• Extraterrestrial Human Geographies

      Whipple, Heather (2013-06)
      In 2007, Fraser MacDonald put out a call for human geographers to get involved in space studies research, given the ways that geopolitical systems on Earth are likely to affect the future uses of outer space by those groups that can access it. Hoping to jumpstart a critical geography of outer space, MacDonald argues that human geography’s advances in analysing the concept of space as socially produced, as a system or network of interrelationships, and as an arena for social justice, make human geography particularly able to engage with concerns relating to current and future human activities beyond our home planet. By examining how human geographers have already engaged with outer space and then looking more closely at how geographical theories of place intersect with a selection of representations of human engagement with outer space, this project extends MacDonald’s foundation to be a launch pad for continued research into the cultural geographies of extraterrestrial spaces.
    • Étude intégrée de l’utilisation des terres et de la qualité de l’eau : analyses économique, hydrologique et politique

      Bateman, Ian (2017)
      L’utilisation des terres et les changements afférents jouent un rôle majeur dans la détermination de la qualité de l’eau dans les rivières et les lacs. En effet, sans une compréhension claire des répercussions de l’utilisation des terres, l’efficacité de la gestion de la qualité de l’eau sera toujours compromise. Cependant, l’utilisation des terres repose sur un ensemble complexe de facteurs, notamment les politiques (p. ex. la politique agricole commune de l’UE), les forces du marché (p. ex. les changements dans le prix des matières premières, le coût des intrants), les variations environnementales transversales (le type de sol, les précipitations, etc.) et temporelles (les effets des changements climatiques tels que la variance de la température, etc.). Tout en tenant compte de ces facteurs, le projet met l’accent sur le rôle que revêt l’élaboration de politiques. Cependant, les politiques en matière d’utilisation des terres souffrent d’insuffisances systématiques en ce sens qu’elles se concentrent souvent sur un seul problème (p. ex. l’augmentation de la production agricole) sans tenir compte des effets indirects de ces changements (p. ex. la pollution des eaux). En outre, bon nombre de ces répercussions se produisent en dehors du domaine des valeurs marchandes, ce qui entrave davantage leur incorporation dans les systèmes de prise de décisions.
    • Évaluation des approches collaboratives en matière de gouvernance de la répartition de l’eau au Canada : leçons provenant de l’Ontario

      De loe, Rob (2015)
      Les approches concertées en matière de gouvernance de l’environnement sont devenues monnaie courante dans le monde occidental. Au Canada, toutes les administrations ont recours à diverses formes de collaboration pour aborder les enjeux de l’eau. À quelques exceptions près, les processus collaboratifs permettent de régler, en totalité ou en partie, les problèmes existant dans les zones rurales. C’est pourquoi le secteur agricole est un participant essentiel. C’est certainement le cas en Ontario, en particulier dans les processus de collaboration conçus pour gérer les niveaux d’eau insuffisants et la sécheresse. Cette recherche a pour objectif d’évaluer l’efficacité et la pertinence des approches de collaboration visant à gérer les manques d’eau et les demandes d’eau concurrentes. La Province de l’Ontario a fourni le cadre institutionnel de l’étude. Nous étions particulièrement intéressés par la mesure dans laquelle la collaboration offre une base efficace et appropriée pour le partage de l’eau dans des situations où l’agriculture en est un utilisateur de premier plan. Cela nous a amenés à nous concentrer sur le Programme d’intervention en matière de ressources en eau de l’Ontario. C’est principalement par le biais de ce programme que la province traite les pénuries d’eau et les sécheresses. Le fonctionnement et l’efficacité du programme ont déjà été étudiés dans leur ensemble, mais on n’avait alors que peu ou pas cherché à comprendre la mesure dans laquelle la collaboration avait donné des résultats entérinés par le gouvernement provincial. Il s’agit d’un sujet de préoccupation particulièrement important parce que la Province de l’Ontario, par le biais du ministère de l’Environnement (et de l’Action en matière de changement climatique) de l’Ontario détient le pouvoir ultime de gérer les pénuries d’eau par le biais de son Programme de réglementation des prélèvements d’eau. Des expériences dans le monde entier ont prouvé que le non-respect des résultats des processus collaboratifs compromet leur efficacité et mène à un mécontentement considérable. En outre, la province demeure responsable sur le plan de la légitimité démocratique. Toutes les administrations essaient de résoudre les divergences entre ces deux objectifs.
    • Évaluation des politiques en vue d’améliorer la qualité de l’eau dans les paysages agricoles

