• Inhibition of human lung cancer cell proliferation and survival by wine

      Barron, Carly C; Moore, Jessy; Tsakiridis, Theodoros; Pickering, Gary; Tsiani, Evangelia (Springer, 2014-01-23)
      Compounds of plant origin and food components have attracted scientific attention for use as agents for cancer prevention and treatment. Wine contains polyphenols that were shown to have anti-cancer and other health benefits. The survival pathways of Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk), and the tumor suppressor p53 are key modulators of cancer cell growth and survival. In this study, we examined the effects of wine on proliferation and survival of human Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells and its effects on signaling events.
    • Inland

      Serfas, Shawn (Small Walker Press and Salon für Kunstbuch, 2019)
      Shawn Serfas grew up exploring the northern reaches of Saskatchewan’ lakes and river systems Saskatchewan. Although initially drawn to an academic career in the environmental sciences, Serfas pursued Fine Arts and Art History degrees in Saskatchewan as well as a Master of Fine Arts degree at the University of Alberta. His interests include contemporary painting, drawing and printmaking practices. His work echoes a reflection on relational abstraction, environmental aesthetics, the landscape as well as issues bordering abstraction and representation. Serfas is profoundly aware of human intervention on natural resources and of its devastating consequences. His series Inland and Portrait of a Mark appeared in the 2016 exhibition Inland curated by Stuart Reid at the Rodman Hall Art Centre, Brock University, St. Catharines. Richard Fausset was affected by the passage of Hurricane Katrina over New Orleans, Louisiana and its surroundings in 2005. His piece of creative writing investigates how human life impacts nature in a bayou, and vice-versa. Serfas’ artworks and Fausset’s fictional narrative elicit a dialogue between north and south yet offer two distinct reflections on pollution and the insufficiently controlled use of the environment in North America. Shawn Serfas’ most recent exhibitions include Grid Terrain, Gallery MX, Montreal, Quebec, Alloyed Prairie, Bugera Matheson Gallery, Edmonton, Alberta, Portrait of a Mark, SOPA Fine Arts Gallery, Kelowna, British Columbia in 2018; Pseudo-Fiction, (with Catherine Parayre), Alliance Francaise – Galerie Pierre Léon, Toronto, Ontario in 2017; Cleave and Trench, Bugera Matheson Gallery, Edmonton, Alberta in 2016; Dig, Machine Shop Gallery, Algoma University, Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario in 2015; and Out of Sorts, (with William Griffiths), Sopa Fine Arts, Kelowna, British Columbia in 2014.
    • Integrated Analysis of Land Use and Water Quality: Economic, Hydrological and Policy Analysis

      Bateman, Ian (2017)
      Land use and changes in that use play a major role in determining the quality of rivers and lakes. Indeed the effectiveness of water quality management will always be compromised without a clear understanding of land use influences. However, land use is determined by a complex array of drivers including policy (e.g. the EU’s Common Agricultural Policy), market forces (e.g. changes in commodity prices, input costs, etc.), cross-sectional environmental variation (e.g. soil type, rainfall, etc.) and temporal environmental variation (e.g. the effects of climate change such as temperature variance, etc.). While controlling for these drivers the project focuses upon the role of policy making. However, land use policy suffers from systematic inadequacies in that it often focuses upon a single issue (e.g. increasing agricultural production) without considering the indirect effects of such changes (e.g. water pollution). Furthermore, many of these indirect effects occur outside the remit of market values, further impeding their incorporation within decision-making systems.
    • Intentions in Theory and Practice

