• Variability in the Insect and Plant Adhesins, Mad1 and Mad2, within the Fungal Genus Metarhizium Suggest Plant Adaptation as an Evolutionary Force

      Wyrebek, Michael; Bidochka, Michael (PLoS, 2013-03-13)
      Several species of the insect pathogenic fungus Metarhizium are associated with certain plant types and genome analyses suggested a bifunctional lifestyle; as an insect pathogen and as a plant symbiont. Here we wanted to explore whether there was more variation in genes devoted to plant association (Mad2) or to insect association (Mad1) overall in the genus Metarhizium. Greater divergence within the genus Metarhizium in one of these genes may provide evidence for whether host insect or plant is a driving force in adaptation and evolution in the genus Metarhizium. We compared differences in variation in the insect adhesin gene, Mad1, which enables attachment to insect cuticle, and the plant adhesin gene, Mad2, which enables attachment to plants. Overall variation for the Mad1 promoter region (7.1%), Mad1 open reading frame (6.7%), and Mad2 open reading frame (7.4%) were similar, while it was higher in the Mad2 promoter region (9.9%). Analysis of the transcriptional elements within the Mad2 promoter region revealed variable STRE, PDS, degenerative TATA box, and TATA box-like regions, while this level of variation was not found for Mad1. Sequences were also phylogenetically compared to EF-1a, which is used for species identification, in 14 isolates representing 7 different species in the genus Metarhizium. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the Mad2 phylogeny is more congruent with 59 EF-1a than Mad1. This would suggest that Mad2 has diverged among Metarhizium lineages, contributing to clade- and species-specific variation, while it appears that Mad1 has been largely conserved. While other abiotic and biotic factors cannot be excluded in contributing to divergence, these results suggest that plant relationships, rather than insect host, have been a major driving factor in the divergence of the genus Metarhizium.
    • Variability in the Insect and Plant Adhesins, Mad1 and Mad2, within the Fungal Genus Metarhizium Suggest Plant Adaptation as an Evolutionary Force

      Bidochka, Michael J. (PLOS ON, 2013-03)
      Several species of the insect pathogenic fungus Metarhizium are associated with certain plant types and genome analyses suggested a bifunctional lifestyle; as an insect pathogen and as a plant symbiont. Here we wanted to explore whether there was more variation in genes devoted to plant association (Mad2) or to insect association (Mad1) overall in the genus Metarhizium. Greater divergence within the genus Metarhizium in one of these genes may provide evidence for whether host insect or plant is a driving force in adaptation and evolution in the genus Metarhizium. We compared differences in variation in the insect adhesin gene, Mad1, which enables attachment to insect cuticle, and the plant adhesin gene, Mad2, which enables attachment to plants. Overall variation for the Mad1 promoter region (7.1%), Mad1 open reading frame (6.7%), and Mad2 open reading frame (7.4%) were similar, while it was higher in the Mad2 promoter region (9.9%). Analysis of the transcriptional elements within the Mad2 promoter region revealed variable STRE, PDS, degenerative TATA box, and TATA box-like regions, while this level of variation was not found for Mad1. Sequences were also phylogenetically compared to EF-1a, which is used for species identification, in 14 isolates representing 7 different species in the genus Metarhizium. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the Mad2 phylogeny is more congruent with 59 EF-1a than Mad1. This would suggest that Mad2 has diverged among Metarhizium lineages, contributing to clade- and species-specific variation, while it appears that Mad1 has been largely conserved. While other abiotic and biotic factors cannot be excluded in contributing to divergence, these results suggest that plant relationships, rather than insect host, have been a major driving factor in the divergence of the genus Metarhizium.
    • Variation among 532 genomes unveils the origin and evolutionary history of a global insect herbivore

      Vasseur, Liette (Nature, 2020-05-08)
      The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella is a cosmopolitan pest that has evolved resistance to all classes of insecticide, and costs the world economy an estimated US $4-5 billion annually. We analyse patterns of variation among 532 P. xylostella genomes, representing a worldwide sample of 114 populations. We find evidence that suggests South America is the geographical area of origin of this species, challenging earlier hypotheses of an Old-World origin. Our analysis indicates that Plutella xylostella has experienced three major expansions across the world, mainly facilitated by European colonization and global trade. We identify genomic signatures of selection in genes related to metabolic and signaling pathways that could be evidence of environmental adaptation. This evolutionary history of P. xylostella provides insights into transoceanic movements that have enabled it to become a worldwide pest.
    • A verification study of the stochastic salvo combat model

