• Group-invariant solutions of semilinear Schrodinger equations in multi-dimensions

      Anco, Stephen C. (AIP Publishing, 2013-12)
      Symmetry group methods are applied to obtain all explicit group-invariant radial solutions to a class of semilinear Schr¨odinger equations in dimensions n = 1. Both focusing and defocusing cases of a power nonlinearity are considered, including the special case of the pseudo-conformal power p = 4/n relevant for critical dynamics. The methods involve, first, reduction of the Schr¨odinger equations to group-invariant semilinear complex 2nd order ordinary differential equations (ODEs) with respect to an optimal set of one-dimensional point symmetry groups, and second, use of inherited symmetries, hidden symmetries, and conditional symmetries to solve each ODE by quadratures. Through Noether’s theorem, all conservation laws arising from these point symmetry groups are listed. Some group-invariant solutions are found to exist for values of n other than just positive integers, and in such cases an alternative two-dimensional form of the Schr¨odinger equations involving an extra modulation term with a parameter m = 2−n = 0 is discussed.
    • Gut Microbiota Mediate Insecticide Resistance in the Diamondback Moth, Plutella xylostella (L.)

      Gurr, Geoff M.; Sun, Botong; Xia, Xiaofeng; Vasseur, Lisette; Xue, Minqian; You, Minsheng (Frontiers Research Foundation, 2018-01-23)
      The development of insecticide resistance in insect pests is a worldwide concern and elucidating the underlying mechanisms is critical for effective crop protection. Recent studies have indicated potential links between insect gut microbiota and insecticide resistance and these may apply to the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), a globally and economically important pest of cruciferous crops. We isolated Enterococcus sp. (Firmicutes), Enterobacter sp. (Proteobacteria), and Serratia sp. (Proteobacteria) from the guts of P. xylostella and analyzed the effects on, and underlying mechanisms of insecticide resistance. Enterococcus sp. enhanced resistance to the widely used insecticide, chlorpyrifos, in P. xylostella, while in contrast, Serratia sp. decreased resistance and Enterobacter sp. and all strains of heat-killed bacteria had no effect. Importantly, the direct degradation of chlorpyrifos in vitro was consistent among the three strains of bacteria. We found that Enterococcus sp., vitamin C, and acetylsalicylic acid enhanced insecticide resistance in P. xylostella and had similar effects on expression of P. xylostella antimicrobial peptides. Expression of cecropin was down-regulated by the two compounds, while gloverin was up-regulated. Bacteria that were not associated with insecticide resistance induced contrasting gene expression profiles to Enterococcus sp. and the compounds. Our studies confirmed that gut bacteria play an important role in P. xylostella insecticide resistance, but the main mechanism is not direct detoxification of insecticides by gut bacteria. We also suggest that the influence of gut bacteria on insecticide resistance may depend on effects on the immune system. Our work advances understanding of the evolution of insecticide resistance in this key pest and highlights directions for research into insecticide resistance in other insect pest species.
    • Have natural lake expansion and landscape inundationresulted in mercury increases in flooded lakes of the GreatSlave Lowlands (Northwest Territories, Canada)?

      Thienpont, Joshua; Perreault, Joelle; Korosi, Jennifer; Pisaric, Michael; Blais, Jules (Springer Netherlands, 2018-11-30)
      The inundation of terrestrial vegetation following landscape flooding is an important potential source of mercury to aquatic ecosystems, and may modify mercury cycling, such as through increased methylation. In the Great Slave Lowlands of Canada’s Northwest Territories, remarkable landscape flooding has occurred over the recent past, which is the most notable in at least the last several centuries. The potential for this flooding to increase inorganic mercury flux to the lakes of the region has not yet been explored. In this study we used sediment cores from five lakes experiencing a range of recently documented lake expansion to test whether inundation of terrestrial areas has increased the total mercury concentrations in sediments, and resulted in increased total mercury flux. Increases in sedimentary mercury concentrations and fluxes in sediment cores from the expanding lakes were relatively small and within the range of non-expanded systems, suggesting that, to date, flooding has not resulted in major total mercury enrichment, unlike in experimental and natural reservoir impoundments. The potential for increased methylation of existing inorganic mercury following expansion was not explored in this paper because methylmercury is dynamic in sediments and does not preserve well, but is an important consideration for future work.
    • High Endemicity of Soil-Transmitted Helminths in a Population Frequently Exposed to Albendazole but No Evidence of Antiparasitic Resistance

