• Indigenous Water Co-Governance: Emerging Models of Distributed Water Governance in British Columbia and Alberta

      Bourassa, Carrie (2015)
      The emphasis on Indigenous law is of pressing importance given that evolving legal frameworks have created expanded approaches to Indigenous title, rights, and traditional territories and hence expanded roles for Indigenous peoples in resource governance. This creates a challenge for all levels of government (including Indigenous governments), as new models of governance (and stakeholder relationships) are being debated and indeed created. This challenge has inter-related economic, policy and governance dimensions. Indigenous communities in Canada are currently grappling with a range of water-related issues, including access to safe drinking water, environmental water quality, and associated health and livelihoods issues. In some regions, particularly Western and Northern Canada, these issues are exacerbated by development pressures associated with resource extraction (e.g. oil and gas development, forestry, hydro-electricity). In this context, there are number of challenges that stem from legal and regulatory frameworks, including inadequate consultation, lack of community capacity to participate in engagement and consultation processes, insufficient transparency, and outdated regulations (e.g. with respect to new pollutants) and perceived regulatory capture. In the absence of effective responses to these challenges, there are a number of potential consequences, including expensive and protracted litigation, higher appeals to (and thus increased caseloads for) regulatory oversight bodies, and political mobilization and protest.
    • Individual Differences in Attentional Breadth Changes Over Time: An Event-Related Potential Investigation

      Pitchford, Brent; Arnell, Karen M. (Frontiers, 2021-03-23)
      Event-related potentials (ERPs) to hierarchical stimuli have been compared for global/ local target trials, but the pattern of results across studies is mixed with respect to understanding how ERPs differ with local and global bias. There are reliable interindividual differences in attentional breadth biases. This study addresses two questions. Can these interindividual differences in attentional breadth be predicted by interindividual ERP differences to hierarchical stimuli? Can attentional breadth changes over time within participants (i.e., intraindividual differences) be predicted by ERPs changes over time when viewing hierarchical stimuli? Here, we estimated attentional breadth and isolated ERPs in response to Navon letter stimuli presented at two time points. We found that interindividual differences in ERPs at Time 1 did not predict attentional breadth differences across individuals at Time 1. However, individual differences in changes to P1, N1, and P3 ERPs to hierarchical stimuli from Time 1 to Time 2 were associated with individual differences in changes in attentional breadth from Time 1 to Time 2. These results suggest that attentional breadth changes within individuals over time are reflected in changes in ERP responses to hierarchical stimuli such that smaller N1s and larger P3s accompany a shift to processing the newly prioritized level, suggesting that the preferred level required less perceptual processing and elicited more attention.
    • Influence of anticipated and actual grades on studying

      Armstrong, Michael J.; MacKenzie, H.F. (Herb) (Elsevier, 2017-03)
      This study explores two questions regarding differences between students’ anticipated and actual grades in university courses: what factors contribute to those differences arising, and which of those differences influence students’ subsequent studying? The research surveyed 278 students in a first-year undergraduate business course. Students with stronger academic abilities tended to have smaller (less negative) gaps between their grades and goals, while students with higher personal control scores tended to have wider (more negative) gaps. These gaps narrowed later in the course as students’ goals decreased to match their actual grades more closely. Students increased their studying if their actual grades were lower than their original goals, and/or lower than their updated goals. By contrast, the difference between students’ subjective grade goals and their objectively forecast final grades did not influence their studying intentions.
    • Influence of father-infant relationship on infant development: A father-involvement intervention

      Rempel, Lynn A.; Rempel, John K.; Khuc, Toan Nang; Vui, Le Thi (APA, 2017)
      We examined the extent to which fathers can be taught and encouraged to develop positive relationships with their children, especially in infancy, and the effects of this fathering intervention on infant development. A multi-faceted relationally-focused intervention was used to assist fathers in Vietnam to engage in responsive direct and indirect involvement with their infants and work together with the mother as part of a parenting team. Fathers and mothers from 13 communes in a rural and semi-urban district were recruited to the intervention group. Intervention fathers received group and individual counseling before and after birth, an interactive print resource, community messages about fathering, and the opportunity to participate in a Fathers Club. Couples from 12 comparable communes in a non-contiguous district were recruited to the control group. Fathers and mothers completed questionnaires at the pre-birth recruitment and at 1, 4, and 9-months post-birth. Intervention fathers demonstrated greater increase in knowledge and attitudes regarding father-infant relationships. Both fathers and mothers reported that fathers engaged in more affection, care-taking, and play in the early months of their infants’ lives and fathers felt more attached to their infants right from birth. A developmental assessment at 9 months showed that intervention infants demonstrated higher levels of motor, language, and personal/social development. This study demonstrated that fathers can be taught to interact more sensitively, responsively, and effectively with their newborn infants. Their increased interaction and emotional attachment appears to lay the foundation for enhanced infant development.
    • Information Seeking Behaviors, Attitudes, and Choices of Academic Chemists