      Armstrong, Michael J. (Springer, 2011)
      When the stochastic version of the salvo combat model was designed, several assumptions and approximations were made to keep its mathematical structure relatively simple. This paper examines the impact of those simplifications by comparing the outputs of the stochastic model to those from a Monte Carlo simulation across 486 scenarios. The model generally performed very well, even where the battle size was relatively small or the damage inflicted by each missile was not normally distributed. The model’s accuracy did decrease where missiles were positively correlated instead of independent.
    • Videopoetry = Vidéopoésie

      Dugas, Daniel H.; LeBlanc, Valerie (Small Walker Press, 2020)
      Canadian digital artist and videopoet Valerie LeBlanc and Canadian poet, musician, and videopoet ******** Daniel H. Dugas have been working together since 1990. Daniel H. Dugas was born in Montréal, QC. Poet, videographer, essayist and musician, Dugas has exhibited and participated in exhibitions, festivals and literary events in Canada and internationally. His ninth book of poetry: L’esprit du temps/The Spirit of the Time won the 2016 Antonine-Maillet-Acadie Vie award and the 2018 Éloizes: Artiste de l’année en littérature. daniel.basicbruegel.com | Videos distributed through: vtape.org *********** Pluridisciplinary artist and writer, Valerie LeBlanc was born in Halifax, Nova Scotia. She has worked and presented throughout Canada and internationally. LeBlanc’s first video: Homecoming was collected and screened by the National Gallery of Canada. She is the creator of the MediaPackBoard (MPB), a portable screening / performance device. valerie.basicbruegel.com | Videos distributed through: vtape.org ********** Their specific uniqueness within the videopoetry world also lies in the musicality of speaking two languages. LeBlanc’s first language is English and her second French; and Dugas’ is French with English second. (Sarah Tremlett)
    • Violence Against Indigenous Women in Canada: A Colonial Legacy or Tragedy?

      McComb, Caitlyn (2018-03-17)
      In 2015 the Canadian government launched its National Inquiry into Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women and Girls (MMIW) (2015), identifying that it was one of the most urgently important issues facing Canadian society. This inquiry marks a pivotal moment in Canadian history where either a true reckoning may begin with regards to the imbedded colonial legacy of violence against Indigenous women in Canada or the status quo upheld. This paper will use Sherene Razack’s research on violence against women (2016) and the concepts of gendered disposability and Indigenous dysfunction to explore this topic. It will examine the murder of dozens of women in the Downtown Eastside of Vancouver, and the lack of attention given to their plight by the police, as an example of gendered disposability. As Amber Dean (2015) argues, the Downtown Eastside provides a clear example of how disposability and dysfunction work to sanction the physical violence many Indigenous women experience. Ultimately, the three goals portrayed as solutions to the problem of colonial violence are simple. Primarily, to identify measures that will eliminate violence against Indigenous women and girls, to provide justice, and lastly to incorporate practices that address the systemic violence these women face. However, achieving them is the part that remains complex. Can Canada learn about its colonial history and still be doomed to repeat past injustices?
    • Visualizations as a tool to increase community engagement in climate change adaptation decision-making

      DeCock-Caspell, Meredith; Vasseur, Liette; Swart, Neil Cameron (NRC Research Press (Canadian Science Publishing), 2021)
      Many barriers to behavioural change exist when it comes to climate change action. A key element to overcoming some of these barriers is effective communication of complex scientific information. The use of visualizations, such as photographs or interactive maps, can increase knowledge dissemination, helping community members understand climatic and environmental changes. These techniques have been utilized in many disciplines but have not been widely embraced by climate change scholars. This paper discusses the utility of climate change data visualization as a tool for climate change knowledge mobilization. This paper draws on the case studying drivers of coastline change of Lake Ontario in the Town of Lincoln, Ontario, Canada. Historical aerial photographs were used to measure the rate of coastline change and visualize vulnerable sections of the coast. To better visualize the changes that occurred over time from a resident viewpoint, selected land-based historical photographs were replicated by taking new photographs at the same locations. These visualization tools can be useful to support the community in developing strategies to adapt to climate change by increasing understanding of the changes and knowledge through social learning. These tools can be generalized to other case studies dealing with community engagement in coastal adaptation efforts.
    • Visualize your doppelgänger: using information graphics to benchmark AACSB-accredited business schools.

