• Anticancer Effects of Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) Extract and Rosemary Extract Polyphenols

      Moore, Jessy; Yousef, Michael; Tsiani, Evangelia (Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2016)
      Cancer cells display enhanced growth rates and a resistance to apoptosis. The ability of cancer cells to evade homeostasis and proliferate uncontrollably while avoiding programmed cell death/apoptosis is acquired through mutations to key signaling molecules, which regulate pathways involved in cell proliferation and survival. Compounds of plant origin, including food components, have attracted scientific attention for use as agents for cancer prevention and treatment. The exploration into natural products offers great opportunity to evaluate new anticancer agents as well as understand novel and potentially relevant mechanisms of action. Rosemary extract has been reported to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic and anticancer properties. Rosemary extract contains many polyphenols with carnosic acid and rosmarinic acid found in highest concentrations. The present review summarizes the existing in vitro and in vivo studies focusing on the anticancer effects of rosemary extract and the rosemary extract polyphenols carnosic acid and rosmarinic acid, and their effects on key signaling molecules.
    • Anticancer Properties of Carnosol: A Summary of In Vitro and In Vivo Evidence

      O’Neill, Eric J.; Den Hartogh, Danja J.; Azizi, Karim; Tsiani, Evangeli (MDPI, 2020)
      Cancer is characterized by unrestricted cell proliferation, inhibition of apoptosis, enhanced invasion and migration, and deregulation of signalling cascades. These properties lead to uncontrolled growth, enhanced survival, and the formation of tumours. Carnosol, a naturally occurring phyto-polyphenol (diterpene) found in rosemary, has been studied for its extensive antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer effects. In cancer cells, carnosol has been demonstrated to inhibit cell proliferation and survival, reduce migration and invasion, and significantly enhance apoptosis. These anticancer effects of carnosol are mediated by the inhibition of several signalling molecules including extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), p38, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), Akt, mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Additionally, carnosol prevents the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) and promotes apoptosis, as indicated by increased levels of cleaved caspase-3, -8, -9, increased levels of the pro-apoptotic marker Bcl-2-associated X (BAX), and reduced levels of the anti-apoptotic marker B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2). The current review summarizes the existing in vitro and in vivo evidence examining the anticancer effects of carnosol across various tissues.
    • Antidiabetic Properties of Naringenin: A Citrus Fruit Polyphenol

      Den Hartogh, Danja J.; Tsiani, Evangelia (MDPI, 2019-03-12)
      Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a metabolic disease characterized by insulin resistance and hyperglycemia and is associated with personal health and global economic burdens. Current strategies/approaches of insulin resistance and T2DM prevention and treatment are lacking in efficacy resulting in the need for new preventative and targeted therapies. In recent years, epidemiological studies have suggested that diets rich in vegetables and fruits are associated with health benefits including protection against insulin resistance and T2DM. Naringenin, a citrus flavanone, has been reported to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, immunomodulatory and antidiabetic properties. The current review summarizes the existing in vitro and in vivo animal studies examining the anti-diabetic effects of naringenin
    • Appliquer l’analyse de la résilience à un réseau hydrographique transfrontalier : le développement de substituts pour la gouvernance

      Plummer, Ryan (2015)
      L’incertitude et la complexité ont favorisé une évolution vers la perspective des systèmes adaptatifs complexes. La résilience socioécologique s’intéresse, conceptuellement, à la quantité de changement qu’un système peut supporter, au degré d’auto-organisation possible et à la capacité d’apprentissage et d’adaptation. La compréhension des seuils et les changements de régime sont essentiels pour l’adaptabilité et les transformations. D’un point de vue méthodologique, l’analyse et la mesure de la résilience faisaient appel à des trajectoires ou cadres pour la modélisation du système à l’étude et pour le développement de substituts de la résilience. L’application de la résilience et de ses processus analytiques a été principalement développée pour les écosystèmes. L’application de la résilience au monde social est originale et exige des considérations additionnelles. Il est donc possible de se concentrer sur des aspects de la gouvernance et de prendre appui sur les travaux antérieurs abordant la résilience de réseaux hydrographiques.
    • Applying Resilience Analysis to a Transboundary River System: Developing Surrogates for Governance

