• Walking the plank: how scholarly piracy affects publishers, libraries and their users

      Yates, Elizabeth (Association of College and Research Libraries, 2017-03)
      The arrival of technology supporting peer-to-peer (P2P) file sharing in scholarly communication has, until recently, had minimal impact on libraries. However, threats posed by pirate sites including Library Genesis Project (LibGen) and Sci-Hub are now impacting both library users and library licensing agreements with publishers. Publishers are nervous as they witness their proprietary content leaking out of paywalled systems—not just hundreds of thousands of articles, but millions. Accordingly, publishers are monitoring activities in licensed products very closely for any behavior that they deem suspicious. When a user’s activities cause a publisher to question whether materials are being pirated, the outcomes can vary. Consequences can range from relatively minor inconvenience for blocked users, who must find workarounds to access scholarly content—to the potential for major disruption of a centuries-old proprietary publishing system. This article uses a case study involving a student at Brock University to highlight significant challenges facing libraries and the rights of their users in the current environment of piracy-wary academic publishers.
    • Water Governance and Watershed Planning in British Columbia First Nations Communities

      Harris, Leila (2016)
      First Nations governance processes are particularly complex, with a suite of legislation and federal institutions, as well as the broader context of self-governance important for these communities. This research will contribute to a more complete understanding of the interactions between First Nations and the current water governance framework in British Columbia and the complex interactions First Nations have had within this framework. Further, it will highlight First Nations perspectives on barriers and priorities for enhanced water governance in British Columbia, at a provincial scale and with particular focus on watershed-level governance. Considering these dimensions will inform the types of responses that are required to make meaningful progress on these issues.
    • Water Policy and Extreme Climate Events

      Horbulyk, Ted; Naima, Farah (2015-09-03)
    • Water Policy and Extreme Climate Events

      Horbulyk, Ted (2015)
      Canadians are at increasing risk from water‐related events such as multiyear droughts, flooding and/or significant changes in historical precipitation patterns. Extreme hydrological events can also hinder our ability to protect and manage groundwater resources. The sets of specific precautionary measures and responses that are available to private versus public water users and stakeholders are not well understood, nor are they necessarily enabled or encouraged by existing water policies. For example, there may be beneficial roles for selective infrastructure investments, revised water management protocols, or legal and regulatory changes, where these approaches can be considerably more effective, if undertaken in a coordinated manner. Some effects of increased flooding or drought can be more readily accommodated by some water using sectors than others, yet mechanisms to coordinate beneficial actions across sectors may be lacking. Although the returns to specific investment alternatives will be highly location and context‐specific, some types of prior investments or actions might have relatively higher returns than would come from remedial or adaptive measures alone.
    • We All Have an Accent: Welcoming International Students to the Library

      Bordonaro, Karen (Canadian Library Association, 2007)
      an overview of ways to make international students feel welcome in the library
    • We need to have a conversation about OpenURL, a close look at a corpus of error reports from the 2013 academic year. Or, How I learned to stop worrying and give up on clean metadata.

      Ribaric, Tim (2014-10-06)
      OpenURL has been a stalwart in the arsenal of Librarianship for many years now, but it is getting a bit long in the tooth, and cracks in the façade are showing. How well does it still stack up? In the fall of 2013 Brock University Library started looking at the reported errors generated through our OpenURL system to answer this question. By making a clever hack [1] to the error report mechanism it was possible to log all the malevolent OpenURLs in a database to see what the problem was. The end result is a corpus of around 1000 reported URLs [2] that were meticulously examined [3] to find the problem. In the end numerous things were discovered: - Some of the OpenURLs worked just as they were supposed to - Some databases provide really bad OpenURL requests - Some databases don't know how to resolve OpenURL requests properly - Punctuation in metadata often breaks OpenURL - Forget citations to supplementary material - DOI's can't save the day This poster will outline the details of the process and present visualizations of the results of the analysis. OpenURL looks great on paper but there ends up being many obstacles in the actual implementation that both frustrate users and leave Libraries feeling helpless as many of the fixes are out of their hands. [1] http://elibtronic.ca/content/20130823/tracking-sfx-error-reports-sans-effort [2] http://hdl.handle.net/10864/10653 [3] https://github.com/elibtronic/metadata-cruncher/tree/master/open_url_breaker
    • What is the effect of ADHD stimulant medication on Heart Rate and Blood Pressure in a Community Sample of Children?

