• Complete Genome Sequence of Erwinia amylovora Bacteriophage

      Yagubi, AI (American Society for Microbiology, 2014-07)
      The complete genome of an Erwinia amylovora bacteriophage, vB_EamM_Ea35-70 (Ea35-70), is 271,084 bp, encodes 318 putative proteins, and contains one tRNA. Comparative analysis with other Myoviridae genomes suggests that Ea35-70 is related to the Phikzlikevirus genus within the family Myoviridae, since 26% of Ea35-70 proteins share homology to proteins in Pseudomonas phage φKZ.
    • Composures

      Parayre, Catherine (Small Walker Press, 2020)
      A collection of brief contributions on the theme of care by members of the Research Centre in Interdisciplinary Arts and Creative Culture at the Marilyn I. Walker School of Fine and Performing Arts, in the Centre for Studies in Arts and Culture, Brock University. It includes: - Artworks (acrylic and mixed media, 2006-2008) by artist Shawn Serfas; - two short short stories (Derek Knight; Catherine Parayre); - three short essays (Natalee Caple on dialogical art and queer comics; Nicholas Hauck on translation theory; and Alexander Christie on digital prototyping in reference with Mina Loy’s novel Insel, 1991). 2020 will be remembered as the year of the pandemic. On 17 March, the Province of Ontario declared a state of emergency and went into shutdown. What followed was (pleasant) silence, as car traffic almost came to a standstill. Within days we could breathe better and feel the briskness of the air in a way we no longer knew. Over the course of one week, the university adapted to online operation; campus was closed; students left town; and, working from home, we were tasked to reinvent pedagogy and learn new technologies. As researchers, artists, and writers, we were suddenly confronted with the cancellation of scholarly, artistic, and cultural events for an unknown extended period. Again, we had to reinvent, and this time it was ourselves. Composures is a tiny reinvention. It replaces a colloquium initially scheduled for 16 April 2020. As we could no longer meet, we wrote a book. For the theme, we chose a word that is currently on everyone’s lips: care. The topic and a desire for concision were the only constraints given to contributors, and this at a time when constraints were being applied to all aspects of life, interactions were drastically limited, and we were asked to say home. However, “care” is such a broad notion that it can hardly be envisioned as an unyielding guidepost. From art and creative writing to scholarship, the six contributions in this volume bear witness to how constraint can be understood felt as the freedom to share one’s work.
    • Conflits liés à la fracturation hydraulique et promotion d’innovations : étude de cas sur la gouvernance de l’eau dans le nord-est de la C.-B.

      Moore, Michele-Lee (2015)
      Le bassin de la rivière Horn recouvre en partie le territoire traditionnel de la Première Nation de Fort Nelson (Fort Nelson First Nation, ou FNFN) et est un site actif de fracturation hydraulique industrielle. Cette dernière a accru la demande en eau dans le bassin. Alors qu’il est généralement admis qu’une gouvernance de l’eau efficace exige la collaboration d’un vaste éventail d’acteurs, les barrières à l’inclusion des nations autochtones dans la gouvernance de l’eau existent encore en tant que legs de l’histoire coloniale du Canada. L’approche de la province relativement à la participation des nations autochtones à la gouvernance de l’eau s’est limitée, en grande partie, à des consultations, à des accommodements et à de lentes négociations de gouvernement à gouvernement. Cette approche n'a pas encore débouché sur une collaboration significative. Le partenaire de recherche, le Fort Nelson First Nation Lands Department, est impliqué de manière officielle et officieuse dans des négociations de longue date avec le gouvernement et avec l’industrie concernant divers enjeux liés à la fracturation hydraulique et à l’utilisation d’eau afférente dans le bassin versant de la rivière Horn. La résolution de cette impasse exigeait de l’innovation en matière de gouvernance, et il était évident qu’un processus d'apprentissage social serait nécessaire à l’établissement, par l’industrie, le gouvernement et la FNFN, d’une vision commune concernant les mécanismes futurs de gouvernance de l’eau.