      Plummer, Ryan (2015)
      Uncertainty and complexity has prompted movement towards a complex adaptive systems viewpoint. Social-ecological resilience is conceptually concerned with the amount of change a system can withstand, the degree of self-organization possible, and the ability to learn and adapt. Understanding thresholds and regimes shifts are critical to adaptability and transformations. Methodologically, resilience analysis and measurement has involved pathways or frameworks for modeling the system of interest and developing resilience surrogates. Application of resilience and its analytical processes have primarily been developed for ecosystems. Application of resilience to the social world is unique and requires additional considerations. An opportunity thus exists to focus on aspects of governance and to build upon initial works addressing the resilience of river systems.
    • Arbitration using the closest offer principle of arbitrator behaviour

      Armstrong, Michael J.; Hurley, William J. (Elsevier, 2002)
      In this paper we introduce a model of arbitration decision making which generalizes several previous models of both conventional arbitration and final offer arbitration. We derive the equilibrium offers that risk neutral disputants would propose, and show how these offers would vary under different arbitration procedures. In particular, we show that optimal offers made under conventional arbitration will always be more extreme than those made under final offer arbitration.
    • Are we walking the talk? Tensions between librarians' values, academic freedom and open scholarship

      Yates, Elizabeth (2019-06)
      Open access - the practice of freely sharing scholarly outputs online -- is steadily garnering support across the research community. At academic institutions, libraries are usually the standard-bearers for this trend, advancing open scholarship by providing services, infrastructure and funding - for example, employing scholarly communication experts, operating institutional repositories, and funding open access publication costs. This investment in personnel and resources reflects a shared priority of advancing more equitable systems for creating and sharing knowledge. Our professional organizations publicly espouse these values and engage in advocacy to advance open access projects and uptake. At an institutional level, library workers often lead the development of campus open access policies which encourage or commit researchers to publicly share their work. In Canada, nine academic institutions and ten libraries/librarian councils have adopted open access policies. Despite this wealth of activity and public professions of support for open scholarship, it is unclear whether academic librarians in Canada actually practice what we preach. Most of the open access statements/policies adopted by libraries merely encourage workers to make their scholarship freely available. Anecdotal evidence indicates a minority of us are actually archiving our work in institutional repositories or publishing in open access journals. This paper will provide preliminary results from a survey exploring how Canadian academic librarians’ professional, personal and collective values impact our publishing practices. In particular, results from this study will indicate how academic freedom provisions -- articulated in collective agreements, institutional policies and by professional organizations including CAPAL and CAUT -- may affect whether we choose to support open access with our words and actions. Academic freedom is usually appreciated as a protective measure, guarding librarians and faculty against repercussions for work or speech which may be viewed as controversial. Independently choosing how to disseminate research is often a key tenet of academic freedom policies. Accordingly, librarians may experience tension between our personal/professional support for the principle of open access and our will to exert academic freedom and publish where we please – including closed-access venues. This discordance not only affects our own scholarly practices but should also be acknowledged within librarians’ continuing efforts to encourage faculty to embrace open access.
    • Are Yellow Sticky Cards and Light Traps Effective on Tea Green Leafhoppers and Their Predators in Chinese Tea Plantations?

