• Responsiveness of Household Water Demands to Price and Non-Price Conservation Tools

      Dupont, Diane (2015)
      Canada has apparently abundant water resources: approximately 7% of the world’s renewable fresh water with less than one percent of its population. Pressure on the resource is growing with annual water withdrawals increasing by almost 90% in the last twenty years leading Canadians to be second highest per capita users of water in the world. Water utility managers want to put into place conservation strategies that will ensure a more sustainable use of available water supplies, particularly, in the face of increasing variability of precipitation arising from climate change. They are increasingly turning to price tools (raising water rates) instead of traditional non-price tools (summer water restrictions) to encourage conservation. However, there is little information on the responsiveness of consumer demands to price changes. Establishing the efficacy of such a tool for curbing water use is one policy problem addressed by this research. A second problem is how to incorporate price responsiveness into the ability to predict future water demands and revenue streams that will support future infrastructure maintenance and improvements.
    • Rethinking property in c\a\n\a\d\a

      Blackwell, Adrian; Devine, Bonnie; Kaewan Dang, Tiffany; Fortin, David; reid stewart, luugigyoo patrick (Small Walker Press and Salon für Kunstbuch, 2021-11-10)
      Indigenous and settler architects and urbanists reimagine Canadian cities and discuss property division as the hinge between settler colonialism and architecture/urban form. The conversation is informed by the issue 12-13 of the journal Scapegoat: Architecture / Landscape / Political Economy titled c\a\n\a\d\a: delineating nation state capitalism edited by David Fortin and Adrian Blackwell. Rethinking property in c\a\n\a\d\a transcribes a virtual round table conversation co-hosted by the Research Centre in Interdisciplinary Arts and Creative Culture (Centre for Studies in Arts and Culture, Marilyn I. Walker School of Fine and Performing Arts, Brock University) and the Salon für Kunstbuch (Vienna, Austria) on 10 November 2021.
    • Rethinking the Diegetic-Nondiegetic Distinction in the Film Musical

      Penner, Nina (University of Illinois Press, 2017)
      This paper exposes problems with the diegetic/nondiegetic distinction as a means of describing film-musical numbers. Tracing the use of these terms from Plato to present-day cinema studies, the author identifies a divergence of meaning between scholarship on film musicals and that directed toward non-musical films. Film-musical scholars' idiosyncratic use of these terms not only poses obstacles to effective scholarly dialogues across film genres but also leads to logical problems when the standard criteria for diegetic status are combined with the realism criterion presupposed by most scholars of film musicals. As an alternative means of describing differences between film-musical numbers, the author proposes two scalar concepts. One tracks the number's degree of realism in terms of its dramatic context, performers' skill levels and preparation, identification of a fictional source for its accompaniment, and visual effects. The other measures the performance's degree of formality and intended function. At the formal end of the spectrum, there are numbers with a strict separation of performers and audience members, where the performance is intended primarily for aesthetic appreciation or entertainment. On the other end are spontaneous performances that are intended primarily for communicative or expressive purposes, which often have no fictional audience aside from the performers. In between these extremes lie communal performances, in which audience members tend to become performers in the course of the number. Such songs and dances are intended as much for community building or cheering loved ones as for aesthetic appreciation or entertainment.
    • Revolution or evolution? Lessons learned from a business syllabus study.

      Lowry, Linda Darlene (Special Libraries Association, Business & Finance Division, 2015-06-16)
      Although the business school student population at Brock University was growing, requests for traditional in-class information literacy instruction (ILI) sessions were declining as faculty made room in the curriculum for ‘service learning’. I conducted a comprehensive syllabus study of the undergraduate business curriculum in order to better understand this evolving instructional environment. My primary objective was to investigate the research, data, and library use expectations of business school faculty for their undergraduate students, to gain deeper insight into the extent and nature of research-intensive assignments, including those with a service learning component. My secondary objective was to identify new instructional opportunities in order to be strategic in my outreach efforts. A total of 257 syllabi from 86 courses (representing 91% of all course offerings) were rated according to a 5-point scale of prescribed research, data, or library use. Initial analysis identified 38 different courses with significant research expectations, including 13 courses with a service learning component. A comparison of the 38 research-intensive courses against my own ILI statistics identified 26 courses (including 10 service learning courses) for follow up contact. I hope to devise a plan to provide more relevant and responsive ILI support for these research-intensive courses. As a result of this syllabus study, I now have a much better understanding of the undergraduate business curriculum, and where I might add value, in order to revolutionize my ILI practice.
    • Rewilding for human health