      Penner, Nina (Oxford University Press, 2018)
      The ‘intentional fallacy’ and pronouncements of the ‘death of the author’ supported the hermeneutical flights of fancy that characterized the ‘New Musicology’ of the 1980s and early 1990s, but mesh less well with more recent New-Historicist impulses. Anti-intentionalism is motivated by a belief in the autonomy of art, a belief most musicologists today reject. Our interest in composers’ working documents and correspondence also conflicts with antiintentionalist methodologies. Due to the diversity of current musicology, no one stance towards interpretation is going to describe all interpretative activities in our field. Nevertheless, for those interested in understanding musical works and performances as the products of human endeavour, I argue that moderate actual intentionalism is the theory that best describes practices directed towards this aim. Its chief advocates—Paisley Livingston, Robert Stecker, and Noël Carroll—are philosophers in the analytic tradition. This article, thus, provides a glimpse of what musicology might gain from taking a greater interest in work in this field.
    • Interaction and knowledge exchange among academic business librarians in Ontario

      Lowry, Linda Darlene (2010-01-06)
      Academic business librarians specialize in the provision of library services to business faculty and students but often assume these roles without an educational background in Business or a familiarity with business information. This study used a two phase multi-method research design (web-based questionnaire followed by interviews) to investigate the communication, information seeking, and continuing professional education (CPE) activities of a population of academic business librarians in Ontario into order to develop a better understanding of how they acquire and share knowledge related to their professional practice and to determine if they constitute a community of practice.
    • International Activities of Canadian Librarians

      Bordonaro, Karen (Canadian Library Association, 2010-12)
      Guest editorial for themed issue on international activities of Canadian librarians.
    • Internationalization in German Academic Libraries: Moving beyond North American Perspectives

      Bordonaro, Karen; Rauchmann, Sabine (Johns Hopkins University Press, 2015-10)
      This paper explores how internationalization is understood and experienced in German academic libraries. Its main purpose is to move the discussion of internationalization in academic libraries beyond the boundaries of English-speaking North America by investigating a European perspective. Its secondary purpose is to investigate the role of English in German academic libraries. An online survey and a series of in-person interviews conducted in Germany in April 2015 provided the data for this study. What emerged are a series of stated differences and similarities between North America and Germany informed by the two overarching themes of implicit internationalization and plurilingualism, the ability to switch from one language to another as required.
    • Interpreting Quantifier Scope Ambiguity: Evidence of Heuristic First, Algorithmic Second Processing

      Dwivedi, Veena D. (PLoS, 2013-11)
      The present work suggests that sentence processing requires both heuristic and algorithmic processing streams, where the heuristic processing strategy precedes the algorithmic phase. This conclusion is based on three self-paced reading experiments in which the processing of two-sentence discourses was investigated, where context sentences exhibited quantifier scope ambiguity. Experiment 1 demonstrates that such sentences are processed in a shallow manner. Experiment 2 uses the same stimuli as Experiment 1 but adds questions to ensure deeper processing. Results indicate that reading times are consistent with a lexical-pragmatic interpretation of number associated with context sentences, but responses to questions are consistent with the algorithmic computation of quantifier scope. Experiment 3 shows the same pattern of results as Experiment 2, despite using stimuli with different lexicalpragmatic biases. These effects suggest that language processing can be superficial, and that deeper processing, which is sensitive to structure, only occurs if required. Implications for recent studies of quantifier scope ambiguity are discussed.
    • Interprofessional Collaboration: The Experience of Nursing and Medical Students’ Interprofessional Education

      Prentice, Dawn; Engel, Joyce; Taplay, Karyn; Stobbe, Karl (Sage, 2014-10-14)
      In this hermeneutic phenomenological study, we examined the experience of interprofessional collaboration from the perspective of nursing and medical students. Seventeen medical and nursing students from two different universities participated in the study. We used guiding questions in face-to-face, conversational interviews to explore students’ experience and expectations of interprofessional collaboration within learning situations. Three themes emerged from the data: the great divide, learning means content, and breaking the ice. The findings suggest that the experience of interprofessional collaboration within learning events is influenced by the natural clustering of shared interests among students. Furthermore, the carry-forward of impressions about physician–nurse relationships prior to the educational programs and during clinical placements dominate the formation of new relationships and acquisition of new knowledge about roles, which might have implications for future practice.
    • Interrupted time series analysis of Canadian legal cannabis sales during the COVID‐19 pandemic