      Shi, Longqing; He, Haifang; Yang, Guang; Huang, Huoshui; Vasseur, Liette; You, Min-Sheng (MDPI, 2020)
      In Chinese tea plantations, yellow sticky cards and light traps are increasingly used to control insect pests, especially the tea green leafhopper . In this study, a 16-week open-field experiment with daily weather monitoring was designed to test the responses of tea green leafhopper, parasitoids and spiders to yellow sticky cards and three light traps with different wavelengths (covered with sticky cards). An exclosure experiment was also designed to further test the influence of the three light systems (without sticky card) on the same species. The results showed that all three light emitting diode (LED) light traps (white, green and yellow) and yellow sticky cards attracted many more male adults than females during the course of the open field experiment, with less than 25% of trapped adults being females. Parasitoids and spiders were also attracted by these systems. Weather variables, especially rainfall, influenced the trapping efficiency. In the exclosure experiment, the population of leafhoppers in the yellow sticky card treatment did not decline significantly, but the number of spiders significantly decreased. The green and white light treatments without sticky cards showed a significant control of and no obvious harm to spiders. These results suggest that yellow sticky cards and light traps have limited capacity to control tea green leafhoppers. However, light, especially green light, may be a promising population control measure for tea green leafhoppers, not as killing agents in the traps, but rather as a behavioral control system.
    • Aspects des mécanismes de répartition de l’eau relevant de la justice sociale

      Bjornlund, Henning (2015)
      L’eau est rare dans le sud de l’Alberta, et pourrait le devenir encore plus selon les prévisions relatives aux changements climatiques. Il existe une pression croissante pour laisser plus d’eau dans les cours d’eau à des fins environnementales, ce qui aura pour effet d’accroître la rareté de l’eau pour les utilisateurs de l’industrie extractive. Il est également urgent de trouver des mécanismes d’attribution et de réattribution de l’eau entre utilisations concurrentes, à savoir l’environnement et l’industrie extractive. L’atteinte de ces objectifs au sein des collectivités actuelles tributaires de l’eau ne se fera pas sans diverses répercussions socioéconomiques. L’ampleur des répercussions dépendra des choix politiques, de l’acceptabilité de ces politiques pour les intervenants, des réactions à ces politiques des utilisateurs de l’eau et de la capacité des utilisateurs actuels à se satisfaire d’une moins grande quantité d’eau. Le projet étudie ces questions.
    • Assemblages Symposium - Leanne Simpson, Rinaldo Walcott and Glen Coulthard

      Dr. Leanne Simpson and Dr. Rinaldo Walcott discuss Idle No More and Black Lives Matter at the Global Movement Assemblages Symposium with Glen Coulthard as a respondent. The Global Movement Assemblages Symposium was held on October 13-15, 2016 by the Social Justice Research Institute at Brock University.
    • Assessing Policies to Improve Water Quality in Agricultural Landscapes

      Weersink, Alfons (2015)
      Prince Edward Island (PEI) has a unique ecological and economic dependence on water quality, which is affected directly by the agricultural systems used. PEI residents rely solely on groundwater as its source of drinking water, and groundwater contributes approximately 70% to surface waters such as streams, rivers, and estuaries. The reliance on the quality of groundwater in PEI by ecosystems and residents coexists within an intensive agricultural sector that is economically important to the province. Potatoes are grown on over 40% of the 1.4 million acre land base and the crop generates over 75% of the total cash receipts from this cropland. The heavy reliance of nitrogen for this high-value crop grown on the sandy soils of PEI has resulted in significant groundwater nitrate contamination. While the problem of excess nitrates and water quality has attracted the attention of hydrogeologists and agronomists to research the impact of agricultural land management practices on nitrate leachate using hydrologic modelling techniques, little economic analyses on the BMPs to alleviate the problem have been conducted.

      Weersink, Alfons (Canadian Water Network, 2017)
      Agricultural activities depend on applications of nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium to soils. However, these nutrients may leach into groundwater or run off into surface water, with a detrimental effect on water quality in the watershed. Location-specific knowledge about the costs of beneficial management practices (BMPs) and how farmers make nutrient management decisions are needed to develop and implement effective water quality policies, programs and incentives. This information is important for federal and provincial governments, conservation authorities, environmental non-governmental organizations, farmers and others concerned with nutrient loading to surface waters.