      Taylor & Francis, 2018-04-09
      Chemists in academic institutions utilize a variety of resources and strategies to remain current and to track scholarly information, patents, and news. To explore how chemists in academic institutions remain current, librarians at four Canadian university institutions surveyed 231 and interviewed 14 chemistry faculty, staff, and graduate students on their information seeking behaviors and attitudes. According to survey results, a minority of chemists (13.9 percent) acknowledged that they were successfully keeping up to date, while 50.6 percent indicated that they were somewhat successful. However, a significant number of chemists (35.5 percent) indicated that they were unsuccessful and could do better in remaining current with information. Investigators analyzing focus group data identified three emergent themes related to remaining current: (1) there is “too much information – and not enough time.” No single information seeking strategy works; (2) “patents are important – but messy.” Chemists find themselves largely suspicious about the value and credibility of patents; and (3) chemists “could do better” in keeping up to date with new and emerging technologies. Chemists continue to be open to new tools and resources yet readily acknowledge that they are too often not sure which information seeking behaviors, resources, or strategies work best. This study helps to shed light on opportunities to identify and meet chemists’ evolving information needs.
    • Information Seeking Behaviors, Attitudes, and Choices of Academic Mathematicians

      Taylor & Francis, 2020-06-05
      Mathematicians in academic institutions utilize a variety of resources and strategies to seek, find, and use scholarly information and news. Using a sample of mathematicians, researchers surveyed 112 students and faculty at four Canadian university institutions to explore self-perceived success rates, resources consulted, databases used, use of social media, and citation management systems. Further, 12 follow-up interviews were completed with mathematicians to better interpret survey results, resulting information-seeking behaviors, choices, strategies, and feelings on keeping up to date with information needs. According to survey results, a minority of mathematicians (12.5 percent) acknowledged that they were successfully keeping up to date. However, a significant number of mathematicians (28.6 percent) indicated that they were unsuccessful and could do better in remaining current with information needs. Co-investigators, using qualitative analyses, identified four emergent themes related to remaining current: (1) The “slower pace of math” pervades all aspects of this discipline;” (2) There are “too many papers – and not enough time” to effectively search, evaluate, and read scholarly papers of interest; (3) Mathematicians collectively acknowledge that they are open to strategies and technologies where they “could do better” keeping up to date; and (4) Mathematicians have divided loyalties using databases when searching for information by means of “MathSciNet in a Google world.” Additional insights document how mathematicians are guided by mathematical peculiarities and discipline-specific practices. This study helps to shed light on opportunities for academic librarians to identify and meet mathematicians’ evolving information needs.
    • Information Seeking Behaviors, Attitudes, and Choices of Academic Physicists

      Taylor & Francis, 2022-01-10
      Physicists in academic institutions utilize a variety of resources and strategies to seek, find, and use scholarly information and news. Using a sample of physicists, researchers surveyed 182 students and faculty at seven Canadian university institutions to explore self-perceived success rates, resources consulted, databases used, and use of social media and citation management systems. To complement the survey, 11 follow up interviews/focus groups were completed with participants to further uncover information-seeking behaviors, choices, strategies, and feelings around keeping up to date with information needs. According to survey results, a minority of physicists (15.4%) acknowledged that they were successfully keeping up to date. However, a significant number of physicists (28.6%) indicated that they were unsuccessful and could do better in remaining current with information needs. Co-investigators, using qualitative analyses, identified four emergent themes: (1) There are “too many papers – and not enough time” to effectively search, evaluate and read scholarly papers of interest; (2) Staying up to date is important especially in competitive research areas; (3) Graduate students seek information differently than faculty and experienced researchers; and (4) The arXiv database is important to many physicists. Additional minor themes included physics-related publishing is constantly evolving; physicists use a variety of information-seeking behaviors; and, information-seeking methods can differ between physics subdisciplines. This study aims to shed light on opportunities for academic librarians to identify and meet physicists’ evolving information behaviors, attitudes, choices, and needs.
    • The informational richness of testimonial contexts

      Kenyon, Tim (Philosophical Quarterly, 2013-01-01)
      An influential idea in the epistemology of testimony is that people often acquire justified beliefs through testimony, in contexts too informationally poor for the justification to be evidential. This has been described as the Scarcity of Information Objection (SIO). It is an objection to the reductive thesis that the acceptance of testimony is justified by evidence of general kinds not unique to testimony. SIO hinges on examples intended to show clearly that testimonial justification arises in low‐information contexts; I argue that the common examples show no such thing. There is a great deal of information available in testimonial contexts, including in the examples alleged to show otherwise – enough information to render SIO implausible. Purported SIO examples tend to give a wrong impression about the informational richness of testimonial contexts, I argue, due to the lack of detail in which they are presented.
    • InfoSkills PLUS: Your Key to Research Success