      Castleden, Heather (Canadian Water Network, 2015)
      Community-based water monitoring involves the engagement of community volunteers and non-government organization (NGO) staff in monitoring water quality and learning about their local watersheds. When government agencies and NGOs work together to develop these programs, it can increase resources available for monitoring, connect the scientific information to governmental management of watersheds, and promote community-led environmental stewardship. Done effectively, NGOs and government agencies will be better equipped to identify risks and other issues associated with watershed health and assess the success of their restoration activities.
    • Connecting Memories with Nature: Opportunities for Residents of Long-Term Care Facilities in Mid-Sized Cities

      Vasseur, Liette; Fullerton, Christopher; Jacklin, Marcie; Pickering, Kerrie (Evergreen, 2018)
      Canada, like other Western countries, is facing the challenge of providing care for an increasingly large elderly population. Indeed data suggest that the Canadian elderly population will double by 2036 (Statistics Canada 2006). In Ontario, this means that the population of people over 65 years old may increase from 1.8 million in 2009 (i.e., 13.7% of the population) to 4.2 million or 23.4% by 2036 (Ontario 2009). Society encourages elderly people to stay in their homes for as long as they can, but this often becomes impossible unless constant personal care can be provided by a parent or personal caretaker. The current economic and time constraints facing children of elderly people make it difficult for them to be able to consider full-time care of an elderly parent. In most cases, and especially for individuals suffering from dementia, placement in a long-term care (LTC) facility is often the only solution. While residents in some of these facilities may have gradual levels of independencies, in many of them residents have limited mobility. Residents in LTC facilities have a decreased sense of well-being compared to their counterparts living in other types of housing, such as their own homes or retirement facilities (Cummings 2002).
    • Constructs of childhood, generation and heroism in editorials on young people's climate change activism: Their mobilisation and effects

      Raby, Rebecca; Sheppard, Lindsay C. (Wiley, 2021)
      We analyse the effects of constructions and mobilisations of childhood, generation and girl heroism in 30 Canadian editorials written in response to 2019 climate change protests. We discuss how the editorials strategically position—and sometimes dismiss—young activists through discourses of childhood innocence, becoming and social participation. Second, we focus on how the editorials mobilise generation to emphasise either generational division or cross‐generational solidarity. Finally, we problematise the editorials' concentration on individualised girl heroism. We thus contextualise and deconstruct truth statements around age, generation and heroism, emphasising instead their effects and the potential for certain narratives to better recognise the diversity and solidarity in climate change activism.
    • Contextualising Postmodernity in Daoist Symbolism: Toward a mindful education embracing eastern wisdom

      Blom, Rob; Lu, Chunlei (Educational Philosophy and Theory (EPAT) under the Philosophy of Education Society of Australisa (PESA), 2016-07-12)
      In cultivating a Western inclination toward Eastern wisdom, it is important to seek the foundations that sustain traditional practices toward such end. In a secularised and modern world view, the tendency has been to extract and abstract foundational practices such as mindfulness meditation and contemplation within an objectivist or scientistic prejudice. While leading to interesting results, it cannot ascertain a wisdom that is quantified and decontextualised. In response, contextual effort in postmodern pedagogical literature—while well placed—is often marred with confusions concerning Eastern and metaphysical foundations. As a result, one is led away from the very wisdom being qualified; furthermore, conceptual and theoretical paradoxes arise and consequently elude those that formulate them. Thus, in feeling secure in response to a particular ‘yáng’ world view of modernity, many postmodern criticisms suffer an exclusively ‘yῑn’ character. For us, imbalance in any direction forfeits the path Eastern education approaches wisdom. In our conceptual analysis, we contextualise that modernity was never too yáng, but too yáng-in-yῑn. Therefore, what is missing in pedagogical theory is not the yῑn element, as presumed by postmodern critique, but the yáng element, in continual balance with the yῑn, and vice versa.
    • Copyright in the Stacks: The Chilling Effects of Unclear Copyright Interpretations in the Canadian Academic Library