      Lowry, Linda Darlene (Special Libraries Association, 2013-06-10)
      A poster presented at the 2013 SLA Annual Conference, Business & Finance Division poster session, June 10, 2013 in San Diego, CA.
    • Vitellogenin expression corresponds with reproductive status and caste in a primitively eusocial bee, Lasioglossum laevissimum

      Awde, David N; Skandalis, Adonis; Richards, Miriam H (2020)
      Vitellogenin (vg) expression is consistently associated with variation in insect phenotypes, particularly egg-laying. Primitively eusocial species, such as eusocial sweat bees, have behaviourally totipotent castes, in which each female is capable of high levels of ovarian development. Few studies have investigated vg expression patterns in primitively eusocial insects, and only one study has focused on a primitively eusocial bee. Here we use a primitively eusocial sweat bee, Lasioglossum laevissimum, and Real Time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) to investigate the relationship between vg expression, castes, and variation in phenotypes associated with castes differences. These assays showed that females with high ovarian development had the highest levels of vg expression, and that vg expression levels reflected the reproductive status of females first and caste second. This is in contrast to vg expression patterns observed in advanced eusocial queens and workers, which differ in vg expression based on caste and have caste-specific vg expression patterns. Furthermore, future queens (gynes) do not have ovarian development and had similar vg expression levels to early spring foundresses, which do have ovarian development, supporting Vg’s function as a transporter of lipids and amino acids before diapause.
    • Walking the plank: how scholarly piracy affects publishers, libraries and their users

      Yates, Elizabeth (Association of College and Research Libraries, 2017-03)
      The arrival of technology supporting peer-to-peer (P2P) file sharing in scholarly communication has, until recently, had minimal impact on libraries. However, threats posed by pirate sites including Library Genesis Project (LibGen) and Sci-Hub are now impacting both library users and library licensing agreements with publishers. Publishers are nervous as they witness their proprietary content leaking out of paywalled systems—not just hundreds of thousands of articles, but millions. Accordingly, publishers are monitoring activities in licensed products very closely for any behavior that they deem suspicious. When a user’s activities cause a publisher to question whether materials are being pirated, the outcomes can vary. Consequences can range from relatively minor inconvenience for blocked users, who must find workarounds to access scholarly content—to the potential for major disruption of a centuries-old proprietary publishing system. This article uses a case study involving a student at Brock University to highlight significant challenges facing libraries and the rights of their users in the current environment of piracy-wary academic publishers.
    • Water Governance and Watershed Planning in British Columbia First Nations Communities

      Harris, Leila (2016)
      First Nations governance processes are particularly complex, with a suite of legislation and federal institutions, as well as the broader context of self-governance important for these communities. This research will contribute to a more complete understanding of the interactions between First Nations and the current water governance framework in British Columbia and the complex interactions First Nations have had within this framework. Further, it will highlight First Nations perspectives on barriers and priorities for enhanced water governance in British Columbia, at a provincial scale and with particular focus on watershed-level governance. Considering these dimensions will inform the types of responses that are required to make meaningful progress on these issues.
    • Water Policy and Extreme Climate Events

      Horbulyk, Ted; Naima, Farah (2015-09-03)
    • Water Policy and Extreme Climate Events

      Horbulyk, Ted (2015)
      Canadians are at increasing risk from water‐related events such as multiyear droughts, flooding and/or significant changes in historical precipitation patterns. Extreme hydrological events can also hinder our ability to protect and manage groundwater resources. The sets of specific precautionary measures and responses that are available to private versus public water users and stakeholders are not well understood, nor are they necessarily enabled or encouraged by existing water policies. For example, there may be beneficial roles for selective infrastructure investments, revised water management protocols, or legal and regulatory changes, where these approaches can be considerably more effective, if undertaken in a coordinated manner. Some effects of increased flooding or drought can be more readily accommodated by some water using sectors than others, yet mechanisms to coordinate beneficial actions across sectors may be lacking. Although the returns to specific investment alternatives will be highly location and context‐specific, some types of prior investments or actions might have relatively higher returns than would come from remedial or adaptive measures alone.
    • We All Have an Accent: Welcoming International Students to the Library

      Bordonaro, Karen (Canadian Library Association, 2007)
      an overview of ways to make international students feel welcome in the library
    • We need to have a conversation about OpenURL, a close look at a corpus of error reports from the 2013 academic year. Or, How I learned to stop worrying and give up on clean metadata.

      Ribaric, Tim (2014-10-06)
      OpenURL has been a stalwart in the arsenal of Librarianship for many years now, but it is getting a bit long in the tooth, and cracks in the façade are showing. How well does it still stack up? In the fall of 2013 Brock University Library started looking at the reported errors generated through our OpenURL system to answer this question. By making a clever hack [1] to the error report mechanism it was possible to log all the malevolent OpenURLs in a database to see what the problem was. The end result is a corpus of around 1000 reported URLs [2] that were meticulously examined [3] to find the problem. In the end numerous things were discovered: - Some of the OpenURLs worked just as they were supposed to - Some databases provide really bad OpenURL requests - Some databases don't know how to resolve OpenURL requests properly - Punctuation in metadata often breaks OpenURL - Forget citations to supplementary material - DOI's can't save the day This poster will outline the details of the process and present visualizations of the results of the analysis. OpenURL looks great on paper but there ends up being many obstacles in the actual implementation that both frustrate users and leave Libraries feeling helpless as many of the fixes are out of their hands. [1] http://elibtronic.ca/content/20130823/tracking-sfx-error-reports-sans-effort [2] http://hdl.handle.net/10864/10653 [3] https://github.com/elibtronic/metadata-cruncher/tree/master/open_url_breaker
    • What is the effect of ADHD stimulant medication on Heart Rate and Blood Pressure in a Community Sample of Children?