      Matamoros, Gabriela; Rueda, Maria Mercedes; Rodriguez, Carol; Gabrie, Jose A; Canales, Maritza; Fontecha, Gustavo; Sanchez, Ana (MDPI, 2019)
      Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) are gastrointestinal parasites widely distributed in tropical and subtropical areas. Mass drug administration (MDA) of benzimidazoles (BZ) is the most recommended for STH control. These drugs have demonstrated limited efficacy against Trichuris trichiura and the long-term use of single-dose BZ has raised concerns of the possible emergence of genetic resistance. The objective of this investigation was to determine whether genetic mutations associated with BZ resistance were present in STH species circulating in an endemic region of Honduras. Methods: A parasitological survey was performed as part of this study, the Kato–Katz technique was used to determine STH prevalence in children of La Hicaca, Honduras. A subgroup of children received anthelminthic treatment in order to recover adult parasite specimens that were analyzed through molecular biology techniques. Genetic regions containing codons 200, 198, and 167 of the β-tubulin gene of Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura were amplified and sequenced. Results: Stool samples were collected from 106 children. The overall STH prevalence was 75.47%, whereby T. trichiura was the most prevalent helminth (56.6%), followed by A. lumbricoides (17%), and hookworms (1.9%). Eighty-five sequences were generated for adjacent regions to codons 167, 198, and 200 of the β-tubulin gene of T. trichiura and A. lumbricoides specimens. The three codons of interest were found to be monomorphic in all the specimens. Conclusion: Although the inability to find single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the small sample analyzed for the present report does not exclude the possibility of their occurrence, these results suggest that, at present, Honduras’s challenges in STH control may not be related to drug resistance but to environmental conditions and/or host factors permitting reinfections.
    • Higher PLIN5 but not PLIN3 content in isolated skeletal muscle mitochondria following acute in vivo contraction in rat hindlimb

      Ramos, Sofhia; MacPherson, Rebecca E. K.; Turnbull, Patrick C; Bott, Kirsten N.; LeBlanc, Paul; Ward, Wendy E.; Peters, Sandra J. (American Physiological Society, 2014-08-22)
      Contraction-mediated lipolysis increases the association of lipid droplets and mitochondria, indicating an important role in the passage of fatty acids from lipid droplets to mitochondria in skeletal muscle. PLIN3 and PLIN5 are of particular interest to the lipid droplet–mitochondria interaction because PLIN3 is able to move about within cells and PLIN5 associates with skeletal muscle mitochondria. This study primarily investigated: 1) if PLIN3 is detected in skeletal muscle mitochondrial fraction; and 2) if mitochondrial protein content of PLIN3 and/or PLIN5 changes following stimulated contraction. A secondary aim was to determine if PLIN3 and PLIN5 associate and whether this changes following contraction. Male Long Evans rats (n = 21;age, 52 days; weight = 317 6 g) underwent 30 min of hindlimb stimulation (10 msec impulses, 100 Hz/3 sec at 10–20 V; train duration 100 msec). Contraction induced a ~50% reduction in intramuscular lipid content measured by oil red-O staining of red gastrocnemius muscle. Mitochondria were isolated from red gastrocnemius muscle by differential centrifugation and proteins were detected by western blotting. Mitochondrial PLIN5 content was ~1.6-fold higher following 30 min of contraction and PLIN3 content was detected in the mitochondrial fraction, and unchanged following contraction. An association between PLIN3 and PLIN5 was observed and remained unaltered following contraction. PLIN5 may play a role in mitochondria during lipolysis, which is consistent with a role in facilitating/regulating mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation. PLIN3 and PLIN5 may be working together on the lipid droplet and mitochondria during contraction-induced lipolysis.
    • Home Care Nursing Visits and Same-Day Emergency Department Use: Which Patients Are Most at Risk?