      Andrade, Angela; Zambrana-Torrelio, Carlos; Vasseur, Liette; Nelson, Cara; Carver, Steve (The Resurgence Trust, 2020)
      Exploring the connections between zoonotic diseases, human health and well-being, ecosystem degradation and biodiversity loss.
    • Réactions de la demande en eau des ménages aux méthodes de conservations liées aux prix et non liées aux prix

      Dupont, Diane (2015)
      Le Canada possède d’abondantes ressources d’eau : environ 7 % de l’eau fraîche renouvelable du monde pour moins de 1 % de la population mondiale. Cependant, la pression exercée sur la ressource ne cesse de grimper. En effet, les retraits d’eau annuels ont augmenté de près de 90 % au cours des 20 dernières années, faisant du Canada le deuxième consommateur d’eau par habitant au monde. Les gestionnaires des services d’eau veulent mettre en place des stratégies de conservation qui assureront une utilisation plus durable des réserves d’eau disponibles, en particulier face à la variabilité croissante des précipitations attribuable aux changements climatiques. Ils ont de plus en plus recours à des méthodes liées aux prix (augmentation du prix de l’eau) plutôt qu’à des méthodes plus traditionnelles non liées aux prix (restrictions estivales en matière de consommation d’eau) pour encourager la conservation. Cependant, il existe peu d'information sur la réaction de la demande des consommateurs face aux changements dans les prix. Ce projet de recherche vise entre autres à établir l’efficacité de méthodes liées aux prix pour réduire la consommation d’eau. Un deuxième enjeu ciblé par cette recherche concerne la façon d’intégrer, d’une part, la réaction aux prix dans la capacité de prédire la demande future en eau et, d’autre part, des flux de rentrées qui financeront l’entretien et l’amélioration des infrastructures à l’avenir.
    • Réforme de la gouvernance des Grands Lacs pour la revitalisation adaptée au milieu à la fois naturel et bâti

      Krantzberg, Gail (2014)
      Les municipalités canadiennes sont confrontées aux défis liés à la poursuite du développement, au changement climatique et au vieillissement des infrastructures, ainsi qu’à la capacité de plus en plus réduite des étendues d’eau réceptrices à absorber l’impact du ruissellement pluvial et de la pollution. On s'accorde de plus en plus à reconnaître qu’il faut faire appel à la gestion intégrée des eaux, des eaux usées et des eaux pluviales afin d’assurer la rentabilité des services d’eau et la viabilité des ressources hydriques et d’appuyer, dès maintenant et à l’avenir, la santé publique, l’économie et l’environnement. En particulier, il s’agit d’un tournant décisif pour la région des Grands Lacs et du Saint-Laurent, puisqu’on a la possibilité d’actualiser les approches adoptées pour l’amélioration et la protection des écosystèmes de la région. L’examen de 2007 de l’Accord relatif à la qualité de l’eau dans les Grands Lacs, un accord binational, s’est soldé par de nombreux appels à la révision de l’Accord afin qu’il procure de nouveau une vision alimentant la collaboration binationale qui permettra d’aborder, au 21e siècle, les enjeux environnementaux des Grands Lacs à la fois anciens et émergents. Le nouvel accord met l’accent sur la création d’un cadre des eaux littorales. Quoique ce terme n’ait pas encore été défini, il reflète, du point de vue des politiques, la nécessité de mettre en place un cadre de collaboration scientifique pour la coopération concernant la zone des eaux littorales. Parallèlement, on a également besoin d’un cadre de gouvernance qui privilégie le processus décisionnel adapté au milieu dans le contexte d’interventions appropriées, afin de favoriser la résilience de l’interface terre-eau. Comme les cadres de gouvernance pour la gestion intégrée des eaux sont peu nombreux au Canada, cette recherche vise à dégager les modèles les plus prometteurs.
    • Réglementation des eaux et phénomènes climatiques extrêmes

