated with 696 (95% CI: 58 to 1334) added users. Conclusion: From 2018 to 2020, Canada’s rapid cannabis retail expansion was strongly related to legal sales growth but only weakly related to prevalence growth. This implies prevalence growth during that period was related more to legalization’s other aspects and/or to the continuation of already-existing trends.
    • The informational richness of testimonial contexts

      Kenyon, Tim (Philosophical Quarterly, 2013-01-01)
      An influential idea in the epistemology of testimony is that people often acquire justified beliefs through testimony, in contexts too informationally poor for the justification to be evidential. This has been described as the Scarcity of Information Objection (SIO). It is an objection to the reductive thesis that the acceptance of testimony is justified by evidence of general kinds not unique to testimony. SIO hinges on examples intended to show clearly that testimonial justification arises in low‐information contexts; I argue that the common examples show no such thing. There is a great deal of information available in testimonial contexts, including in the examples alleged to show otherwise – enough information to render SIO implausible. Purported SIO examples tend to give a wrong impression about the informational richness of testimonial contexts, I argue, due to the lack of detail in which they are presented.
    • False polarization: debiasing as applied social epistemology

      Kenyon, Tim (Springer, 2014-03-10)
      False polarization (FP) is an interpersonal bias on judgement, the effect of which is to lead people in contexts of disagreement to overestimate the differences between their respective views. I propose to treat FP as a problem of applied social epistemology—a barrier to reliable belief-formation in certain social domains—and to ask how best one may debias for FP. This inquiry leads more generally into questions about effective debiasing strategies; on this front, considerable empirical evidence suggests that intuitively attractive strategies for debiasing are not very effective, while more effective strategies are neither intuitive nor likely to be easily implemented. The supports for more effective debiasing seem either to be inherently social and cooperative, or at least to presuppose social efforts to create physical or decision making infrastructure for mitigating bias. The upshot, I argue, is that becoming a less biased epistemic agent is a thoroughly socialized project.
    • Critical thinking education and debiasing

      Kenyon, Tim; Beaulac, Guillaume (Informal Logic, 2014-10-12)
      Abstract: There are empirical grounds to doubt the effectiveness of a common and intuitive approach to teaching debiasing strategies in critical thinking courses. We summarize some of the grounds before suggesting a broader taxonomy of debiasing strategies. This four-level taxonomy enables a useful diagnosis of biasing factors and situations, and illuminates more strategies for more effective bias mitigation located in the shaping of situational factors and reasoning infrastructure—sometimes called “nudges” in the literature. The question, we contend, then becomes how best to teach the construction and use of such infrastructures. Résumé: Des données empiriques nous permettent de douter de l'efficacité d'une approche commune et intuitive pour enseigner des stratégies de correction de biais cognitifs dans les cours de pensée critique. Nous résumons certains de ces résultats empiriques avant de suggérer une taxonomie plus étendue de ces stratégies de correction de biais. Cette taxonomie à quatre niveaux permet un diagnostic utile de facteurs causant les biais et elle met en évidence davantage de stratégies permettant la correction plus efficace de biais, stratégies situées dans des mesures modifiant les infrastructures et les environnements cognitifs ("nudge" dans la littérature). Nous soutenons que la question porte dès lors sur les meilleures façons d'enseigner la construction et l'utilisation de ces infrastructures.
    • Critical thinking for engineers and engineering critical thinking

      Kenyon, Tim (IEEE, 2016)
      Design decisions for a critical thinking curriculum for Engineering students serves as a point of departure to briefly describe an under-appreciated reason to emphasize critical thinking in Engineering programs. An increasing focus on the role of context, environment and systems in shaping human judgement means that engineers should be especially aware of the propensity for designs and implementations to affect the reasoning of people for whom they function as lived experience. Preparing engineers to recognize and work responsibly around these issues is a secondary reason to teach critical thinking in those programs.
    • Oral history and the epistemology of testimony

      Kenyon, Tim (Routledge (Taylor and Francis), 2016)
      Social epistemology has paid little attention to oral historiography as a source of expert insight into the credibility of testimony. One extant suggestion, however, is that oral historians treat testimony with a default trust reflecting a standing warrant for accepting testimony. The view that there is such a standing warrant is sometimes known as the Acceptance Principle for Testimony (APT). I argue that the practices of oral historians do not count in support of APT, all in all. Experts have commonly described oral traditions as oriented towards political, cultural and entertainment ends, and not only—or not even—towards an accurate depiction of past events. Even when accuracy is the emphasis, many historians of oral tradition do not trust such testimony as APT would suggest; the importance of gathering supporting evidence is a consistent emphasis. Yet oral historiography, both of traditions and more generally, does hold out lessons for the epistemology of testimony, implicating a wider range of social and contextual factors than the philosophical literature might otherwise reflect. Perhaps most importantly, it confirms the critical epistemological role of the audience in interpreting testimony and actively constructing testimonial contexts, a point that extends quite naturally to common testimonial exchanges.
    • Foraging gene expression patterns in queens, workers, and males in a eusocial insect