      Weersink, Alfons (2015)
      L’Île-du-Prince-Édouard (Î.-P.-É.) présente une dépendance écologique et économique unique envers la qualité de l’eau, qui est affectée directement par les systèmes agricoles. Les résidents de l’île tirent leur eau potable uniquement de l’eau souterraine, et cette dernière contribue à hauteur d’environ 70 % aux eaux de surface comme les ruisseaux, les rivières et les estuaires. La dépendance des écosystèmes et des résidents de l’Î.-P.-É. envers la qualité de l’eau souterraine coexiste avec un secteur agricole intensif qui revêt une grande importance pour l’économie de la province. La pomme de terre est cultivée sur plus de 40 % des 1,4 million d’acres (567 000 hectares) de terres cultivables, et cette denrée génère plus de 75 % des recettes totales provenant de cette terre cultivée. Le recours massif à l’azote pour produire ces cultures à valeur élevée sur les sols sablonneux de l’Î.-P.-É. a entraîné une importante contamination de l’eau souterraine par le nitrate. Bien que le problème des nitrates excessifs et de la qualité de l’eau ait incité des hydrogéologues et des agronomes à étudier l’impact des pratiques de gestion du territoire agricole sur les lixiviats de nitrate au moyen de techniques de modélisation hydrologique, les chercheurs ont effectué peu d’analyses économiques sur les meilleures pratiques de gestion visant à aborder le problème
    • Facing Aggression: Cues Differ for Female versus Male Faces

      Geniole, Shawn N.; Keyes, Amanda E.; Mondloch, Catherine J.; Carre, Justin M.; McCormick, Cheryl M. (PloS, 2012-01-20)
      The facial width-to-height ratio (face ratio), is a sexually dimorphic metric associated with actual aggression in men and with observers’ judgements of aggression in male faces. Here, we sought to determine if observers’ judgements of aggression were associated with the face ratio in female faces. In three studies, participants rated photographs of female and male faces on aggression, femininity, masculinity, attractiveness, and nurturing. In Studies 1 and 2, for female and male faces, judgements of aggression were associated with the face ratio even when other cues in the face related to masculinity were controlled statistically. Nevertheless, correlations between the face ratio and judgements of aggression were smaller for female than for male faces (F1,36= 7.43, p= 0.01). In Study 1, there was no significant relationship between judgements of femininity and of aggression in female faces. In Study 2, the association between judgements of masculinity and aggression was weaker in female faces than for male faces in Study 1. The weaker association in female faces may be because aggression and masculinity are stereotypically male traits. Thus, in Study 3, observers rated faces on nurturing (a stereotypically female trait) and on femininity. Judgements of nurturing were associated with femininity (positively) and masculinity (negatively) ratings in both female and male faces. In summary, the perception of aggression differs in female versus male faces. The sex difference was not simply because aggression is a gendered construct; the relationships between masculinity/femininity and nurturing were similar for male and female faces even though nurturing is also a gendered construct. Masculinity and femininity ratings are not associated with aggression ratings nor with the face ratio for female faces. In contrast, all four variables are highly inter-correlated in male faces, likely because these cues in male faces serve as ‘‘honest signals’’.
    • Facing Aggression: Cues Differ for Female versus Male Faces

