• Social Justice Aspects of Water Allocation Mechanisms

      Bjornlund, Henning (2015)
      Water is scarce in southern Alberta, and climate change predictions suggest that water might be even scarcer. There is increasing pressure to leave more water in rivers for environmental purposes, which will further increase water scarcity for extractive users. There is also an urgent need to find mechanisms to allocate and reallocate water among competing uses, such as water for the environment and for extractive uses. Achieving these objectives within current water dependent communities will involve different socioeconmic impacts. The level of impact will depend on the policy choices made, the acceptability of such policies among stakeholders, water users reactions to such policies, and the ability of current water users to cope with less water. These issues are examined in this project.
    • A Social Network Analysis For Knowledge Integration and Extension of WEPGN Research

      Bharadwaj, Lalita; Dupont, Diane; Bradford, Lori (2015)
      Solutions for complex water challenges not only require the development of novel data collection and modeling tools, but also the creation of strong research clusters and innovative knowledge mobilization instruments. There is a need to understand the focus and nature of interdisciplinary collaborative research, as well as the functionality and collaborative nature of the networks of researchers, extension and integration of partnerships. Deriving these solutions is essential for the integration and extension of research knowledge beyond disciplinary silos so that deeper understanding and relationship building between those who make water policy decisions and those who are impacted by them can be made.
    • Socially Inclusive Parenting Leaves and Parental Benefit Entitlements: Rethinking Care and Work Binaries

      Doucet, Andrea (Cogitatio Press, 2021)
      How can parental leave design be more socially inclusive? Should all parents be entitled to parental benefits or only those parents who are eligible based on a particular level of labour market participation? To think through questions of social inclusion in parental leave policy design, particularly issues related to entitlements to benefits, I make three arguments. First, aiming to extend Dobrotić and Blum’s work on entitlements to parental benefits, I argue that ‘mixed systems’ that include both citizenship‐based and employment‐based benefits are just and socially inclusive approaches to parental leaves and citizenship. Second, to build a robust conceptual scaffolding for a ‘mixed’ benefits approach, I argue that that we need to attend to the histories and relationalities of the concepts and conceptual narratives that implicitly or explicitly inform parental leave policies and scholarship. Third, and more broadly, I argue that a metanarrative of care and work binaries underpins most scholarship and public and policy discourses on care work and paid work and on social policies, including parental leave policies. In this article, I outline revisioned conceptual narratives of care and work relationalities, arguing that they can begin to chip away at this metanarrative and that this kind of un‐thinking and rethinking can help us to envi‐ sion parental leave beyond employment policy—as care and work policy. Specifically, I focus on conceptual narratives that combine (1) care and work intra‐connections, (2) ethics of care and justice, and (3) ‘social care,’ ‘caring with,’ transforma‐ tive social protection, and social citizenship. Methodologically and epistemologically, this article is guided by my reading of Margaret Somers’ genealogical and relational approach to concepts, conceptual narratives, and metanarratives, and it is written in a Global North socio‐economic context marked by the COVID‐19 pandemic and 21st century neoliberalism.
    • Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections and Nutritional Status in School-age Children from Rural Communities in Honduras

      Sanchez, Ana Lourdes; Gabrie, Jose Antonio; Usuanlele, Mary-Theresa; Rueda, Maria Mercedes (PLoS, 2013-08-08)
      Background: Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections are endemic in Honduras and efforts are underway to decrease their transmission. However, current evidence is lacking in regards to their prevalence, intensity and their impact on children’s health. Objectives: To evaluate the prevalence and intensity of STH infections and their association with nutritional status in a sample of Honduran children. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was done among school-age children residing in rural communities in Honduras, in 2011. Demographic data was obtained, hemoglobin and protein concentrations were determined in blood samples and STH infections investigated in single-stool samples by Kato-Katz. Anthropometric measurements were taken to calculate heightfor- age (HAZ), BMI-for-age (BAZ) and weight-for-age (WAZ) to determine stunting, thinness and underweight, respectively. Results: Among 320 children studied (48% girls, aged 7–14 years, mean 9.7661.4) an overall STH prevalence of 72.5% was found. Children .10 years of age were generally more infected than 7–10 year-olds (p = 0.015). Prevalence was 30%, 67% and 16% for Ascaris, Trichuris and hookworms, respectively. Moderate-to-heavy infections as well as polyparasitism were common among the infected children (36% and 44%, respectively). Polyparasitism was four times more likely to occur in children attending schools with absent or annual deworming schedules than in pupils attending schools deworming twice a year (p,0.001). Stunting was observed in 5.6% of children and it was associated with increasing age. Also, 2.2% of studied children were thin, 1.3% underweight and 2.2% had anemia. Moderate-to-heavy infections and polyparasitism were significantly associated with decreased values in WAZ and marginally associated with decreased values in HAZ. Conclusions: STH infections remain a public health concern in Honduras and despite current efforts were highly prevalent in the studied community. The role of multiparasite STH infections in undermining children’s nutritional status warrants more research.
    • Soil-Transmitted Helminths, Poverty, and Malnutrition in Honduran Children Living in Remote Rural Communities