      Awde, David N.; Skandalis, Adonis; Richards, Miriam (NRC Research Press, 2021)
      Reproductive division of labour is based on biased expression of complementary parental behaviours, brood production (egg-laying) by queens and brood care (in particular, brood provisioning) by workers. In many social insect species, queens provision brood when establishing colonies at the beginning of a breeding season and reproductive division of labour begins with the emergence of workers. In many social insect species, the expression of foraging (for) mRNA is associated with the intensity of foraging behaviour, and therefore brood provisioning. However, only two studies have compared queen and worker for expression levels, and neither accounted for transcript splice variation. In this study, we compare the expression level of the for-α transcript variant across four life stages of the queen caste, two behavioural groups of workers, and males of a eusocial sweat bee Lasioglossum laevissimum (Smith, 1853). Foundresses collected prior to the onset of the foraging season and males had the highest for-α expression levels. All active (post-hibernatory) queens and workers had similar for-α expression levels independent of behaviour. These results suggest that the for gene in L. laevissium acts as a primer before foraging activity, and that caste-specific expression patterns correlate with the timing of foraging activity in queens and workers.
    • Association of Functional Screening Tests and Noncontact Injuries in Division I Women Student-Athletes

      Warren, Meghan; Lininger, Monica R.; Smith, Craig A.; Copp, Adam J.; Chimera, Nicole J. (Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, 2020)
      To determine the association between functional screening tests and lower-body, noncontact injuries in Division I women basketball, soccer, and volleyball student-athletes (SA). Sixty-eight injury-free women SA (age19.1 ± 1.1 years, height171.3 ± 8.7 cm, and mass68.4 ± 9.5 kg) were tested preseason with single hop (SH), triple hop (TH), and crossover hop (XH) for distance, and isometric hip strength (abduction, extension, and external rotation) in randomized order. The first lower-body (spine and lower extremity), noncontact injury requiring intervention by the athletic trainer was abstracted from the electronic medical record. Receiver operating characteristic and area under the curve (AUC) were calculated to determine cut-points for each hopping test from the absolute value of between-limb difference. Body mass–adjusted strength was categorized into tertiles. Logistic regression determined the odds of injury with each functional screening test using the hopping tests cut-points and strength categories, adjusting for previous injury. Fifty-two SA were injured during the sport season. The cut-point for SH was 4 cm (sensitivity = 0.77, specificity = 0.43, and AUC = 0.53), and for TH and XH was 12 cm (sensitivity = 0.75 and 0.67, specificity = 0.71 and 0.57, AUC = 0.59 and 0.41, respectively). A statistically significant association with TH and injuries (adjusted odds ratio = 6.50 [95% confidence interval1.69–25.04]) was found. No significant overall association was found with SH or XH, nor with the strength tests. Using a clinically relevant injury definition, the TH showed the strongest predictive ability for noncontact injuries. This hopping test may be a clinically useful tool to help identify increased risk of injury in women SA participating in high-risk sports.
    • Media Art Other Episode 5

      Ouellette, Troy (2021-07-28)
      In this episode, Professor Cook will speak about some of her curatorial projects and focus on the work of Alexandra Daisy Ginsberg. For those who do not know Alexandra Daisy Ginsberg's work, it's important to note that this particular artist is at the forefront of creating artistic projects that work in conjunction with artificial intelligence --- she examines subjects as wide-ranging as machine learning, synthetic and evolutionary biology and ecology. She challenges notions of progress and extends the envelope of media art beyond what we would generally associate it with. These include: the sub-genres of VR and Augmented Reality, Sensory Art, Robotics, Sound Art and Bio Art – to name a few.
    • Media Art Other - Episode 4

      Anderson Wilson Projects is comprised of Curator, Shannon Anderson and Design Professor, Jay Wilson. In this podcast they speak about their collaborative curatorial process, the artists they have worked with, and talk about their digital web-work produced through the pandemic.
    • Predicting Lower Quarter Y-Balance Test Performance from Foot Characteristics