      Geniole, Shawn N; Keyes, Amanda E; Mondloch, Catherine J; Carré, Justin M; McCormick, Cheryl M (2012)
      The facial width-to-height ratio (face ratio), is a sexually dimorphic metric associated with actual aggression in men and with observers’ judgements of aggression in male faces. Here, we sought to determine if observers’ judgements of aggression were associated with the face ratio in female faces. In three studies, participants rated photographs of female and male faces on aggression, femininity, masculinity, attractiveness, and nurturing. In Studies 1 and 2, for female and male faces, judgements of aggression were associated with the face ratio even when other cues in the face related to masculinity were controlled statistically. Nevertheless, correlations between the face ratio and judgements of aggression were smaller for female than for male faces (F1,36 = 7.43, p = 0.01). In Study 1, there was no significant relationship between judgements of femininity and of aggression in female faces. In Study 2, the association between judgements of masculinity and aggression was weaker in female faces than for male faces in Study 1. The weaker association in female faces may be because aggression and masculinity are stereotypically male traits. Thus, in Study 3, observers rated faces on nurturing (a stereotypically female trait) and on femininity. Judgements of nurturing were associated with femininity (positively) and masculinity (negatively) ratings in both female and male faces. In summary, the perception of aggression differs in female versus male faces. The sex difference was not simply because aggression is a gendered construct; the relationships between masculinity/femininity and nurturing were similar for male and female faces even though nurturing is also a gendered construct. Masculinity and femininity ratings are not associated with aggression ratings nor with the face ratio for female faces. In contrast, all four variables are highly inter-correlated in male faces, likely because these cues in male faces serve as ‘‘honest signals’’.
    • Fair Copyright for Canada: Lessons for Online Social Movements from the First Canadian Facebook Uprising

      Haggart, Blayne (Cambridge University Press, 2013-12)
      Despite their growing importance, the political effectiveness of social media remains understudied. Drawing on and updating resource mobilization theory and political process theory, this article considers how social media make “political engagement more probable,” and the determinants of success for online social movements. It does so by examining the mainstreaming of the Canadian “user rights” copyright movement, focusing on the Fair Copyright for Canada Facebook page, created in December 2007. This decentralized, grassroots, social media-focused action – the first successful campaign of its kind in Canada and one of the first in the world – changed the terms of the Canadian copyright debate and legitimized Canadian user rights. As this case demonstrates, social media have changed the type and amount of resources needed to create and sustain social movements, creating openings for new groups and interests. Their success, however, remains dependent on the political context within which they operate.
    • False polarization: debiasing as applied social epistemology

      Kenyon, Tim (Springer, 2014-03-10)
      False polarization (FP) is an interpersonal bias on judgement, the effect of which is to lead people in contexts of disagreement to overestimate the differences between their respective views. I propose to treat FP as a problem of applied social epistemology—a barrier to reliable belief-formation in certain social domains—and to ask how best one may debias for FP. This inquiry leads more generally into questions about effective debiasing strategies; on this front, considerable empirical evidence suggests that intuitively attractive strategies for debiasing are not very effective, while more effective strategies are neither intuitive nor likely to be easily implemented. The supports for more effective debiasing seem either to be inherently social and cooperative, or at least to presuppose social efforts to create physical or decision making infrastructure for mitigating bias. The upshot, I argue, is that becoming a less biased epistemic agent is a thoroughly socialized project.
    • Family as a health promotion setting: A scoping review of conceptual models of the health-promoting family