      Lowry, Linda Darlene (Association of College and Research Libraries, 2005-04-07)
      Discover the advantages of collaborating with other campus partners to develop, promote, and deliver a unique non-credit interactive information skills workshop series. Learn the importance of flexibility interactivity and modularity to the success of a non-credit information skills program. Learn how to incorporate the knowledge management practices of Learning Before, Learning During, and Learning After into team project activities.
    • Infrared thermography: A non-invasive window into thermal physiology

      Tattersall, Glenn J (2016)
      Infrared thermography is a non-invasive technique that measures mid to long-wave infrared radiation emanating from all objects and converts this to temperature. As an imaging technique, the value of modern infrared thermography is its ability to produce a digitized image or high speed video rendering a thermal map of the scene in false colour. Since temperature is an important environmental parameter influencing animal physiology and metabolic heat production an energetically expensive process, measuring temperature and energy exchange in animals is critical to understanding physiology, especially under field conditions. As a non-contact approach, infrared thermography provides a non-invasive complement to physiological data gathering. One caveat, however, is that only surface temperatures are measured, which guides much research to those thermal events occurring at the skin and insulating regions of the body. As an imaging technique, infrared thermal imaging is also subject to certain uncertainties that require physical modeling, which is typically done via built-in software approaches. Infrared thermal imaging has enabled different insights into the comparative physiology of phenomena ranging from thermogenesis, peripheral blood flow adjustments, evaporative cooling, and to respiratory physiology. In this review, I provide background and guidelines for the use of thermal imaging, primarily aimed at field physiologists and biologists interested in thermal biology. I also discuss some of the better known approaches and discoveries revealed from using thermal imaging with the objective of encouraging more quantitative assessment.
    • Inhibition of human lung cancer cell proliferation and survival by wine

      Barron, Carly; Moore, Jesse; Tsakiridis, Theodoros; Pickering, Gary; Tsiani, Evangelia (BioMed Central, 2014-01)
      Compounds of plant origin and food components have attracted scientific attention for use as agents for cancer prevention and treatment. Wine contains polyphenols that were shown to have anti-cancer and other health benefits. The survival pathways of Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk), and the tumor suppressor p53 are key modulators of cancer cell growth and survival. In this study, we examined the effects of wine on proliferation and survival of human Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells and its effects on signaling events.
    • Inhibition of human lung cancer cell proliferation and survival by wine

      Barron, Carly C; Moore, Jessy; Tsakiridis, Theodoros; Pickering, Gary; Tsiani, Evangelia (Springer, 2014-01-23)
      Compounds of plant origin and food components have attracted scientific attention for use as agents for cancer prevention and treatment. Wine contains polyphenols that were shown to have anti-cancer and other health benefits. The survival pathways of Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk), and the tumor suppressor p53 are key modulators of cancer cell growth and survival. In this study, we examined the effects of wine on proliferation and survival of human Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells and its effects on signaling events.
    • Inland

      Serfas, Shawn (Small Walker Press and Salon für Kunstbuch, 2019)
      Shawn Serfas grew up exploring the northern reaches of Saskatchewan’ lakes and river systems Saskatchewan. Although initially drawn to an academic career in the environmental sciences, Serfas pursued Fine Arts and Art History degrees in Saskatchewan as well as a Master of Fine Arts degree at the University of Alberta. His interests include contemporary painting, drawing and printmaking practices. His work echoes a reflection on relational abstraction, environmental aesthetics, the landscape as well as issues bordering abstraction and representation. Serfas is profoundly aware of human intervention on natural resources and of its devastating consequences. His series Inland and Portrait of a Mark appeared in the 2016 exhibition Inland curated by Stuart Reid at the Rodman Hall Art Centre, Brock University, St. Catharines. Richard Fausset was affected by the passage of Hurricane Katrina over New Orleans, Louisiana and its surroundings in 2005. His piece of creative writing investigates how human life impacts nature in a bayou, and vice-versa. Serfas’ artworks and Fausset’s fictional narrative elicit a dialogue between north and south yet offer two distinct reflections on pollution and the insufficiently controlled use of the environment in North America. Shawn Serfas’ most recent exhibitions include Grid Terrain, Gallery MX, Montreal, Quebec, Alloyed Prairie, Bugera Matheson Gallery, Edmonton, Alberta, Portrait of a Mark, SOPA Fine Arts Gallery, Kelowna, British Columbia in 2018; Pseudo-Fiction, (with Catherine Parayre), Alliance Francaise – Galerie Pierre Léon, Toronto, Ontario in 2017; Cleave and Trench, Bugera Matheson Gallery, Edmonton, Alberta in 2016; Dig, Machine Shop Gallery, Algoma University, Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario in 2015; and Out of Sorts, (with William Griffiths), Sopa Fine Arts, Kelowna, British Columbia in 2014.
    • Integrated Analysis of Land Use and Water Quality: Economic, Hydrological and Policy Analysis