      St Amour, Meagan; O'Leary, Deborah D; Cairney, John; Wade, Terrance J (Springer International Publishing, 2018)
      OBJECTIVE: This study examines the effect of ADHD diagnosis and stimulant medication for ADHD treatment on child heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) in a community sample compared to children without ADHD. METHODS: Data came from the HBEAT Study. 2,013 participants from 49 schools from southern Ontario in grades 5-8 were included. Linear regression analyses examined the effects of ADHD medications on systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate adjusting for age, sex, and body mass index (BMI). RESULTS: Compared to non-ADHD children and adjusting for age, sex and BMI, children with ADHD on stimulant medication had a 12.3 bpm higher HR, and 3.0 mmHg higher SBP and DBP (all statistically significant). Children with ADHD on no stimulant medication had no differences in HR and BP compared to those children without a diagnosis of ADHD. CONCLUSION: Stimulant medications used to treat ADHD are associated with elevated HR and higher BP. While it is unknown if children on ADHD medications may be at risk for longer term cardiovascular issues, this study supports the need to examine the long-term consequences of ADHD medication.
    • When the Easy Becomes Difficult: Factors Affecting the Acquisition of the English /iː/-/ɪ/ Contrast

      Cebrian, Juli; Gorba, Celia; Gavaldà, Núria (Frontiers Media SA, 2021-06-10)
      The degree of similarity between the sounds of a speaker’s first and second language (L1 and L2) is believed to determine the likelihood of accurate perception and production of the L2 sounds. This paper explores the relationship between cross-linguistic similarity and the perception and production of a subset of English vowels, including the highly productive /iː/-/ɪ/ contrast (as in “beat” vs. “bit”), by a group of Spanish/Catalan native speakers learning English as an L2. The learners’ ability to identify, discriminate and produce the English vowels accurately was contrasted with their cross-linguistic perceived similarity judgements. The results showed that L2 perception and production accuracy was not always predicted from patterns of cross-language similarity, particularly regarding the difficulty distinguishing /iː/ and /ɪ/. Possible explanations may involve the way the L2 /iː/ and /ɪ/ categories interact, the effect of non-native acoustic cue reliance, and the roles of orthography and language instruction.
    • Whose input counts? Public consultation and the BC Water Sustainability Act

      Jollymore, Ashlee; Mcfarlane, Kiely; Harris, Leila (2016)
      Public consultation has become an increasingly important feature of policy-making, intended to enhance democratic engagement by enabling citizens to influence plans and policies that affect them (Patten, 2001; Kaehne & Taylor, 2016). Consultation processes provide broad public input, with the intention of improving the outcomes (in terms of equity, sustainability, and so forth), as well as the legitimacy of government decisions (Shipley & Utz, 2012). However, consultation’s poor alignment with decisionmaking processes, lack of transparency, and limited influence on policy and planning have at times earned it a reputation as tokenistic (Carr, 2012; Carvalho et al., 2016; Cheeseman & Smith, 2001). Thus, a key question for policy-makers and the public is whether public consultation is delivering more democratic policy outcomes. Here we investigate precisely whether, and the degree to which, public input influences policy outcomes. Specifically, this study provides a detailed analysis of the large-scale consultation process undertaken for British Columbia’s Water Act Modernization (WAM), which received significant public attention and government investment. During this process, the provincial government held three rounds of public consultation from 2008-2013, resulting in over 4000 submissions that were used to refine BC’s new Water Sustainability Act (WSA, 2014). We critically examined the influence of different submitter groups on policy outcomes, and thus the role of consultation in the broader policy-making process. To do this, we developed a novel quantitative approach to systematically analyze participants’ submissions on policy proposals, and compare those responses with resultant policies.
    • Wide eyes and drooping arms: Adult-like congruency effects emerge early in the development of sensitivity to emotional faces and body postures

      Mondloch, Catherine J.; Horner, Matthew; Mian, Jasmine (Elsevier Inc, 2013-02)
      Adults’ and 8-year-old children’s perception of emotional faces is disrupted when faces are presented in the context of incongruent body postures (e.g., when a sad face is displayed on a fearful body) if the two emotions are highly similar (e.g., sad/fear) but not if they are highly dissimilar (e.g., sad/happy). The current research investigated the emergence of this adult-like pattern. Using a sorting task, we identified the youngest age at which children could accurately sort isolated facial expressions and body postures and then measured whether their accuracy was impaired in the incongruent condition. Among the child participants, 6-year-olds showed congruency effects for sad/fear, but even 4-year-olds did not do so for sad/happy. Early emergence of this adult-like pattern is consistent with the dimensional and emotional seed models of emotion perception, although future research is needed to test the relative validity of these two models. Testing children with emotional faces presented in the context of body postures and background scenes is an important step toward understanding how they perceive emotions on a daily basis.
    • Women and post-doctorates: life after graduation