      Horbulyk, Ted (2015)
      Les Canadiens courent un risque croissant de subir les répercussions d’événements associés à l’eau, telles que des sécheresses pluriannuelles, des inondations ou des modifications importantes dans la configuration des précipitations. Des phénomènes hydrologiques extrêmes pourraient également entraver notre capacité de protéger et de gérer nos ressources en eaux souterraines. Le lien entre l’ensemble de mesures de précaution et de protocoles d’intervention préventive offert aux utilisateurs privés, et celui destiné aux utilisateurs publics et intervenants, n’est pas bien compris, ni nécessairement activé ou favorisé par les réglementations des eaux existantes. Par exemple, des investissements sélectifs dans des infrastructures, des protocoles de gestion de l’eau révisés ou des changements de nature juridique et réglementaire sont susceptibles de jouer un rôle bénéfique, mais ces approches pourraient être autrement plus efficaces si elles étaient coordonnées. Certains secteurs d’exploitation de l’eau sont probablement mieux préparés que d’autres pour pallier l’augmentation des inondations ou des sécheresses, mais il est possible qu’il manque de mécanismes permettant de coordonner les mesures bénéfiques dans l’ensemble des secteurs. Bien que le rendement des choix particuliers en matière d’investissement dépende grandement de l’emplacement et du contexte, certains types d’investissements ou d’actions préalables pourraient avoir plus de retombées positives que les seules mesures correctives ou adaptatives.
    • Risk, nostalgia, and the production of the ideal childhood in online commentary on children’s outdoor play

      Sharpe, Erin K; Litwiller, Fenton; Gallant, Karen (Taylor and Francis, 2019-11-25)
      We use Foucauldian discourse analysis to examine comments posted online in response to news articles that reported on one Canadian neighbourhood’s ‘ban’ on children’s outdoor play. Our analysis showed that reader comments, both for and against the ban on street play, accessed discourses of risk that produced an idealized childhood based on close parental supervision. Additionally, nostalgic discourse, the feeling that unfettered, wholesome outdoor play has been lost and cannot be reclaimed, also made claims about who the ideal childhood is for. While marginalized children continue to experience disadvantage that inherently exposes them to risks daily, White, middle class children already have access to safer streets, both parent presence or unquestioned but appropriate parental absence, and play in the streets can be part of their everyday lives. We consider how the idealized childhoods produced by discourses of risk and nostalgia influence the materiality of children’s outdoor play, including how children’s time is organized and who gets to organize it, how play is experienced and who gets to experience it; in ideal ways, in ideal spaces, and for the ideal child.
    • Road Construction, Mobility & Social Change in a Wakhi Village

      Butz, David; Cook, Nancy (2020)
      Throughout the global South road construction is a favoured mechanism of rural development, yet little attention has been given to the implications of new roads for everyday life in the communities to or through which they are routed. Road Construction, Mobility & Social Change offers an intimate glimpse of these implications for residents of Shimshal, a small agro-pastoral community in the Karakoram Mountains of Northern Pakistan, who in 2003 completed construction of a 60km jeep road linking the village to the regional road network. In 2011 and 2012 Shimshal residents were invited to create photos and provide accompanying verbal narratives that evoke the importance of the Shimshal road for their everyday lives. Fifty-seven community members submitted 402 photos with narratives. Approximately 130 of these photos are reproduced here (at least one from each photographer), each with a paragraph-length summary of its associated narrative in three languages: English, Wakhi, and Urdu. The photographs and captions are organized to express six main ways that Shimshalis understand their everyday lives to be affected by the road’s existence: spaces and social contexts; artifacts and visible traces; mobile activities and embodied practices; social relations; identities; and meanings and interpretive frames. Considered together, these photographic and textual materials provide a rare and richly-detailed insiders’ perspective on road construction, changing mobility practices, and daily life in Shimshal.
    • The role of subvocal rehearsal in preschool children’s prospective memory