      Sanchez, Ana Lourdes; Gabrie, Jose Antonio; Canales, Maritza; Rueda, Maria Mercedes; Fontecha, Gustavo Adolfo; Mason, Patrick W.; Bearman, Gonzalo; Stevens, Michael P. (Libertas Academica, 2016-02)
      Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections are endemic in Honduras, but their prevalence according to the levels of poverty in the population has not been examined. The present cross-sectional study is aimed to determine the role of different levels of poverty in STH prevalence and infection intensity as well as the potential associations of STH infections with malnutrition and anemia. Research participants were children attending a medical brigade serving remote communities in Northern Honduras in June 2014. Demographic data were obtained, and poverty levels were determined using the unsatisfied basic needs method. STH infections were investigated by the Kato-Katz method; hemoglobin concentrations were determined with the HemoCue system; and stunting, thinness, and underweight were determined by anthropometry. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and univariate and multivariable logistic regression models. Among 130 children who participated in this study, a high prevalence (69.2%) of parasitism was found and the poorest children were significantly more infected than those living in less poor communities (79.6% vs. 61.8%; P = 0.030). Prevalence rates of Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides, and hookworms were 69.2%, 12.3%, and 3.85%, respectively. In total, 69% of children had anemia and 30% were stunted. Households’ earthen floor and lack of latrines were associated with infection. Greater efforts should be made to reduce STH prevalence and improve overall childhood health, in particular, among the poorest children lacking the basic necessities of life.
    • Some Travelling Wave Solutions of KdV-Burgers Equation

      Rab, Md Abdur; Mia, Abdus Sattar; Akter, Tania (Hikari Ltd, 2012)
      In this paper we study the extended Tanh method to obtain some exact solutions of KdV-Burgers equation. The principle of the Tanh method has been explained and then apply to the nonlinear KdV- Burgers evolution equation. A finnite power series in tanh is considered as an ansatz and the symbolic computational system is used to obtain solution of that nonlinear evolution equation. The obtained solutions are all travelling wave solutions.
    • A Stochastic Salvo Model Analysis of the Battle of the Coral Sea

      Armstrong, Michael J.; Powell, Michael B. (Military Operations Research Society (MORS), 2005)
      In this work we study the Battle of the Coral Sea using a stochastic version of the salvo combat model. We begin by estimating the range of probable alternative results for the battle, given the forces employed; i.e., if the battle were to be "re-fought", how likely are outcomes other than what historically transpired? Our analysis suggests that a wide range of results was indeed possible, even without any change in forces on either side. We then estimate the impact of hypothetical but plausible changes in the American forces employed. Our analysis suggests that a material advantage could have been obtained by committing extra aircraft carriers to the battle or by dispersing the carriers that were already deployed; on the other hand, equipping each carrier with more fighters but fewer bombers would have yielded a net disadvantage.
    • A stochastic salvo model for naval surface combat

      Armstrong, Michael J. (Institute For Operations Research and Management Science (INFORMS), 2005)
      In this work we propose a stochastic version of the salvo model for modern naval surface combat. We derive expressions for the mean and variance of surviving force strengths and for the probabilities of the possible salvo outcomes in forms simple enough to be implemented in spreadsheet software. Numerical comparisons of the deterministic and stochastic models suggest that while the two models tend to provide similar estimates of the average number of ships surviving a salvo, this average by itself can be highly misleading with respect to the likely outcomes of the battle. Our results also suggest that a navy's preferences for risk (variability) and armament (offensive versus defensive) will depend on not only its mission objectives but also on whether it expects to fight from a position of strength or of weakness.
    • Stories of Informal Mentorship: Recognizing the Voices of Mentees in Academic Libraries