      Weersink, Alfons (Canadian Water Network, 2016)
      In this report, the term “nitrate” refers to nitrate-nitrogen (NO3--N). Agricultural production depends on nutrient applications that supplement nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium to soils. However, residual nutrients from these applications may run off into surface water and cause eutrophication and algae blooms, or leach into groundwater and cause contamination. Excessive levels of nitrates in drinking water have also been linked to methaemoglobinaemia, or blue baby syndrome.1 Land and nutrient management policies and programs - which can be championed by governments and local watershed associations, conservation authorities and other
    • Association of Functional Screening Tests and Noncontact Injuries in Division I Women Student-Athletes

      Warren, Meghan; Lininger, Monica R.; Smith, Craig A.; Copp, Adam J.; Chimera, Nicole J. (Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, 2020)
      To determine the association between functional screening tests and lower-body, noncontact injuries in Division I women basketball, soccer, and volleyball student-athletes (SA). Sixty-eight injury-free women SA (age19.1 ± 1.1 years, height171.3 ± 8.7 cm, and mass68.4 ± 9.5 kg) were tested preseason with single hop (SH), triple hop (TH), and crossover hop (XH) for distance, and isometric hip strength (abduction, extension, and external rotation) in randomized order. The first lower-body (spine and lower extremity), noncontact injury requiring intervention by the athletic trainer was abstracted from the electronic medical record. Receiver operating characteristic and area under the curve (AUC) were calculated to determine cut-points for each hopping test from the absolute value of between-limb difference. Body mass–adjusted strength was categorized into tertiles. Logistic regression determined the odds of injury with each functional screening test using the hopping tests cut-points and strength categories, adjusting for previous injury. Fifty-two SA were injured during the sport season. The cut-point for SH was 4 cm (sensitivity = 0.77, specificity = 0.43, and AUC = 0.53), and for TH and XH was 12 cm (sensitivity = 0.75 and 0.67, specificity = 0.71 and 0.57, AUC = 0.59 and 0.41, respectively). A statistically significant association with TH and injuries (adjusted odds ratio = 6.50 [95% confidence interval1.69–25.04]) was found. No significant overall association was found with SH or XH, nor with the strength tests. Using a clinically relevant injury definition, the TH showed the strongest predictive ability for noncontact injuries. This hopping test may be a clinically useful tool to help identify increased risk of injury in women SA participating in high-risk sports.
    • The Association of Sleep Disorder, Obesity Status, and Diabetes Mellitus among US Adults—The NHANES 2009-2010 Survey Results

      Liu, Jian; Hay, John; Faught, Brent E. (Hindawi, 2013-06-26)
      To examine the association between sleep disorders, obesity status, and the risk of diabetes in adults, a total of 3668 individuals aged 40+ years fromtheNHANES 2009-2010 withoutmissing information on sleep-related questions,measurements related to diabetes, and BMI were included in this analysis. Subjects were categorized into three sleep groups based on two sleep questions: (a) no sleep problems; (b) sleep disturbance; and (c) sleep disorder. Diabetes was defined as having one of a diagnosis from a physician; an overnight fasting glucose > 125 mg/dL; Glycohemoglobin > 6.4%; or an oral glucose tolerance test > 199mg/dL. Overall, 19% of subjects were diabetics, 37% were obese, and 32% had either sleep disturbance or sleep disorder. Using multiple logistic regression models adjusting for covariates without including BMI, the odds ratios (OR, (95% CI)) of diabetes were 1.40 (1.06, 1.84) and 2.04 (1.40, 2.95) for those with sleep disturbance and with sleep disorder, respectively. When further adjusting for BMI, the ORs were similar for those with sleep disturbance 1.36 (1.06, 1.73) but greatly attenuated for those with sleep disorders (1.38 [0.95, 2.00]). In conclusion, the impact of sleep disorders on diabetes may be explained through the individuals’ obesity status.
    • Asymmetries of Influence: Differential Effects of Body Postures on Perceptions of Emotional Facial Expressions