      Chimera, Nicole J.; Larson, Mallorie (Human Kinetics, 2020)
      The lower quarter Y-Balance Test (YBT-LQ) is associated with injury risk; however, ankle range of motion impacts YBT-LQ. Arch height and foot sensation impact static balance, but these characteristics have not yet been evaluated relative to YBT-LQ. Determine if arch height index (AHI), forefoot sensation (SEN), and ankle dorsiflexion predict YBT-LQ composite score (CS). Descriptive cohort. Athletic training laboratory. Twenty general population (14 females and 6 males; mean [SD]: age 35 [18] y, weight 70.02 [16.76] kg, height 1.68 [0.12] m) participated in this study. AHI measurement system assessed arch height in 10% (AHI10) and 90% (AHI90) weight-bearing. Two-point discrim-a-gon discs assessed sensation (SEN) at the plantar great toe, third and fifth metatarsal heads. Biplane goniometer and weight-bearing lunge tests were used to measure static and weight-bearing dorsiflexion, respectively. The YBT-LQ assessed dynamic single-leg balance. For right-limb dynamic single-leg balance, AHI90 and SEN were included in the final sequential prediction equation; however, neither model significantly (P = .052 and .074) predicted variance in YBT-LQ CS. For left-limb dynamic single-leg balance, both SEN and weight-bearing lunge test were included in the final sequential prediction equation. The regression model (SEN and weight-bearing lunge test) significantly (P = .047) predicted 22% of the variance in YBT-LQ CS. This study demonstrates that foot characteristics may play a role in YBT-LQ CS. The authors did not assess limb dominance in this study; therefore, the authors are unable to determine which limb would be the stance versus kicking limb. However, altered SEN and weight-bearing dorsiflexion appear to be contributing factors to YBT-LQ CS.
    • Socially Inclusive Parenting Leaves and Parental Benefit Entitlements: Rethinking Care and Work Binaries

      Doucet, Andrea (Cogitatio Press, 2021)
      How can parental leave design be more socially inclusive? Should all parents be entitled to parental benefits or only those parents who are eligible based on a particular level of labour market participation? To think through questions of social inclusion in parental leave policy design, particularly issues related to entitlements to benefits, I make three arguments. First, aiming to extend Dobrotić and Blum’s work on entitlements to parental benefits, I argue that ‘mixed systems’ that include both citizenship‐based and employment‐based benefits are just and socially inclusive approaches to parental leaves and citizenship. Second, to build a robust conceptual scaffolding for a ‘mixed’ benefits approach, I argue that that we need to attend to the histories and relationalities of the concepts and conceptual narratives that implicitly or explicitly inform parental leave policies and scholarship. Third, and more broadly, I argue that a metanarrative of care and work binaries underpins most scholarship and public and policy discourses on care work and paid work and on social policies, including parental leave policies. In this article, I outline revisioned conceptual narratives of care and work relationalities, arguing that they can begin to chip away at this metanarrative and that this kind of un‐thinking and rethinking can help us to envi‐ sion parental leave beyond employment policy—as care and work policy. Specifically, I focus on conceptual narratives that combine (1) care and work intra‐connections, (2) ethics of care and justice, and (3) ‘social care,’ ‘caring with,’ transforma‐ tive social protection, and social citizenship. Methodologically and epistemologically, this article is guided by my reading of Margaret Somers’ genealogical and relational approach to concepts, conceptual narratives, and metanarratives, and it is written in a Global North socio‐economic context marked by the COVID‐19 pandemic and 21st century neoliberalism.
    • Characterization of neutral sphingomyelinase activity and isoform expression in rodent skeletal muscle mitochondria

      Silvera, Sebastian; Wilkinson, Jennifer A.; LeBlanc, Paul J. (Elsevier, 2021)
      Skeletal muscle is composed of fiber types that differ in mitochondrial content, antioxidant capacity, and susceptibility to apoptosis. Ceramides have been linked to oxidative stress-mediated apoptotic intracellular signalling and the enzyme neutral sphingomyelinase (nSMase) is, in part, responsible for generating these ceramides through the hydrolysis of sphingomyelin. Despite the role of ceramides in mediating apoptosis, there is a gap in the literature regarding nSMase in skeletal muscle mitochondria. This study aimed to characterize total nSMase activity and individual isoform expression in isolated subsarcolemmal (SS) mitochondria from soleus, diaphragm, plantaris, and extensor digitorum longus (EDL). Total nSMase activity did not differ between muscle types. nSMase2 content was detectable in all muscles and higher in EDL, soleus, and plantaris compared to diaphragm whereas nSMase3 was undetectable in all muscles. Finally, total nSMase activity positively correlated to nSMase2 protein content in soleus but not the other muscles.These findings suggest that nSMase associated with SS mitochondria may play a role in intracellular signalling processes involving ceramides in skeletal muscle and nSMase2 may be the key isoform, specifically in slow twitch muscle like soleus. Further studies are needed to fully elucidate the specific contribution of nSMase, along with the role of the various isoforms and mitochondrial subpopulation in generating mitochondrial ceramides in skeletal muscle, and its potential effects on mediating apoptosis.
    • Media Art Other - Episode 3