      Armstrong, Michael J.; Cantor, Nathan; Smith, Brendan T.; Jesseman, Rebecca; Hobin, Erin; Myran, Daniel T. (Wiley, 2022-03-22)
      Introduction: There were repeated reports of increased cannabis sales, use, and health impacts in Canada during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, it was unclear whether the increases were due to pandemic effects or industry expansion. Methods: We performed interrupted time series regressions of monthly per capita legal cannabis sales from March 2019 to February 2021, first with national averages, then with provincial/territorial data after adjusting for store density. We considered two interruption alternatives: January 2020, when product variety increased; and March 2020, when pandemic restrictions began. Results: The provincial/territorial regression with the January interruption explained R2 = 69.6% of within-jurisdiction variation: baseline monthly per capita sales growth averaged $0.21 (95% CI: 0.15, 0.26), sales immediately dropped in January by $1.02 (95% CI: -1.67, -0.37), and monthly growth thereafter increased by $0.16 (95% CI: 0.06, 0.25). With the March interruption, the regression instead explained 68.7% of variation: baseline sales growth averaged $0.14 (95% CI: 0.06, 0.22), there was no immediate drop, and growth thereafter increased by $0.22 per month, (95% CI: 0.08, 0.35). Discussion: Increasing cannabis sales during the pandemic was consistent with pre-existing trends and increasing store numbers. The extra increased growth was more aligned with January’s new product arrivals than with March’s pandemic measures, though the latter cannot be ruled out. Conclusions: We found little evidence of pandemic impacts on Canada’s aggregate legal cannabis sales. We therefore caution against attributing increased population-level cannabis use or health impacts primarily to the pandemic.
    • Inventory Flow in Canadian Candy Bar Supply Chains

      Armstrong, Michael J. (APICS, 2011)
      This study examined the ages of candy bars to measure the inventory flow in their supply chains. It sampled 6888 candy bars at 8 retail chains made by 4 manufacturers over a 4 year period. The first objective of the study was exploratory: were there any significant differences in inventory turnover across retailers, manufacturers, or time periods? The second objective was explanatory: could those differences be explained by business events, factory location, market share, or pricing? The analysis showed that there were substantial differences in inventory turnover, especially among the retailers. Unlike in previous research, these differences seemed independent of the particular retail sector. The analysis also found that significant changes in inventory ages coincided with major events at one manufacturer. Interestingly, locating factories close to their markets did not necessarily lead to faster flows. These findings have implications for firms operating in the increasingly integrated North American marketplace.
    • Investigating queen influence on worker behaviour using comparisons of queenless and queenright workers (Supplimentary Material)

      Awde, David Neil; Richards, Miriam H. (Springer, 2018-04-16)
      Female eusocial sweat bees are capable of behaving as queens or workers. Relatively few females become queens, and those that do can directly manipulate the reproductive behaviour of other females in the nest. We collected Lasioglossum (Dialictus) laevissimum workers from nests with and without queens (queenright and queenless nests, respectively) to investigate the influence queens exert on worker behaviour via direct manipulation. Overall, very few L. laevissimum workers (17%) had developed ovaries in Ontario, but queenright and queenless workers were equally likely to have developed ovaries and worn mandibles. However, queenless workers were more likely to be mated than queenright workers. These results suggest first, that queens inhibit egg-laying in most, but not all workers, and second, that queen behaviour during the first few days of workers’ adult lives exerts a lasting influence on worker behaviour. We also compared social traits of L. laevissimum and other Dialictus species using principal components analysis. A strong correlation between worker reproduction and male availability suggests that queen manipulation of the worker brood sex ratio has evolved as an indirect mechanism for queens to discourage worker reproduction. This item is the data set used to produce this study.
    • Investigating the Muscular and Kinematic Responses to Sudden Wrist Perturbations During a Dynamic Tracking Task