      Schumacher, Connie; Jones, Aaron; Costa, Andrew P. (Sage Publications, 2020)
      Background Home care patients are a growing group of community-dwelling older adults with complex care needs and high health service use. Adult home care patients are at high risk for emergency department (ED) visits, which is greater on the same day as a nursing visit. The purpose of this study was to examine whether common nursing indicators modified the association between nursing visits and same-day ED visits. Methods A case-crossover design within a retrospective cohort of adult home care patients in Ontario. Results A total of 11,840 home care nursing patients were analyzed. Home care patients who received a home nursing visit were more likely to go the ED after hours on the same day with a stronger association for visits not admitted to the hospital. Having a urinary catheter increased the risk of a same-day ED visit (OR: 1.78 (95% CI 1.15–1.60) vs. 1.21 (95% CI 1.15–1.28)). No other clinical indicator modified the association. The findings of this study can be used to inform care policies and practices for home care nurses in the management of indwelling urinary catheter complications. Further examination of system factors such as capacity and resources available to respond to catheter related complications in the community setting are recommended.
    • Host Plant-Derived miRNAs Potentially Modulate the Development of a Cosmopolitan Insect Pest, Plutella xylostella

      Zhang, Ling-Ling; JIng, Xiao-Dong; Chen, Wei; Wang, Yue; Lin, Jun-Han; Zheng, Ling; Dong, Yu-Hong; Zhou, Li; Li, Fei-Fei; Yang, Fei-Ying; et al. (MDPI, 2019)
      Plant microRNAs (miRNAs) have recently been reported to be involved in the cross-kingdom regulation of specific cellular and physiological processes in animals. However, little of this phenomenon is known for the communication between host plant and insect herbivore. In this study, the plant-derived miRNAs in the hemolymph of a cruciferous specialist were identified by small RNAs sequencing. A total of 39 miRNAs with typical characteristics of plant miRNAs were detected, of which 24 had read counts ≥ 2 in each library. Three plant-derived miRNAs with the highest read counts were validated, and all of them were predicted to target the hemocyanin domains-containing genes of . The luciferase assays in the S2 cell demonstrated that miR159a and novel-7703-5p could target and respectively, possibly in an incomplete complementary pairing mode. We further found that treatment with agomir-7703-5p significantly influenced the pupal development and egg-hatching rate when reared on the artificial...
    • How and where: Theory-of-mind in the brain

      Mahy, Caitlin; Moses, Louis J.; Pfeifer, Jennifer H. (Elsevier, 2014)
      Neuroscience has the potential to address accounts of theory-of-mind acquisition. Review of the research on the neural basis of theory-of-mind in adults and children. Future research directions include microgenetic and training fMRI studies. Theory of mind (ToM) is a core topic in both social neuroscience and developmental psychology, yet theory and data from each field have only minimally constrained thinking in the other. The two fields might be fruitfully integrated, however, if social neuroscientists sought evidence directly relevant to current accounts of ToM development: modularity, simulation, executive, and theory theory accounts. Here we extend the distinct predictions made by each theory to the neural level, describe neuroimaging evidence that in principle would be relevant to testing each account, and discuss such evidence where it exists. We propose that it would be mutually beneficial for both fields if ToM neuroimaging studies focused more on integrating developmental accounts of ToM acquisition with neuroimaging approaches, and suggest ways this might be achieved.
    • How Ecosystem-Based Adaptation to Climate Change Can Help Coastal Communities through a Participatory Approach