      Mahy, Caitlin; Mohun, Hannah; Muller, Ulrich; Moses, Louis (Elsevier, 2016)
      4-year-olds had worse PM than 5-year-olds.•Children in the verbal interference condition had worse PM compared to children in the standard condition.•PM performance was correlated with verbal working memory and receptive vocabulary in the verbal interference condition only.•Children with better verbal ability were better able to cope with verbal interference to the benefit of their PM performance. The current study examined the impact of a verbal interference manipulation on 4- and 5- year olds’ prospective memory (PM). Children were randomly assigned to either complete a quiet delay activity (standard condition) or answer questions aloud during the delay activity (verbal interference condition). Children then completed a PM task followed by several individual differences measures (verbal working memory, inhibitory control, and receptive vocabulary). Four-year-olds showed worse PM than 5-year-olds, children in the verbal interference condition showed worse PM compared to the standard condition, and there was a marginal interaction between age and condition driven by poor performance of 4-year-olds in the verbal interference condition. PM performance was positively correlated with verbal working memory and receptive vocabulary (but not inhibitory control) in the verbal interference condition only suggesting that children with better verbal abilities were more able to cope with verbal interference to the benefit of their PM.
    • The role of the arousal system in age‐related differences in cortical functional network architecture

      Guardia, Tiago; Geerligs, Linda; Tsvetanov, Kamen A.; Ye, Rong; Campbell, Karen L. (Wiley, 2021-10-29)
      A common finding in the aging literature is that of the brain's decreased within- and increased between-network functional connectivity. However, it remains unclear what is causing this shift in network organization with age. Given the essential role of the ascending arousal system (ARAS) in cortical activation and previous findings of disrupted ARAS functioning with age, it is possible that age differences in ARAS func- tioning contribute to disrupted cortical connectivity. We test this possibility here using resting state fMRI data from over 500 individuals across the lifespan from the Cambridge Center for Aging and Neuroscience (Cam-CAN) population-based cohort. Our results show that ARAS-cortical connectivity declines with age and, consistent with our expectations, significantly mediates some age-related differences in connec- tivity within and between association networks (specifically, within the default mode and between the default mode and salience networks). Additionally, connectivity between the ARAS and association networks predicted cognitive performance across several tasks over and above the effects of age and connectivity within the cortical networks themselves. These findings suggest that age differences in cortical connec- tivity may be driven, at least in part, by altered arousal signals from the brainstem and that ARAS–cortical connectivity relates to cognitive performance with age.
    • Role of the Myokine Irisin on Bone Homeostasis: Review of the Current Evidence

      Kornel, Amanda; Den Hartogh, Danja J.; Klentrou, Panagiota; Tsiani, Evangelia (MDPI AG, 2021-08-24)
      Bone is a highly dynamic tissue that is constantly adapting to micro-changes to facilitate movement. When the balance between bone building and resorption shifts more towards bone resorption, the result is reduced bone density and mineralization, as seen in osteoporosis or osteopenia. Current treatment strategies aimed to improve bone homeostasis and turnover are lacking in efficacy, resulting in the search for new preventative and nutraceutical treatment options. The myokine irisin, since its discovery in 2012, has been shown to play an important role in many tissues including muscle, adipose, and bone. Evidence indicate that irisin is associated with increased bone formation and decreased bone resorption, leading to reduced risk of osteoporosis in post-menopausal women. In addition, low serum irisin levels have been found in individuals with osteoporosis and osteopenia. Irisin targets key signaling proteins, promoting osteoblastogenesis and reducing osteoclastogenesis. The present review summarizes the existing evidence regarding the effects of irisin on bone homeostasis.
    • The roles of perspective and language in children’s ability to delay gratification