      Baker, Jocelyn; Vasseur, Liette (Canadian Commission for UNESCO, 2021)
      The reasons for the underrepresentation of women in STEM is not the focus of this paper as there is a large and growing body of research dedicated to this field of research (Lincoln et al., 2012; Sugimoto et al., 2013; Aiston & Fo, 2020). The need for this reflection paper originated from round table discussions organized by the Canadian Commission for UNESCO with L'Oréal For Women in Science Award (2019) laureates and other organizations active in equity, diversity, and inclusion (EDI). Many of the L'Oréal laureates shared their perception that once they had obtained a PhD diploma, the only possible career path was academia. The aim was to examine the career trajectory of women after they obtain a PhD in a STEM field, and to explore opportunities and avenues of solutions to better support their career paths. Here, we focus only on those who have graduated from a PhD. While this paper is mainly targeted at women in STEM, many of the reflections can be applied to other groups (races, gender orientations, etc.) and disciplines (e.g., social sciences and humanities)
    • Working Together: Librarian and Student Collaboration Through Active Learning in a Library Eclassroom

      Jacklin, Marcie; Pfaff, Heather (2010)
      Active learning strategies based on several learning theories were incorporated during instruction sessions for second year Biological Sciences students. The instructional strategies described in this paper are based primarily on sociocultural and collaborative learning theory, with the goal being to expand the relatively small body of literature currently available that discusses the application of these learning theories to library instruction. The learning strategies employed successfully involved students in the learning process ensuring that the experiences were appropriate and effective. The researchers found that, as a result of these strategies (e.g. teaching moments based on the emerging needs of students) students’ interest in learning information literacy was increased and students interacted with information given to them as well as with their peers. Collaboration between the Librarians, Co-op Student and Senior Lab Instructor helped to enhance the learning experience for students and also revealed new aspects of the active learning experiences. The primary learning objective, which was to increase the students’ information skills in the Biological Sciences, was realized. The advantages of active learning were realized by both instructors and students. Advantages for students attained during these sessions include having their diverse learning styles addressed; increased interaction with and retention of information; increased responsibility for their own learning; the opportunity to value not only the instructors, but also themselves and their peers as sources of authority and knowledge; improved problem solving abilities; increased interest and opportunities for critical thinking, as a result of the actively exchanging information in a group. The primary advantage enjoyed by the instructors was the opportunity to collaborate with colleagues to reduce the preparation required to create effective library instruction sessions. Opportunities for further research were also discovered, including the degree to which “social loafing” plays a role in collaborative, active learning.
    • Young Children Have Difficulty Predicting Future Preferences in the Presence of a Conflicting Physiological State: Conflicting State EFT

      Mahy, Caitlin (Wiley and Sons, 2016)
      This study examined children's predictions about their future preferences when they were in two different physiological states (thirsty and not thirsty). Ninety 3- to 7-year-olds were asked to predict what they would prefer tomorrow: pretzels to eat or water to drink after having consumed pretzels, and again after having had the opportunity to quench their thirst with water. Results showed that although children initially preferred pretzels to water at baseline, they more often indicated that they would prefer water the next day after they had consumed pretzels. After consuming water, however, the same children indicated they would prefer pretzels the next day. Children's verbal justifications for their choices rarely made reference to their current or future states, but rather justifications were more likely to make reference to their general preferences when they were no longer thirsty compared to when they were thirsty. Results suggest that current physiological states have a powerful influence on future preferences. The findings are discussed in the context of the development of episodic foresight, the Bischof-Kohler hypothesis, and the important and often overlooked role that children's current states play in future decision making.
    • Young children’s future-oriented reasoning for self and other: Effects of conflict and perspective

      Atance, Christina; Rutt, Joshua L,; Cassidy, Katie; Mahy, Caitlin (Elsevier, 2021)
      In some contexts, children more accurately predict another’s future than their own. Adopting another’s perspective may provide psychological distance. This distance may be especially beneficial when present and future desires conflict. Here, only age and conflict systematically affected preschoolers’ future thinking. Older preschoolers were less affected by conflict than younger preschoolers. Young children reason more adaptively about the future (e.g., predicting preferences and delaying gratification) when they are asked to think about another person’s perspective versus their own perspective. An explanation for this “other-over-self” advantage is that in contexts where current (e.g., small reward now) and future (e.g., larger reward later) desires conflict, adopting the perspective of another person provides psychological distance and hence more adaptive decision making by reducing conflict. We tested this hypothesis in 158 preschoolers using a battery of representative future-oriented reasoning tasks (Preferences, Delay of Gratification, Picture Book, and “Spoon”) in which we varied the perspective children adopted (self or other) and the level of conflict between current and future desires (high or low). We predicted that perspective and conflict would interact such that children would benefit most from taking the perspective of “other” when conflict was high. Although results did not support this hypothesis, we found significant effects of conflict; children reasoned more optimally on our low-conflict task condition than on our high-conflict task condition, and these differences did not appear to be related to inhibitory control. The effect of conflict was most marked in younger preschoolers, resulting in Age × Conflict interactions on two of our four tasks. An other-over-self advantage (i.e., perspective effect) was detected on the Preferences task only. These results add to the growing body of literature on children’s future thinking by showing the important role of conflict (and its interaction with age) in the accuracy with which children reason about the future.