      Ouellette, Troy (2021-06-09)
      In this third episode, I am pleased to present Sound Artist and Researcher Kevin Curtis-Norcross. Over the course of his career, he has captured forest ecologies in 18 countries over the past 40 years. From Sweden to central and South America and across Canada, Kevin has documented various ecosystems that draw our attention to the real wonders of the world - those being the life forces of insects, animals and plants that populate and continue to negotiate the changing biodiversity in the Anthropocene. Kevin’s recordings are usually done in an acoustically uncontrolled environment (traditionally called the “field”) hence field recording, which presents various challenges even to professional sound artists. In the work of Kevin Curtis-Norcross we get a glimpse of how biodiverse our planet really is because we are following the narrative of the species that make up our surroundings. His acoustic ecology recordings also act as a record of the vanishing sonic environments that have flourished over millennia to be captured in the here and now.
    • Colorectal cancer screening behaviors among South Asian immigrants in Canada: a qualitative study

      Crawford, Joanne; Ahmad, Farah; Beaton, Dorcas E.; Bierman, Arlene S. (Emerald, 2015)
      The purpose of this paper is to gain an in-depth understanding of beliefs, attitudes, and reasons for decision making about colorectal cancer (CRC) screening among South Asian (SA) immigrants. Design/methodology/approach – Six focus groups conducted in English, Punjabi, and Urdu were held with 42 SA immigrants, 50-74 years old and at average risk for CRC, from November 2012 to May 2013. All focus group discussions were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim. Data analysis used an inductive and systematic approach employing constant comparison techniques. Findings – Three dominant themes emerged. Beliefs and attitudes towards cancer and screening represented SA immigrant’s perceptions that early detection was beneficial; screening was not necessary in the absence of symptoms; cancer was scary; and the loss of previously established bowel practices upon immigration as potential risks for CRC. Knowledge and awareness focused on unscreened participants’ cancer stories; screened participants’ knowledge of CRC, risk factors, and screening; experiential learning from focus groups; and screened participants’ strategies to promote screening. Support and accessibility concentrated on physician support and responsibility to provide information, explanation, and recommend screening to facilitate access. Originality/value – Findings provide novel insights on socio-cultural context, beliefs, and barriers to CRC screening among SA immigrants. Culturally appropriate community-based strategies included story-telling, the use of social networks, and greater physician engagement. Enhancing collaborative partnerships with physicians and public health may minimize structural barriers and reduce health disparities. Future research could explore effectiveness of outreach strategies including these collaborations.
    • Media Art Other - Episode 2

      Ouellette, Troy (2021-06-03)
      In this second episode, I present Curator, Dr. Corinna Ghaznavi. Dr. Corinna Ghaznavi, is an independent curator and freelance writer. Since 1997 she has curated exhibitions across Canada. Her writing has been published in Canadian and European art magazines as well as in numerous exhibition catalogues. In 2011 she completed her PhD, which focused on the question of the animal in contemporary art.
    • Media Art Other - Episode 1

      In this first episode, I present Artist and Researcher David Bobier. David has worked in the field of disability art for decades. As a hard-of-hearing and (dis)abled media artist, his creative practice is centred on researching and expanding vibrotactile technology as a creative medium. In 2014 he founded VibraFusion Lab (now renamed Vibrafusion Lab Collective - VFLC) that aims to provide access to inclusive technologies for supporting greater accessibility in the arts. In this podcast, David speaks about his own experiences with (dis)abilities and foregrounds some of the organizations and people he has worked with along the way.

      Murgu, Cal (Music Library Association, 2021-06)
      In this essay, we detail the pedagogical collaboration between a digital humanities librarian, a professor of music and digital media, and a second-year music student that took the form of a design sprint. The product of the design sprint was the Mapping Sentiments through Music (MStM) application. Using this project as a case study, we argue that both digital humanities and music education share a commonality: both disciplines can incorporate elements of design thinking to be successful. As a result, our efforts center direct experimentation with a team, and foster design thinking by promoting descriptive exchange, creative problem solving, and the creation of emergent rather than explicitly delimited meanings. We conclude with several remarks on overlaps between music and design pedagogy, and on librarian-faculty collaborations. This article was published in the Music Library Association’s journal, Notes 77, 4, June 2021, and 561-585. The version of record is available at This material may not be copied or reposted without written permission of MLA