      Pilato, Kelly A.; Davison, Colleen M. (2021-04-12)
      Background The family is a key setting for health promotion. Contemporary health promoting family models can establish scaffolds for shaping health behaviors and can be useful tools for education and health promotion. Objectives The objective of this scoping review is to provide details as to how conceptual and theoretical models of the health promoting potential of the family are being used in health promotion contexts. Design Guided by PRISMA ScR guidelines, we used a three-step search strategy to find relevant papers. This included key-word searching electronic databases (Medline, PSycINFO, Embase, and CINAHL), searching the reference lists of included studies, and intentionally searching for grey literature (in textbooks, dissertations, thesis manuscripts and reports.) Results After applying inclusion and exclusion criteria, the overall search generated 113 included manuscripts/chapters with 118 unique models. Through our analysis of these models, three main themes were apparent: 1) ecological factors are central components to most models or conceptual frameworks; 2) models were attentive to cultural and other diversities, allowing room for a wide range of differences across family types, and for different and ever-expanding social norms and roles; and 3) the role of the child as a passive recipient of their health journey rather than as an active agent in promoting their own family health was highlighted as an important gap in many of the identified models. Conclusions This review contributes a synthesis of contemporary literature in this area and supports the priority of ecological frameworks and diversity of family contexts. It encourages researchers, practitioners and family stakeholders to recognize the value of the child as an active agent in shaping the health promoting potential of their family context.
    • Fast Professors, Research Funding, and the Figured Worlds of Mid-Career Ontario Academics

      Acker, Sandra; McGinn, Michelle K. (Brock University, 2021-07-15)
      Heightened pressures to publish prolifically and secure external funding stand in stark contrast to the slow scholarship movement. This article explores ways in which research funding expectations permeate the “figured worlds” of 16 mid-career academics in education, social work, sociology, and geography in seven universities in Ontario, Canada. Participants demonstrated a steady record of research accomplishment and a commitment to social justice in their work. The analysis identified three themes related to the competing pressures these academics described in their day-to-day lives: funding, challenges, and the fast professor. Participants spoke about their research funding achievements and struggles. In some cases, they explained how their positioning, including gender and race, might have affected their research production, compared to colleagues positioned differently. Their social justice research is funded, but some suspect at a lower level than colleagues studying conventional topics. Challenges might be located in the backstage (personal and home lives) or the frontstage (university or funding agency policies or embedded in the research itself). In aiming for the impossible standards of a continuously successful research record, these individuals worked “all the time.” Advocates claim that slow scholarship is not really about going slower but rather about maintaining quality and caring in one’s work; yet, participants’ accounts suggest they perceive few options other than to perform as “fast professors.” At mid-career, they question whether and how they can keep up this aspect of their figured worlds for 20 or more years.
    • First evidence of the mutations associated with pyrethroid resistance in head lice (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae) from Honduras

      Larkin, Kelsey; Rodriguez, Carol A.; Jamani, Shabana; Fronza, Georgina; Roca‑Acevedo, Gonzalo; Sanchez, Ana; Toloza, Ariel C (BMC, 2020)
      The human head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis, is a cosmopolitan blood-sucking ectoparasite affecting mostly schoolchildren in both developed and developing countries. In Honduras, chemical pediculicides are the first line of treatment, with permethrin as their main active ingredient. Despite the extended use of these products, there is currently no research investigating insecticide resistance in Honduran head lice. In head lice, the most common mechanism is knockdown resistance (kdr), which is the result of two point mutations and the associated amino acid substitutions, T917I and L920F, within the voltage-sensitive sodium channel (VSSC). METHODSGenomic DNA was extracted from 83 head lice collected in the localities of San Buenaventura and La Hicaca, Honduras. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to amplify a 332-bp fragment of the VSSC gene that contains a site affected by C/T mutation which results in a T917I amino acid substitution on each human head louse genomic DNA fragments. RESULTSThe C/T non-synonymous mutation which results in the T917I kdr amino acid substitution was detected in both head lice populations at frequencies ranging between 0.45-0.5. Globally, the frequency of this substitution was 0.47. Of these, 5 (6.1%) were homozygous susceptible and 78 (93.9%) were heterozygotes. The kdr-resistant homozygote (RR) was not detected in the studied populations. Thus, 93.9% of the head lice collected in Honduras harbored only one T917I allele. Exact test for the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for both localities showed that genotype frequencies differed significantly from expectation. In addition, San Buenaventura and La Hicaca populations had an inbreeding coefficient (Fis) < 0, suggesting an excess of heterozygotes. CONCLUSIONSTo our knowledge, this is the first study showing the presence of the C/T mutation responsible of the T917I kdr allele associated with pyrethroid resistance in P. h. capitis from Honduras. The PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) employed here has demonstrated to be a reliable, economic, and reproducible assay that can be used to accurately genotype individual head lice for the mutation encoding the resistance-conferring T917I amino acid substitution. This highlights the necessity of proactive resistance management programmes designed to detect pyrethroid mutations before they become established within populations of head lice.
    • Foraging gene expression patterns in queens, workers, and males in a eusocial insect