      Ribaric, Tim (2015-01-21)
      The Canadian academic library is often seen as a vibrant place where the creation and sharing of knowledge plays a pivotal role in the intellectual life of the University. However this longstanding tradition is slowing being eroded by changes in copyright legislation and through infringement claims from content creators. Libraries are increasingly being placed in situations where they are expected to provide access to licensed material without clear ideas on what acceptable terms of use accompany those materials. Due to this lack of clarity Libraries are rescinding key services and being forced to spend ever increasing amounts to ensure proper licensing fees and usage rights are established. This paper will describe the current landscape surrounding this phenomenon and shed light on the chilling effects of these unclear interpretations. These results will be then be contrasted against the gains that Libraries have been making on behalf of their users in terms of advocacy and education in alternative forms of copyright.
    • Costing Climate Change: a case study of employing climate, land-use and water quality data to assess the economic impacts of climate change on local public health

      Renzetti, Steven (2015)
      One of the potential linkages between climate change and public health stems from the way climate change may increase the likelihood of human exposure to water-borne pathogens. Climate change may have this effect due to 1) increased survival of fecal pathogens on land mediated by temperature and precipitation, 2) transport of pathogens over land and loading to water sources, and 3) increased risks from failure of water treatment and disinfections arising from flooding, and storm-water and sewage/septic overflows.
    • A Count of Coping Strategies

      Heffer, Taylor; Willoughby, Teena (2017)
      The present study examined the association between coping and adjustment among university students. While most research on coping focuses on identifying optimal coping strategies, the Transactional Theory of Coping highlights that adaptive coping involves an ability to adapt and change coping strategies in a way that facilitates positive adjustment (e.g., Coping Flexibility). In order to demonstrate flexibility among a variety of coping strategies, however, one must first possess a diverse range of coping strategies that they are able to use when stressed. Studies investigating the use of coping strategies typically compute means-based analyses whereby they not only investigate what strategies are used, but also how much (i.e., a little, a medium amount, a lot) each is used – a composite score then is computed based on the average frequency of use across all the strategies. As a result, this approach is unable to differentiate between individuals who use a lot of strategies infrequently and individuals who use only one or two strategies a lot. In other words, when using a means-based analysis, distinct coping patterns can present with identical means, limiting the conclusions that can be made regarding the relationship between the number of coping strategies used and adjustment. To address this limitation, the current study investigated the number of strategies that individuals use when stressed, rather than how frequently they use them (i.e., a count-based approach). A direct comparison is also made between the counts-based approach and the means-based approach in order to address whether or not counting how many strategies individuals engage in may provide different information than when taking a means-based approach. Using an autoregressive cross-lag path analysis, results revealed that when using a count-based approach, using many positive coping strategies, regardless of how often they were used, led to more positive adjustment and less negative adjustment than using a smaller number of positive coping strategies. Further, engagement in greater negative coping strategies predicted more depressive symptoms and poorer emotion regulation than engagement in fewer negative coping strategies. For the means based approach, the results for engagement in negative strategies remained consistent; however, engagement in positive coping strategies more frequently no longer predicted having better positive adjustment. This finding indicates that a count-based approach may offer a novel way to examine how the number of coping strategies individuals use can help promote positive adjustment among university students.
    • A counterfactual study of the Charge of the Light Brigade

      Connors, David; Armstrong, Michael J.; Bonnett, John (Taylor & Francis, 2015-06)
      We use a mathematical model to perform a counterfactual study of the 1854 Charge of the Light Brigade. We first calibrate the model with historical data so that it reproduces the actual charge’s outcome. We then adjust the model to see how that outcome might have changed if the Heavy Brigade had joined the charge, and/or if the charge had targeted the Russian forces on the heights instead of those in the valley. The results suggest that all of the counterfactual attacks would have led to heavier British casualties. However, a charge by both brigades along the valley might plausibly have yielded a British victory.
    • Creatine Monohydrate Supplementation Increases White Adipose Tissue Mitochondrial Markers in Male and Female Rats in a Depot Specific Manner