      Mahy, Caitlin; Moses, Louis; O'Brien, Bronwyn; Castro, Alex W.; Kopp, Leia; Atance, Christina (Elsevier, 2020)
      We manipulated psychological distance in a delay of gratification paradigm. Younger children showed an other-over-self advantage but older children did not. Using “want” vs. “should” did not impact children’s delay of gratification. Increasing psychological distance is an established method for improving children’s performance in a number of self-regulation tasks. For example, using a delay of gratification (DoG) task, Prencipe and Zelazo (Psychological Science, 2005, Vol. 16, pp. 501–505) showed that 3-year-olds delay more for “other” than they do for “self,” whereas 4-year-olds make similar choices for self and other. However, to our knowledge, no work has manipulated language to increase psychological distance in children. In two experiments, we sought to manipulate psychological distance by replicating Prencipe and Zelazo’s age-related findings and extending them to older children (Experiment 1) and also sought to manipulate psychological distance using the auxiliary verbs “want” and “should” to prime more impulsive preference-based decisions or more normative optimal decisions (Experiment 2). In Experiment 1, 96 3- to 7-year-olds showed age-related improvements and interactive effects between age and perspective on DoG performance. In Experiment 2, 132 3- to 7-year-olds showed age-related improvements and a marginal interaction between age and perspective on DoG performance, but no effect of auxiliary verbs was detected. Results are discussed in terms of differing developmental trajectories of DoG for self and other due to psychological distancing, and how taking another’s perspective may boost DoG in younger children but not older children.
    • Roots, Rights and Risk: Canada, Childhood and the COVID-19 Global Pandemic

      Ciotti, Sarah; Moore, Shannon A.; Connolly, Maureen; Newmeyer, Trent (2021)
      The COVID-19 global pandemic highlights pre-existing inequities as well as the challenge of ensuring the protection of children’s human rights in countries like Canada that have ratified the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child. SARS-CoV-2, referred to as the 2019 novel Coronavirus disease or COVID-19, presents a significant threat to public health. Although children are considered to be low risk of contracting, spreading, and serious complications of the disease, are considerably impacted by COVID-19 government-sanctioned distancing measures. COVID-19 is a persistent public health threat, thus, the long-term consequences are largely unknown. This qualitative research study, a content analysis of online Canadian media reports of COVID-19 and children, engaged transdisciplinary social justice methodology, social constructions of childhood at the intersection of race, socio-economic status, gender, and disability. The findings suggest COVID-19 reinforces the impact of social exclusion and economic disparity on equity-seeking young people and families in Canada.
    • Rosemary Extract as a Potential Anti-Hyperglycemic Agent: Current Evidence and Future Perspectives

      Naimi, Madina; Vlavcheski, Filip; Shamshoum, Hesham; Tsiani, Evangelia (MDPI, 2017-09-01)
      Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), a disease on the rise and with huge economic burden to health care systems around the globe, results from defects in insulin action (termed insulin resistance) combined with impaired insulin secretion. Current methods of prevention and treatments for insulin resistance and T2DM are lacking in number and efficacy and, therefore, there is a need for new preventative measures and targeted therapies. In recent years, chemicals found in plants/herbs have attracted attention for their use as functional foods or nutraceuticals for preventing and treating insulin resistance and T2DM. Rosemary is an evergreen shrub indigenous to the Mediterranean region and South America, which contains various polyphenols. Rosemary extract and its polyphenolic constituents have been reported to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and anti-hyperglycemic properties. The current review summarizes the existing in vitro and in vivo studies examining the anti-diabetic effects of rosemary extract and its polyphenolic components and highlights the known mechanism of action.
    • Rosmarinic Acid, a Rosemary Extract Polyphenol, Increases Skeletal Muscle Cell Glucose Uptake and Activates AMPK