      Awde, David N.; Skandalis, Adonis; Richards, Miriam (NRC Research Press, 2021)
      Reproductive division of labour is based on biased expression of complementary parental behaviours, brood production (egg-laying) by queens and brood care (in particular, brood provisioning) by workers. In many social insect species, queens provision brood when establishing colonies at the beginning of a breeding season and reproductive division of labour begins with the emergence of workers. In many social insect species, the expression of foraging (for) mRNA is associated with the intensity of foraging behaviour, and therefore brood provisioning. However, only two studies have compared queen and worker for expression levels, and neither accounted for transcript splice variation. In this study, we compare the expression level of the for-α transcript variant across four life stages of the queen caste, two behavioural groups of workers, and males of a eusocial sweat bee Lasioglossum laevissimum (Smith, 1853). Foundresses collected prior to the onset of the foraging season and males had the highest for-α expression levels. All active (post-hibernatory) queens and workers had similar for-α expression levels independent of behaviour. These results suggest that the for gene in L. laevissium acts as a primer before foraging activity, and that caste-specific expression patterns correlate with the timing of foraging activity in queens and workers.
    • Forests, fire histories, and futures of Columbian and Rocky Mountain forests, western Canada

      Davis, Emma; Courtney Mustaphi, Colin; Pisaric, Michael (Western Division, Canadian Association of Geographers, 2018-10-17)
      Throughout the past few decades, shifting perspectives on fire management have led to the recognition that disturbance by fire is critical in maintaining ecological resilience in fire-adapted forests and grasslands. Long-term fire histories provide important information for land and resource managers seeking to understand the controls on wildfire dynamicsin western North America. In this paper we summarize fire history research that has recently been undertaken in the Canadian Cordillera. Using proxy records to reconstruct fire activity and vegetation change, these studies shared the overarching goal of identifying factors that control long-term fire regimes.A further aim was to identify how human activity has measurably altered various aspects of fire regimes. Looking to the future, these studies highlight the need to continue integrating information about local fire regimes and historical land-use activities when developing responsible fire and resource management strategies and identifying conservation priorities.
    • Foreword Podcast - S1E1 Viking Culture