      Bateman, Ian (2017)
      Land use and changes in that use play a major role in determining the quality of rivers and lakes. Indeed the effectiveness of water quality management will always be compromised without a clear understanding of land use influences. However, land use is determined by a complex array of drivers including policy (e.g. the EU’s Common Agricultural Policy), market forces (e.g. changes in commodity prices, input costs, etc.), cross-sectional environmental variation (e.g. soil type, rainfall, etc.) and temporal environmental variation (e.g. the effects of climate change such as temperature variance, etc.). While controlling for these drivers the project focuses upon the role of policy making. However, land use policy suffers from systematic inadequacies in that it often focuses upon a single issue (e.g. increasing agricultural production) without considering the indirect effects of such changes (e.g. water pollution). Furthermore, many of these indirect effects occur outside the remit of market values, further impeding their incorporation within decision-making systems.
    • Intentions in Theory and Practice

      Penner, Nina (Oxford University Press, 2018)
      The ‘intentional fallacy’ and pronouncements of the ‘death of the author’ supported the hermeneutical flights of fancy that characterized the ‘New Musicology’ of the 1980s and early 1990s, but mesh less well with more recent New-Historicist impulses. Anti-intentionalism is motivated by a belief in the autonomy of art, a belief most musicologists today reject. Our interest in composers’ working documents and correspondence also conflicts with antiintentionalist methodologies. Due to the diversity of current musicology, no one stance towards interpretation is going to describe all interpretative activities in our field. Nevertheless, for those interested in understanding musical works and performances as the products of human endeavour, I argue that moderate actual intentionalism is the theory that best describes practices directed towards this aim. Its chief advocates—Paisley Livingston, Robert Stecker, and Noël Carroll—are philosophers in the analytic tradition. This article, thus, provides a glimpse of what musicology might gain from taking a greater interest in work in this field.
    • Interaction and knowledge exchange among academic business librarians in Ontario

      Lowry, Linda Darlene (2010-01-06)
      Academic business librarians specialize in the provision of library services to business faculty and students but often assume these roles without an educational background in Business or a familiarity with business information. This study used a two phase multi-method research design (web-based questionnaire followed by interviews) to investigate the communication, information seeking, and continuing professional education (CPE) activities of a population of academic business librarians in Ontario into order to develop a better understanding of how they acquire and share knowledge related to their professional practice and to determine if they constitute a community of practice.
    • International Activities of Canadian Librarians

      Bordonaro, Karen (Canadian Library Association, 2010-12)
      Guest editorial for themed issue on international activities of Canadian librarians.
    • Internationalization in German Academic Libraries: Moving beyond North American Perspectives

      Bordonaro, Karen; Rauchmann, Sabine (Johns Hopkins University Press, 2015-10)
      This paper explores how internationalization is understood and experienced in German academic libraries. Its main purpose is to move the discussion of internationalization in academic libraries beyond the boundaries of English-speaking North America by investigating a European perspective. Its secondary purpose is to investigate the role of English in German academic libraries. An online survey and a series of in-person interviews conducted in Germany in April 2015 provided the data for this study. What emerged are a series of stated differences and similarities between North America and Germany informed by the two overarching themes of implicit internationalization and plurilingualism, the ability to switch from one language to another as required.
    • Interpreting Quantifier Scope Ambiguity: Evidence of Heuristic First, Algorithmic Second Processing

      Dwivedi, Veena D. (PLoS, 2013-11)
      The present work suggests that sentence processing requires both heuristic and algorithmic processing streams, where the heuristic processing strategy precedes the algorithmic phase. This conclusion is based on three self-paced reading experiments in which the processing of two-sentence discourses was investigated, where context sentences exhibited quantifier scope ambiguity. Experiment 1 demonstrates that such sentences are processed in a shallow manner. Experiment 2 uses the same stimuli as Experiment 1 but adds questions to ensure deeper processing. Results indicate that reading times are consistent with a lexical-pragmatic interpretation of number associated with context sentences, but responses to questions are consistent with the algorithmic computation of quantifier scope. Experiment 3 shows the same pattern of results as Experiment 2, despite using stimuli with different lexicalpragmatic biases. These effects suggest that language processing can be superficial, and that deeper processing, which is sensitive to structure, only occurs if required. Implications for recent studies of quantifier scope ambiguity are discussed.