      Ryan, Chantal R.; Finch, Michael S.; Dunham, Tyler C.; Murphy, Jensen E.; Roy, Brian D.; MacPherson, Rebecca E. K. (MDPI AG, 2021-07-14)
      White adipose tissue (WAT) is a dynamic endocrine organ that can play a significant role in thermoregulation. WAT has the capacity to adopt structural and functional characteristics of the more metabolically active brown adipose tissue (BAT) and contribute to non-shivering thermogenesis under specific stimuli. Non-shivering thermogenesis was previously thought to be uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1)-dependent however, recent evidence suggests that UCP1-independent mechanisms of thermogenesis exist. Namely, futile creatine cycling has been identified as a contributor to WAT thermogenesis. The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of creatine supplementation to alter mitochondrial markers as well as adipocyte size and multilocularity in inguinal (iWAT), gonadal (gWAT), and BAT. Thirty-two male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with varying doses (0 g/L, 2.5 g/L, 5 g/L, and 10 g/L) of creatine monohydrate for 8 weeks. We demonstrate that mitochondrial markers respond in a sex and depot specific manner. In iWAT, female rats displayed significant increases in COXIV, PDH-E1alpha, and cytochrome C protein content. Male rats exhibited gWAT specific increases in COXIV and PDH-E1alpha protein content. This study supports creatine supplementation as a potential method of UCP1-independant thermogenesis and highlights the importance of taking a sex-specific approach when examining the efficacy of browning therapeutics in future research.
    • CRISPR/Cas9-Mediated Vitellogenin Receptor Knockout Leads to Functional Deficiency in the Reproductive Development of Plutella xylostella

      Peng, Lu; Wang, Qing; Zou, Ming-Min; Qin, Yu-Dong; Vasseur, Liette (Frontiers Media, 2020)
      The vitellogenin receptor (VgR) belongs to the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) gene superfamily and plays an indispensable role in Vg transport, yolk deposition, and oocyte development. For this reason, it has become a promising target for pest control. The involvement of VgR in Vg transport and reproductive functions remains unclear in diamondback moths, Plutella xylostella (L.), a destructive pest of cruciferous crops. Here, we cloned and identified the complete cDNA sequence of P. xylostella VgR, which encoded 1805 amino acid residues and contained four conserved domains of LDLR superfamily. PxVgR was mainly expressed in female adults, more specifically in the ovary. PxVgR protein also showed the similar expression profile with the PxVgR transcript. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated PxVgR knockout created a homozygous mutant of P. xylostella with 5-bp-nucleotide deletion in the PxVgR. The expression deficiency of PxVgR protein was detected in the ovaries and eggs of mutant individuals. Vg protein was still detected in the eggs of the mutant individuals, but with a decreased expression level. However, PxVg transcripts were not significantly affected by the PxVgR knockout. Knockout of PxVgR resulted in shorter ovarioles of newly emerged females. No significant difference was detected between wild and mutant individuals in terms of the number of eggs laid in the first 3 days after mating. The loss of PxVgR gene resulted in smaller and whiter eggs and lower egg hatching rate. This study represents the first report on the functions of VgR in Vg transport, ovary development, oviposition, and embryonic development of P. xylostella using CRISPR/Cas9 technology. This study lays the foundation for understanding molecular mechanisms of P. xylostella reproduction, and for making use of VgR as a potential genetic-based molecular target for better control of the P. xylostella.
    • Critical incident analysis through narrative reflective practice: A case study

      Farrell, Thomas (Urmia University Press, 2012-12-25)
      Teachers can reflect on their practices by articulating and exploring incidents they consider critical to themselves or others. By talking about these critical incidents, teachers can make better sense of seemingly random experiences that occur in their teaching because they hold the real inside knowledge, especially personal intuitive knowledge, expertise and experience that is based on their accumulated years as language educators teaching in schools and classrooms. This paper is about one such critical incident analysis that an ESL teacher in Canada revealed to her critical friend and how both used McCabe’s (2002) narrative framework for analyzing an important critical incident that occurred in the teacher’s class.
    • Critical thinking education and debiasing