      Vasseur, Liette (MDPI, 2021)
      Coastal rural communities worldwide face many challenges not only related to climate change but also extreme events, environmental degradation, population growth or aging, and conflict usage of the ecosystem. Historically, the economies of coastal communities have been based on the exploitation of natural resources, thus shaping its socioeconomic development. This has led to some limitations in the way these communities can now adapt to climate change. In Canada, coastal communities are increasingly dealing with climate change consequences. Sea level rise, coastal erosion, and increasing frequency in storm surges threaten the fragility of both natural and human systems. Various approaches have been used to try to reduce the vulnerability and improve adaptive capacity of communities. One approach, promoted by many organizations including the United Nations, is ecosystem-based adaptation. This approach is part of the series of nature-based solutions that help social–ecological systems become more resilient; by promoting biodiversity conservation and ecosystem services, this approach also relates to principles of community engagement and supports adaptive governance and social inclusion. This paper describes and analyzes these principles and considers strategies for ensuring community engagement. Combining ecosystem-based adaptation with a strong community engagement can enhance the long-term sustainability of the social-ecological system.
    • How executive functions are associated with event-based and time based prospective memory during childhood

      Zuber, Sascha; Mahy, Caitlin; Kliegel, Matthias (Elsevier, 2018)
      Age does not explain prospective memory performance above and beyond executive resources. Updating represents a general resource deployed by different PM tasks. Inhibition is particularly required to perform focal and non-focal event-based tasks. Shifting is specifically deployed by non-focal event-based time-based PM tasks. Time-monitoring is essential to succeed at time-based prospective memory tasks. A key developmental task of childhood is to gain autonomy and independence from parents and caregivers. Critical to this individualization process is the development of prospective memory (PM), the capacity to remember to carry out future intentions. In recent studies, children's PM performance has been associated with executive functions (EF). A closer inspection of the literature, however, suggests a differential impact of the three EF (updating, inhibition, and shifting) across different PM task types. The current study examined EF and PM capacities of 212 6- to 11-year-old children, examining for the first time both focal and non-focal event-based PM tasks as well as a time-based PM task in a single sample. Results show that age-differences did not persist above and beyond age differences in children's executive resources. Specifically, updating predicted children's performance on all PM tasks, inhibition predicted performance on both event-based PM tasks, whereas shifting was specifically deployed by the non-focal event-based task. Supplementary analyses of the time-based PM task illustrate how children monitor the progression of time and how preparatory processes support PM task performance. In sum, the current study presents the first comprehensive look at the specific role of age and three core EF in school-aged children's PM performance.
    • How gaps between target and midcourse grades impact undergraduates’ studying intentions and grade improvements

      MacKenzie, H.F. "Herb"; Armstrong, Michael (John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 2020-10-09)
      We examine how gaps between students’ chosen target grades and actual midcourse grades relate to their exam studying intentions and subsequent grade improvements. We further investigate whether those relationships are moderated by students’ academic ability (as measured by high school averages) and implicit theory of intelligence or mindset (as measured by questionnaire scores). Our study involved 250 undergraduate students in a first-year business course. The study used linear regression to analyze survey responses at the course’s beginning, survey responses near the course’s end, and actual course grades. The analysis showed students had greater studying intentions and grade improvements when midcourse grades were farther below initial target grades. Mindset moderated the relationship between grade gaps and studying intentions, whereas academic ability moderated the relationship between grade gaps and grade improvements. These results enhance our knowledge of how students respond to grade feedback and could help instructors assist students to make better decisions about their studying.
    • How To Fulfil All Our Lending and (Our Patrons’) Borrowing Dreams

      Taves, Adam; Whidden, Linda; Gibson, Ian (Ontario Library Association Super Conference 2020, 2020-01-29)
      Collaborative Futures (CF), a project to implement a shared library system for 14 Ontario universities, is about radical collaboration. The CF Shared Resources Working Group will discuss dreaming big to create, sell, and implement a vision of long and liberal loan policies, minimal fines, and easy cross-consortium borrowing.
    • HUMAN WELL-BEING, ECOSYSTEM SERVICES AND WATERSHED MANAGEMENT