      Forman, Garrick N.; Forman, Davis A.; Avila-Mireles, Edwin J; Zenzeri, Jacopo; Holmes, Michael W R (Nature Research (part of Springer Nature), 2020)
      Sudden disturbances (perturbations) to the hand and wrist are commonplace in daily activities and workplaces when interacting with tools and the environment. It is important to understand how perturbations influence forearm musculature and task performance when identifying injury mechanisms. The purpose of this work was to evaluate changes in forearm muscle activity and co-contraction caused by wrist perturbations during a dynamic wrist tracking task. Surface electromyography was recorded from eight muscles of the upper-limb. Participants performed trials consisting of 17 repetitions of ±40° of wrist flexion/extension using a robotic device. During trials, participants received radial or ulnar perturbations that were delivered during flexion or extension, and with known or unknown timing. Co-contraction ratios for all muscle pairs showed significantly greater extensor activity across all experimental conditions. Of all antagonistic muscle pairs, the flexor carpi radialis (FCR)-extensor carpi radialis (ECR) muscle pair had the greatest change in co-contraction, producing 1602% greater co-contraction during flexion trials than during extensions trials. Expected perturbations produced greater anticipatory (immediately prior to the perturbation) muscle activity than unexpected, resulting in a 30% decrease in wrist displacement. While improving performance, this increase in anticipatory muscle activity may leave muscles susceptible to early-onset fatigue, which could lead to chronic overuse injuries in the workplace.
    • Is It Time to Shift Our Environmental Thinking? A Perspective on Barriers and Opportunities to Change

      Daigle, Christine; Vasseur, Liette (MDPI, 2019)
      In 2015, the United Nations General Assembly unanimously adopted the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and Sustainable Development Goals. In 2019, the release of the global assessment report of the United Nations’ Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services unfortunately demonstrated that our planet may be in more trouble than expected. The main drivers have been identified for many years and relate to human activities such as over-exploitation of natural resources leading to land degradation, deforestation, ocean and atmospheric pollution, and climate change. Despite international agreements and conventions, we are gradually reaching the planet’s boundaries. In this commentary, we present an analysis of the current worldview, discuss the humanist roots of this view, and the barriers to be able to move forward with the transformative changes that are needed for sustainability. We suggest that for these transformative changes to happen, there is a need to reconnect humans with nature, and we propose that some solutions could be devised in areas like education and social media. Changing our mindsets and worldviews are the most urgent courses of action we must undertake to avoid the inevitable
    • Is Library Database Searching a Language Learning Activity?

      Bordonaro, Karen (Association of College & Research Libraries, 2010-05)
      A qualitative research study that asked international students how they thought of words to enter into a library database to see if language learning was also involved.
    • Is Science a Human Right? Implementing the Principle of Participatory, Equitable, and Universally Accessible Science

      Petitgand, Cecile; Regis, Catherine; Denis, Jean-Louis (the Canadian Commission for UNESCO, 2019)
      The right of every human being to have access to scientific knowledge and participate in its development (also called “the right to science”) is enshrined in Article 27.1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on December 10, 1948. This article stipulates that: “Everyone has the right freely to participate in the cultural life of the community, to enjoy the arts and to share in scientific advancement and its benefits.” In 1966, the right to science was included in Article 15 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, which called on the States Parties to “recognize the right of everyone to enjoy the benefits of scientific progress and its applications” and take the necessary steps for “the conservation, the development and the diffusion of science.”
    • Isoflavone exposure throughout suckling results in improved adult bone health in mice