      Innes, Alison; McDonald, Andrew; Somerville, Angus (Brock University, Faculty of Humanities, 2020-07-01)
      What image comes to mind when you hear the word Vikings? A violent warrior society, raiding and pillaging? A seafaring people trading and migrating across vast distances of the North Atlantic? Vikings have a hold on the popular imagination, but new directions in Norse studies might just challenge our preconceptions of who and what the Vikings were. We spoke with professors Andrew McDonald and Angus Somerville from Brock University's Centre for Medieval and Renaissance Studies about their research into gender roles in Viking society. Dr. Andrew McDonald is a professor with the Centre for Medieval and Renaissance Studies and the Department of History. In July 2019, Professor McDonald launched his book The Sea Kings: The Late Norse Kingdoms of Man and the Isles c. 1066-1275, which went on to be shortlisted for Scotland’s prestigious Saltire Society Literary Awards. Dr. Angus Somerville is a retired professor of English. He taught Old Norse, Anglo-Saxon, and Middle English language and literature while at Brock and won two awards for his teaching. Professor Somerville has published on authors Evelyn Waugh, Robert Graves, Martin Seymour-Smith, and Michael Polanyi. He has worked for almost forty years on The Historical Thesaurus of the Oxford English Dictionary (published by Oxford University Press). Professors McDonald and Somerville co-authored the book The Vikings and Their Age and have recently released an updated edition of their textbook, A Viking Age Reader, with University of Toronto Press. Find a full transcript at https://brocku.ca/humanities/foreword Links The Sea Kings: The Late Norse Kingdoms of Man and the Isles c. 1066-1275 (Andrew McDonald, John Donald/Birlinn, 2019) A Viking Age Reader, Third Edition (Angus Sommerville and Andrew McDonald, University of Toronto Press, 2020) The Vikings and Their Age (Angus Sommerville and Andrew McDonald, University of Toronto Press, 2013) The Historical Thesaurus of the Oxford English Dictionary (Oxford University Press) Andrew McDonald faculty profile Brock prof returns to land of Vikings for book launch (Brock News, 24 July 2019) Viking book shortlisted for prestigious prize (Brock News, 11 Nov. 2019) Centre for Medieval and Renaissance Studies, Brock University Faculty of Humanities, Brock University Credits We love to hear from our listeners! Join us on Twitter, Facebook, and Instagram @brockhumanities. Please subscribe and rate us on your favourite podcasting app so you don’t miss an episode. Learn more about the Faculty of Humanities, including our events, programs of study, and departments, online. Foreword is hosted and produced by Alison Innes for the Faculty of Humanities at Brock University. Sound design and editing by Serena Atallah. Theme music is by Khalid Imam. Special thanks to Brock University’s MakerSpace and Brock University Marketing and Communications for studio and web support. This podcast is financially supported by the Faculty of Humanities at Brock University.
    • Forging Multiple Pathways: Integrating International Students into a Canadian University Library

      Bordonaro, Karen (Association of College & Research Libraries, 2019-01)
      This chapter describes five different projects undertaken at the Brock University Library in St. Catharines, Ontario, Canada, which represent different pathways toward integrating international students into academic libraries. These projects were designed to welcome and introduce international students to the library as well as to support their extended learning by the library. Each of them represents a different type of pathway toward that goal of integration.
    • From fracking conflicts to innova1on genera1on? A case study in Northeastern BC

      Moore, Michele-Lee; Shaw, Karena; Murray, Mathew; Lowe, Lana; Breiddal, Rossana (2015)
    • From Fracking Conflicts to Innovation Generation: a Case Study of Water Governance in Northeastern B.C.

      Moore, Michele-Lee (2015)
      The Horn River Basin overlaps with the Fort Nelson First Nation (FNFN) traditional territory, and has been an active site of hydraulic fracturing development. This has increased the demand for water in the Basin. While it is well established that effective water governance requires collaboration from a wide array of actors, barriers to including Indigenous Nations in water governance remain as a legacy of Canada’s colonial history. The Province’s approach to involving Indigenous Nations in water governance has largely been limited to consultation and accommodation and slow government-to-government negotiations. This approach has yet to yield significant collaboration. Research partner, the Fort Nelson First Nations (FNFN) Lands Department, has been both formally and informally engaged in ongoing negotiations with government, and with industry on various issues related to the hydraulic fracturing and water use for hydraulic fracturing in the Horn River watershed. Governance innovation was needed to break the deadlock, and it was clear that a social learning process would be necessary if industry, government, and FNFN were going to establish a shared vision for future water governance arrangements. As part of their efforts, the FNFN Lands Department began a community consultation process to develop their own FNFN water management strategy, and sought research to better understand the range of possible organizational structures that would support a more acceptable governance arrangement. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the existing conditions for social learning in the Horn River Basin, support the FNFN approach to developing a water management strategy through research on social learning and community-based planning processes, and to examine possible alternative governance models.
    • From the Book Review Editor of the Special Issue on Climate Change

      Vasseur, Liette (Nighthawks Open Institutional Repository, 2021)
      Climate change is affecting the lives of many communities and how to prepare for these changes is not always easy to define. To enhance community engagement in both mitigation and adaptation to climate change, there is a need to better assess how the complexity of climate change is affecting not only humans but the ecosystem where they live and the interactions among nature and people. This means also understanding how politics, policies, and other issues may help (or not) to improve engagement of communities in moving from discourse to action.