      Bunch, Martin (Canadian Water Network, 2016)
      The Credit River watershed is located in one of the most densely populated regions of Canada and home to some of the most diverse landscapes and ecosystems in southern Ontario. Within all watersheds, especially highly populated ones like the Credit River watershed, environmental health is intrinsically linked to human health. For example, the percentage of canopy cover in a given area is an indicator of human and watershed health; more shade lowers surrounding temperature and helps to reduce rates of heat stress and skin cancer caused by sun exposure. Human health and well-being are greatly impacted by the health and quality of services provided by local ecosystems. This project aimed to make this relationship more clear and to enrich peoples’ understanding of their impacts on nature and, in turn, nature’s impact on their well-being.
    • HUMAN WELL-BEING, ECOSYSTEM SERVICES AND WATERSHED MANAGEMENT

      Bunch, Martin (Canadian Water Network, 2015)
      Human health and well-being are intrinsically linked to ecosystem services. Ecosystem services can be described as “the benefits people obtain from ecosystems,”1 and include lower health care costs, improved water quality or reduced energy costs. For example, the shade and wind-breaking effects created from planting more trees and vegetation can lead to decreased energy use and decreased costs for heating and cooling, as well as a decrease in the severity of floods.2,3,4 Improved air and water quality can lead to a decrease in health care costs due to fewer water-borne illnesses and better respiratory health.5 In Toronto alone, the health perception of planting an additional 10 trees in a city block is equivalent to living in a community with an increase of $10,000 income for every household in that block, and the health benefits are comparable to adding 7 years onto someone’s life.6 It seems that residents’ perception of such improvements in their health is related to the visual and accessible presence of trees (which can reduce stress, improve mood, lower blood pressure, etc.) and the effect that trees have on improving air quality.
    • Human Well-being, Ecosystem Services and Watershed Management in the Credit River Valley: Web-distributed Mechanisms and Indicators for Communication and Awareness

      Bunch, Martin (2015)
      Human health and well-being is fundamentally dependent on services provided by ecosystems. However, the importance of ecosystem services to human well-being, and of managing ecosystem and watershed resources to maintain such services, is not commonly understood by the public, and not well-enough articulated by environmental management and governance organizations. Beneficiaries of such services are often unaware of the nature of their dependence upon supporting ecosystems. This is particularly true in urbanized watersheds. Watershed management organizations are aware of such benefits to watershed residents, but they very rarely track and report measures of human well-being to demonstrate the efficacy of their work. Relationships among environmental determinants of health and well-being are multiple, diffuse and interact in complex non-linear ways that are difficult to parse and isolate. This presents a problem for normal science, which reduces problems to smaller components in attempts to understand them. Without a way to demonstrate and communicate these relationships, the ecosystem services that underpin our health and well-being will continue to be ignored and undermined.
    • Hyperarousal Is Associated with Socioemotional Processing in Individuals with Insomnia Symptoms and Good Sleepers

      Howlett, Reuben D M; Lustig, Kari A; MacDonald, Kevin J; Cote, Kimberly A (MDPI, 2020)
      Despite complaints of difficulties in waking socioemotional functioning by individuals with insomnia, only a few studies have investigated emotion processing performance in this group. Additionally, the role of sleep in socioemotional processing has not been investigated extensively nor using quantitative measures of sleep. Individuals with insomnia symptoms (n = 14) and healthy good sleepers (n = 15) completed two nights of at-home polysomnography, followed by an afternoon of in-lab performance testing on tasks measuring the processing of emotional facial expressions. The insomnia group self-reported less total sleep time, but no other group differences in sleep or task performance were observed. Greater beta EEG power throughout the night was associated with higher intensity ratings of happy, fearful and sad faces for individuals with insomnia, yet blunted sensitivity and lower accuracy for good sleepers. Thus, the presence of hyperarousal differentially impacted socioemotional processing of faces in individuals with insomnia symptoms and good sleepers.
    • I didn't become a worse Librarian when I became a Grad Student

      Ribaric, Tim (2017-05-11)
      Presentation made at code4Lib North 2017 at University of Ottawa. Looks at the process and reflections of continuing education and graduate studies for mature students.
    • I still haven't found what I'm looking for: Reflections on 10+ years of providing library orientation and instruction to a Business English bridging program

      Lowry, Linda Darlene (2017-05-11)
      A librarian's personal reflection on 10 plus years of providing orientation and information literacy instruction to graduate students in a Business English bridging program at Brock University.