      MacKinnon, Colleen; Shepley, Susan (Partnership: the Canadian Journal of Library and Information Practice and Research, 2014-04-28)
      Based on the 2014 OLA Super Conference session “Mentorship in Academic Libraries: A Universe of Possibilities,” this article explores the benefits of informal mentorship in its various forms and how librarians are embracing a new way of thinking about mentorship both individually and organizationally. The lived experiences of two professional academic librarians are shared as they argue that informal mentorship offers the opportunity to co-create a meaningful mentorship experience by recognizing the importance of the mentee’s voice. This paper will discuss the value of informal mentorship and how, when certain elements are present within it, this model can allow us to reimagine mentorship in academic libraries. Concepts such as “accidental” mentorship, “purposeful” mentorship, mentorship “network,” and “peer” mentorship are discussed.
    • Strengthening our connection to nature and building citizens of the Earth

      Vasseur, Liette; Daigle, Christine (UNESCO, 2020-01-28)
      The authors elaborate on the dangers of rampant consumerism and attempt to explain why most humans are disconnected from the realities of our depleting planet and are not taking action to instigate change to ensure a more sustainable future. They argue that education for sustainable development will play a key role in transforming citizens of this Earth to assume fully their roles as environmental stewards.
    • Structure-function relationships of tachykinin peptides from octopus venoms

      Ruder, Tim; Ormerod, Kiel; Brust, Andreas; Abid Ali, Syed; Manchadi, Mary-Louise Roy; Ventura, Sabatino; Undheim, Eivind AB; Mercier, Joffre; King, Glenn F.; Alewood, Paul F.; et al. (Elsevier, 2013-04)
    • Students as clients: a professional services model for business education

      Armstrong, Michael (Academy of Management, 2003-12)
      My purpose in this article is to describe a professional services student-as-client model that I believe offers a more realistic guide for core business school operations than either the customer model or the partner model. I begin in the next section by noting the situations where the partner model is well suited, and show why I don't believe it is realistic for most programs. I then define the client analogy, illustrate how it offers a better fit, and describe some of the insights that it suggests.
    • Super-Spreaders or Victims of Circumstance? Childhood in Canadian Media Reporting of the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Critical Content Analysis

      Ciotti, Sarah; Moore, Shannon A.; Connolly, Maureen; Newmeyer, Trent (MDPI, 2022)
      This qualitative research study, a critical content analysis, explores Canadian media reporting of childhood in Canada during the COVID-19 global pandemic. Popular media plays an important role in representing and perpetuating the dominant social discourse in highly literate societies. In Canadian media, the effects of the pandemic on children and adolescents' health and wellbeing are overshadowed by discussions of the potential risk they pose to adults. The results of this empirical research highlight how young people in Canada have been uniquely impacted by the COVID-19 global pandemic. Two dominant narratives emerged from the data: children were presented "as a risk" to vulnerable persons and older adults and "at risk" of adverse health outcomes from contracting COVID-19 and from pandemic lockdown restrictions. This reflects how childhood was constructed in Canadian society during the pandemic, particularly how children's experiences are described in relation to adults. Throughout the pandemic, media reports emphasized the role of young people's compliance with public health measures to prevent the spread of COVID-19 and save the lives of older persons.
    • A survey of the machine interference problem

      Haque, Lani; Armstrong, Michael J. (Elsevier, 2007)
      This paper surveys the research published on the machine interference problem since the 1985 review by Stecke & Aronson. After introducing the basic model, we discuss the literature along several dimensions. We then note how research has evolved since the 1985 review, including a trend towards the modelling of stochastic (rather than deterministic) systems and the corresponding use of more advanced queuing methods for analysis. We conclude with some suggestions for areas holding particular promise for future studies.
    • Taking Control of Aggression: Perceptions of Aggression Suppress the Link Between Perceptions of Facial Masculinity and Attractiveness

      Geniole, Shawn N; McCormick, Cheryl M (SAGE Publishing, 2013)
      Women’s preferences for masculine-looking male faces are inconsistent across studies, with some studies finding a positive relationship between masculinity and attractiveness and others finding a negative relationship or no association. One possible reason for this inconsistency is that the perception of masculinity is also associated with perceptions of aggression, which may be viewed as particularly costly to women (aggressive individuals are more likely to experience injury or death). Based on the proposal that women’s preference for masculinity is in conflict with their aversion for aggression in male faces, we hypothesized that the bivariate associations between perceptions of masculinity and attractiveness would be weak or negative, but would be positive and significantly stronger after controlling statistically for perceptions of aggression. Across three studies involving three sets of faces (n = 25, 54, 24) and five sets of raters (n = 29, 30, 26, 16, 10), this hypothesis was supported with the average correlation between perceptions of masculinity and attractiveness (r = -.09) reversing in direction and substantially increasing in magnitude after perceptions of aggression were controlled statistically (r = .35). Perceived masculinity may thus involve both attractive and unattractive components, and women’s preferences for masculinity may involve weighing its relative costs and benefits.
    • Targeting inflammation to influence mood following spinal cord injury: a randomized clinical trial