      Kenyon, Tim; Beaulac, Guillaume (Informal Logic, 2014-10-12)
      Abstract: There are empirical grounds to doubt the effectiveness of a common and intuitive approach to teaching debiasing strategies in critical thinking courses. We summarize some of the grounds before suggesting a broader taxonomy of debiasing strategies. This four-level taxonomy enables a useful diagnosis of biasing factors and situations, and illuminates more strategies for more effective bias mitigation located in the shaping of situational factors and reasoning infrastructure—sometimes called “nudges” in the literature. The question, we contend, then becomes how best to teach the construction and use of such infrastructures. Résumé: Des données empiriques nous permettent de douter de l'efficacité d'une approche commune et intuitive pour enseigner des stratégies de correction de biais cognitifs dans les cours de pensée critique. Nous résumons certains de ces résultats empiriques avant de suggérer une taxonomie plus étendue de ces stratégies de correction de biais. Cette taxonomie à quatre niveaux permet un diagnostic utile de facteurs causant les biais et elle met en évidence davantage de stratégies permettant la correction plus efficace de biais, stratégies situées dans des mesures modifiant les infrastructures et les environnements cognitifs ("nudge" dans la littérature). Nous soutenons que la question porte dès lors sur les meilleures façons d'enseigner la construction et l'utilisation de ces infrastructures.
    • Critical thinking for engineers and engineering critical thinking

      Kenyon, Tim (IEEE, 2016)
      Design decisions for a critical thinking curriculum for Engineering students serves as a point of departure to briefly describe an under-appreciated reason to emphasize critical thinking in Engineering programs. An increasing focus on the role of context, environment and systems in shaping human judgement means that engineers should be especially aware of the propensity for designs and implementations to affect the reasoning of people for whom they function as lived experience. Preparing engineers to recognize and work responsibly around these issues is a secondary reason to teach critical thinking in those programs.
    • Crossing Border 2018 Conference Schedule

      Program and Schedule of 2018 Crossing Borders Conference
    • Current Evidence of the Role of the Myokine Irisin in Cancer

      Tsiani, Evangelia (MDPI, 2021-05-27)
      Regular exercise/physical activity is beneficial for the health of an individual and lowers the risk of getting different diseases, including cancer. How exactly exercise results in these health benefits is not known. Recent studies suggest that the molecule irisin released by muscles into the blood stream after exercise may be responsible for these effects. This review summarizes all the available in vitro/cell culture, animal and human studies that have investigated the relationship between cancer and irisin with the aim to shed light and understand the possible role of irisin in cancer. The majority of the in vitro studies indicate anticancer properties of irisin, but more animal and human studies are required to better understand the exact role of irisin in cancer.
    • Cyclotetrasiloxane Frameworks for the Chemoenzymatic Synthesis of Oligoesters

      Zelisko, Paul M; Frampton, Mark B.; Jones, Tim RB (Royal Society of Chemistry, 2015-11-28)
      Immobilized lipase B from Candida antarctica (Novozym® 435, N435) was utilized as part of a chemoenzymatic strategy for the synthesis of branched polyesters based on a cyclotetrasiloxane core in the absence of solvent. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry were utilized to monitor the reactions between tetraester cyclotetrasiloxanes and aliphatic diols. The enzyme-mediated esterification reactions can achieve 65– 80% consumption of starting materials in 24–48 h. Longer reaction times, 72–96 h, resulted in the formation of cross-linked gel-like networks. Gel permeation chromatography of the polymers indicated that the masses were Mw ¼ 11 400, 13 100, and 19 400 g mol 1 for the substrate pairs of C7D4 ester/ octane-1,8-diol, C10D4 ester/pentane-1,5-diol and C10D4 ester/octane-1,8-diol respectively, after 48 h. Extending the polymerization for an additional 24 h with the C10D4 ester/octane-1,8-diol pair gave Mw ¼ 86 800 g mol 1. To the best of our knowledge this represents the first report using lipase catalysis to produce branched polymers that are built from a cyclotetrasiloxane core.