      Mondloch, Catherine J. (PLoS, 2013-09-10)
      The accuracy and speed with which emotional facial expressions are identified is influenced by body postures. Two influential models predict that these congruency effects will be largest when the emotion displayed in the face is similar to that displayed in the body: the emotional seed model and the dimensional model. These models differ in whether similarity is based on physical characteristics or underlying dimensions of valence and arousal. Using a 3- alternative forced-choice task in which stimuli were presented briefly (Exp 1a) or for an unlimited time (Exp 1b) we provide evidence that congruency effects are more complex than either model predicts; the effects are asymmetrical and cannot be accounted for by similarity alone. Fearful postures are especially influential when paired with facial expressions, but not when presented in a flanker task (Exp 2). We suggest refinements to each model that may account for our results and suggest that additional studies be conducted prior to drawing strong theoretical conclusions.
    • Attentional biases and recognition accuracy: What happens when multiple own- and other-race faces are encountered simultaneously?

      Semplonius, Thalia; Mondloch, Catherine J. (Sage Publications, 2015)
      Adults recognize own-race faces more accurately than other-race faces. We investigated three characteristics of laboratory investigations hypothesized to minimize the magnitude of the own-race recognition advantage (ORA): lack of competition for attention and instructions that emphasize individuating faces during the study phase, and a lack of uncertainty during the test phase. Across two experiments, participants studied faces individually, in arrays comprising multiple faces and household objects, or in naturalistic scenes (presented on an eye-tracker); they were instructed to remember everything, memorize faces, or form impressions of people. They then completed one of two recognition tasks--an old/new recognition task or a lineup recognition task. Task instructions influenced time spent looking at faces but not the allocation of attention to own- versus other-race faces. The magnitude of the ORA was independent of both task instructions and test protocol, with some modulation by how faces were presented in the study phase. We discuss these results in light of current theories of the ORA. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
    • Attractiveness Judgments and Discrimination of Mommies and Grandmas: Perceptual Tuning for Young Adult Faces

      Short, Lindsey A.; Mondloch, Catherine J.; Hackland, Anne T. (Elsevier Ltd, 2015-01)
      Highlights •3- and 7-year-olds judged young and older face pairs: one normal and one distorted.•Attractiveness judgments (referencing a norm) were more accurate for young faces.•Performance on a match-to-sample task was also more accurate for young faces.•Our results have implications for how face space becomes optimized for young faces.•We discuss implications for domain-general vs. domain-specific development.
    • Au-delà de la réalité physique : répercussions de la réglementation des eaux sur les collectivités des Premières Nations

      Bharadwaj, Lalita (2015)
      Le nombre accru de maisons de campagne sur le territoire de la Première Nation Dakota de Standing Buffalo exerce des pressions croissantes sur ses ressources en eau, sur l’évacuation de ses eaux usées vers le réseau hydrographique, ainsi que sur la gestion des barrages Qu’Appelle et Gardiner, ce qui modifie les débits et niveaux d’eau et entraîne une augmentation des inondations. Au moment où le projet a été lancé, la collectivité était très préoccupée par les répercussions éventuelles d’une proposition présentée par une société minière multinationale qui souhaitait prélever de l’eau du lac Katepwa dans le cadre de ses activités d’exploitation de gisements de potasse. La collectivité craignait que cela ait des incidences sur la qualité et le niveau de l’eau, ainsi que sur ses activités traditionnelles et culturelles ayant trait à l’eau. Les premières réunions avec le chef et le conseil de bande ont également fait ressortir les risques que comportent les inondations saisonnières pour la sécurité publique, les maisons et les infrastructures essentielles, ainsi que les pressions considérables sur les ressources de la bande que représente la mise en place de mesures d’urgence. Peu de temps après le début du projet de recherche, la société minière a renoncé à sa proposition de prélèvement d’eau. Toutefois, la bande de Standing Buffalo souhaitait tout de même explorer la signification de l’eau pour sa collectivité, ainsi que l’importance et la valeur que revêt cette ressource (et le milieu naturel environnant) pour sa culture et ses traditions. De par son emplacement géographique, la réserve est exposée à des répercussions permanentes et croissantes relatives à l’eau, imputables à la fois à des changements anthropiques et naturels de l’environnement