      Allison, David; Ditor, David (Journal of Neuroinflammation, 2015)
      Background: The purpose of the present study was to examine the efficacy of targeting inflammation as a means of improving mood following spinal cord injury (SCI) and explore the potential mechanisms of action. Methods: The study was a randomized, parallel-group, controlled, clinical trial (NCT02099890) whereby 20 participants with varying levels and severities of SCI were randomized (3:2) to either the treatment group, consisting of a 12-week anti-inflammatory diet, or control group. Outcome measures were assessed at baseline, 1 and 3 months, and consisted of CES-D scores of depression, markers of inflammation as assessed by various pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and several amino acids related to depression. Results: A significant group × time interaction was found for CES-D (Center for Epidemiologic studies Depression Scale) score ( p = 0.01), the TRP/LNAA (tryptophan/large neutral amino acid) ratio ( p = 0.04), the composite score of pro-inflammatory cytokines ( p = 0.04), IL-1 β (interleukin-1 beta) ( p = 0.04), and IFN- γ (interferon gamma) ( p = 0.03). Pearson ’ s r correlation showed significance between the Δ IL-1 β and both the Δ CES-D score ( r = 0.740, p < 0.01) and the Δ KYN/TRP (kynurenine/tryptophan) ratio ( r = 0.536, p = 0.02). The Δ KYN/TRP ratio was also significantly correlated with the Δ CES-D score ( r = 0.586, p = 0.01). Mediation analysis showed that the relationship between the Δ KYN/TRP ratio and the Δ CES-D score was mediated by the Δ IL-1 β . Subgroup analysis showed that participants with high CES-D scores had significantly higher concentrations of IL-1 β , and all correlations were maintained or strengthened within this subgroup. Conclusions: Overall, the results demonstrated the effectiveness of targeting inflammation as a means of improving mood in SCI, with potential mechanisms relating to the reduction in IL-1 β and improvements in levels of neuroactive compounds related to the kynurenine pathway. Due to the limited sample size, results should be interpreted with caution; however, they are worthy of further examination due to the potential impact of inflammation on depression
    • Team Dynamics and Learning Opportunities in Social Science Research Teams

      McGinn, Michelle K.; Niemczyk, Ewelina K. (University of Alberta. Faculty of Education., 2020)
      Although the contemporary research environment encourages knowledge generation through research collaboration rather than individualized projects, limited scholarly attention has been devoted to the practice of collaboration within research teams. This paper presents a qualitative analysis of team dynamics and learning opportunities within four social science research teams. The findings reveal similarities and differences in leadership style and interaction approaches that affected how research was undertaken and the possibilities for team members to learn from each other. The snapshots provide models for other research teams that extend situated learning theories and the existing research base about collaboration, research teams, and research leadership.
    • Testing the validity of a continuous false belief task in 3- to 7-year-old children

      Mahy, Caitlin; Bernstein, Daniel M.; Gerrard, Lindsey D.; Atance, Christina M. (Elsevier, 2017)
      A continuous measure of false belief showed development in 3–7 year old children. False belief bias was related to Change of Location task performance. False belief bias was unrelated to measures of inhibition. The continuous measure of false belief shows convergent and discriminant validity. In two studies, we examined young children’s performance on the paper-and-pencil version of the Sandbox task, a continuous measure of false belief, and its relations with other false belief and inhibition tasks. In Study 1, 96 children aged 3 to 7years completed three false belief tasks (Sandbox, Unexpected Contents, and Appearance/Reality) and two inhibition tasks (Head–Shoulders–Knees–Toes and Grass/Snow). Results revealed that false belief bias—a measure of egocentrism—on the Sandbox task correlated with age but not with the Unexpected Contents or Appearance/Reality task or with measures of inhibition after controlling for age. In Study 2, 90 3- to 7-year-olds completed five false belief tasks (Sandbox, Unexpected Contents, Appearance/Reality, Change of Location, and a second-order false belief task), two inhibition tasks (Simon Says and Grass/Snow), and a receptive vocabulary task (Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test). Results showed that false belief bias on the Sandbox task correlated negatively with age and with the Change of Location task but not with the other false belief or inhibition tasks after controlling for age and receptive vocabulary. The Sandbox task shows promise as an age-sensitive measure of false belief performance during early childhood and shows convergent and discriminant validity.