      Vlavcheski, Filip; Naimi, Madina; Murphy, Brennan; Hudlicky, Tomas; Tsiani, Evangelia (MDPI, 2017-10-07)
      Skeletal muscle is a major insulin-target tissue and plays an important role in glucose homeostasis. Impaired insulin action in muscles leads to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. 5′ AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) is an energy sensor, its activation increases glucose uptake in skeletal muscle and AMPK activators have been viewed as a targeted approach in combating insulin resistance. We previously reported AMPK activation and increased muscle glucose uptake by rosemary extract (RE). In the present study, we examined the effects and the mechanism of action of rosmarinic acid (RA), a major RE constituent, in L6 rat muscle cells. RA (5.0 μM) increased glucose uptake (186 ± 4.17% of control, p < 0.001) to levels comparable to maximum insulin (204 ± 10.73% of control, p < 0.001) and metformin (202 ± 14.37% of control, p < 0.001). Akt phosphorylation was not affected by RA, while AMPK phosphorylation was increased. The RAstimulated glucose uptake was inhibited by the AMPK inhibitor compound C and was not affected by wortmannin, an inhibitor of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K). The current study shows an effect of RA to increase muscle glucose uptake and AMPK phosphorylation. RA deserves further study as it shows potential to be used as an agent to regulate glucose homeostasis.
    • The salvo combat model with a sequential exchange of fire

      Armstrong, Michael J. (Palgrave, 2014)
      This paper develops a version of the stochastic salvo combat model in which the exchange of fire is sequential, rather than simultaneous. This sequential-fire version is built by modifying the equations in the original simultaneous-fire version. The performance of the sequential model is tested by comparing its outputs to those of a Monte Carlo simulation. The fit between the model and the simulation is very close, especially for the mean and standard deviation of losses. The model is then applied to the Battle of the Coral Sea. The results suggest that attacking first would have given the American force a larger advantage than that provided by an extra aircraft carrier.
    • The salvo combat model with area fire

      Armstrong, Michael J. (Wiley Periodicals, Inc., 2013-12)
      This paper analyzes versions of the salvo model of missile combat where area fire is used by one or both sides in a battle. While these models share some properties with the area fire Lanchester model and the aimed fire salvo model, they also display some interesting differences, especially over the course of several salvos. Whereas the relative size of each force is important with aimed fire, with area fire it is the absolute size that matters. Similarly, while aimed fire exhibits square law behavior, area fire shows approximately linear behavior. When one side uses area and the other uses aimed fire, the model displays a mix of square and linear law behavior.
    • Saturation of SERCA's lipid annulus may protect against its thermal inactivation.

      Fajardo, Val Andrew; Trojanowski, Natalie S.; Castelli, Laura; Miotto, Paula; Amoye, Foyinsola; Ward, Wendy E.; Tupling, A. Russell; LeBlanc, Paul (Elsevier, 2017-01-26)
      The sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA) pumps are integral membrane proteins that catalyze the active transport of Ca2+ into the sarcoplasmic reticulum, thereby eliciting muscle relaxation. SERCA pumps are highly susceptible to oxidative damage, and cytoprotection of SERCA dampens thermal inactivation and is a viable therapeutic strategy in combating diseases where SERCA activity is impaired, such as muscular dystrophy. Here, we sought to determine whether increasing the percent of saturated fatty acids (SFA) within SERCA's lipid annulus through diet could protect SERCA pumps from thermal inactivation. Female Wistar rats were fed either a semi-purified control diet (AIN93G, 7% soybean oil by weight) or a modified AIN93G diet containing high SFA (20% lard by weight) for 17 weeks. Soleus muscles were extracted and SERCA lipid annulus and activity under thermal stress were analyzed. Our results show that SERCA's lipid annulus is abundant with short-chain (12–14 carbon) fatty acids, which corresponds well with SERCA's predicted bilayer thickness of 21 Å. Under control-fed conditions, SERCA's lipid annulus was already highly saturated (79%), and high-fat feeding did not increase this any further. High-fat feeding did not mitigate the reductions in SERCA activity seen with thermal stress; however, correlational analyses revealed significant and strong associations between % SFA and thermal stability of SERCA activity with greater %SFA being associated with lower thermal inactivation and greater % polyunsaturation and unsaturation index being associated with increased thermal inactivation. Altogether, these findings show that SERCA's lipid annulus may influence its susceptibility to oxidative damage, which could have implications in muscular dystrophy and age-related muscle wasting.