      Dinsdale, E.C.; Kaludjerovic, J; Ward, W.E. (Cambridge University Press, 2012-02-15)
      Exposure to isoflavones (ISO), abundant in soy protein infant formula, for the first 5 days of life results in higher bone mineral density (BMD),greater trabecular connectivity and higher fracture load of lumbar vertebrae (LV) at adulthood. The effect of lengthening the duration of exposure to ISO on bone development has not been studied. This study determined if providing ISO for the first 21 days of life, which more closely mimics the duration that infants are fed soy protein formula, results in higher BMD, improved bone structure and greater strength in femurs and LV than a 5-day protocol. Female CD-1 mice were randomized to subcutaneous injections of ISO (7 Q1 mg kg/body weight/day) or corn oil from postnatal day 1 to 21. BMD, structure and strength were measured at the femur and LV at 4 months of age, representing young Q2 adulthood. At the LV, exposure to ISO resulted in higher (P,0.05) BMD, trabecular connectivity and fracture load compared with control (CON). Exposure to ISO also resulted in higher (P,0.05) whole femur BMD, higher (P,0.05) bone volume/total volume and Q3 lower (P,0.05) trabecular separation at the femur neck, as well as greater (P,0.05) fracture load at femur midpoint and femur neck compared with the CON group. Exposure to ISO throughout suckling has favorable effects on LV outcomes, and, unlike previous studies using 5-day exposure to ISO, femur outcomes are also improved. Duration of exposure should be considered when using the CD-1 mouse to model the effect of early life exposure of infants to ISO.
    • Isolation, Synthesis, and Semi-synthesis of Amaryllidaceae Constituents from Narcissus and Galanthus sp.: De novo Total Synthesis of 2-epi-Narciclasine.

      Borra, Suresh; Lapinskaite, Ringaile; Kempthorne, Christine; Liscombe, David; McNulty, James; Hudlicky, Tomas (ACS, 2018-05-22)
      An efficient protocol for the isolation of narciclasine from common Amaryllidaceae bulbs, separation from haemanthamine, and the occurrence of a trace alkaloid, 2-epi-narciclasine are reported. Attempts to convert natural narciclasine to its C-2 epimer by Mitsunobu inversion or oxidation/reduction sequences were compromised by rearrangement and aromatization processes, through which a synthesis of the alkaloid narciprimine was achieved. The methylation of the 7-hydroxy group of natural narciclasine followed by protection of the 3,4-diol function and oxidation/reduction sequence provided the target C-2 epimer. A de novo chemoenzymatic synthesis of 2-¬epi-narciclasine from m-dibromobenzene is also described. Haemanthamine and narciprimine were readily detected in the crude extracts of Narcissus and Galanthus bulbs containing narciclasine and the occurrence of 2-epi-narciclasine as a trace natural product in Galanthus sp. is reported for the first time.
    • Isotopic evidence of increasing water abundance and lake hydrological change in Old Crow Flats, Yukon, Canada

      MacDonald, Lauren A; Turner, Kevin W; McDonald, Ian; Kay, Mitchell L; Hall, Roland I; Wolfe, Brent B (IOP Publishing, 2021-11-22)
      Lake-rich northern permafrost landscapes are sensitive to changing climate conditions, but ability to track real-time and potentially multiple hydrological responses (e.g. lake expansion, drawdown, drainage) is challenging due to absence of long-term, sustainable monitoring programs in these remote locations. Old Crow Flats (OCF), Yukon, is a Ramsar Wetland of International Importance where concerns about low water levels and their consequences for wildlife habitat and traditional ways of life prompted multidisciplinary studies during the International Polar Year (2007–2008) and led to the establishment of an aquatic ecosystem monitoring program. Here, we report water isotope data from 14 representative thermokarst lakes in OCF, the foundation of the monitoring program, and time-series of derived metrics including the isotope composition of input waters and evaporation-to-inflow ratios for a 13 year period (2007–2019). Although the lakes spanned multiple hydrological categories (i.e. rainfall-, snowmelt- and evaporation-dominated) based on initial surveys, well-defined trends from application of generalized additive models and meteorological records reveal that lakes have become increasingly influenced by rainfall, and potentially waters from thawing permafrost. These sources of input have led to more positive lake water balances. Given the documented role of rainfall in causing thermokarst lake drainage events in OCF and elsewhere, we anticipate increased vulnerability of lateral water export from OCF. This study demonstrates the value of long-term isotope-based monitoring programs for identifying hydrological consequences of climate change in lake-rich permafrost landscapes.