      St Amour, Meagan; O'Leary, Deborah D; Cairney, John; Wade, Terrance J (Springer International Publishing, 2018)
      OBJECTIVE: This study examines the effect of ADHD diagnosis and stimulant medication for ADHD treatment on child heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) in a community sample compared to children without ADHD. METHODS: Data came from the HBEAT Study. 2,013 participants from 49 schools from southern Ontario in grades 5-8 were included. Linear regression analyses examined the effects of ADHD medications on systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate adjusting for age, sex, and body mass index (BMI). RESULTS: Compared to non-ADHD children and adjusting for age, sex and BMI, children with ADHD on stimulant medication had a 12.3 bpm higher HR, and 3.0 mmHg higher SBP and DBP (all statistically significant). Children with ADHD on no stimulant medication had no differences in HR and BP compared to those children without a diagnosis of ADHD. CONCLUSION: Stimulant medications used to treat ADHD are associated with elevated HR and higher BP. While it is unknown if children on ADHD medications may be at risk for longer term cardiovascular issues, this study supports the need to examine the long-term consequences of ADHD medication.
    • When the Easy Becomes Difficult: Factors Affecting the Acquisition of the English /iː/-/ɪ/ Contrast

      Cebrian, Juli; Gorba, Celia; Gavaldà, Núria (Frontiers Media SA, 2021-06-10)
      The degree of similarity between the sounds of a speaker’s first and second language (L1 and L2) is believed to determine the likelihood of accurate perception and production of the L2 sounds. This paper explores the relationship between cross-linguistic similarity and the perception and production of a subset of English vowels, including the highly productive /iː/-/ɪ/ contrast (as in “beat” vs. “bit”), by a group of Spanish/Catalan native speakers learning English as an L2. The learners’ ability to identify, discriminate and produce the English vowels accurately was contrasted with their cross-linguistic perceived similarity judgements. The results showed that L2 perception and production accuracy was not always predicted from patterns of cross-language similarity, particularly regarding the difficulty distinguishing /iː/ and /ɪ/. Possible explanations may involve the way the L2 /iː/ and /ɪ/ categories interact, the effect of non-native acoustic cue reliance, and the roles of orthography and language instruction.
    • Whose input counts? Public consultation and the BC Water Sustainability Act

      Jollymore, Ashlee; Mcfarlane, Kiely; Harris, Leila (2016)
      Public consultation has become an increasingly important feature of policy-making, intended to enhance democratic engagement by enabling citizens to influence plans and policies that affect them (Patten, 2001; Kaehne & Taylor, 2016). Consultation processes provide broad public input, with the intention of improving the outcomes (in terms of equity, sustainability, and so forth), as well as the legitimacy of government decisions (Shipley & Utz, 2012). However, consultation’s poor alignment with decisionmaking processes, lack of transparency, and limited influence on policy and planning have at times earned it a reputation as tokenistic (Carr, 2012; Carvalho et al., 2016; Cheeseman & Smith, 2001). Thus, a key question for policy-makers and the public is whether public consultation is delivering more democratic policy outcomes. Here we investigate precisely whether, and the degree to which, public input influences policy outcomes. Specifically, this study provides a detailed analysis of the large-scale consultation process undertaken for British Columbia’s Water Act Modernization (WAM), which received significant public attention and government investment. During this process, the provincial government held three rounds of public consultation from 2008-2013, resulting in over 4000 submissions that were used to refine BC’s new Water Sustainability Act (WSA, 2014). We critically examined the influence of different submitter groups on policy outcomes, and thus the role of consultation in the broader policy-making process. To do this, we developed a novel quantitative approach to systematically analyze participants’ submissions on policy proposals, and compare those responses with resultant policies.
    • Wide eyes and drooping arms: Adult-like congruency effects emerge early in the development of sensitivity to emotional faces and body postures

      Mondloch, Catherine J.; Horner, Matthew; Mian, Jasmine (Elsevier Inc, 2013-02)
      Adults’ and 8-year-old children’s perception of emotional faces is disrupted when faces are presented in the context of incongruent body postures (e.g., when a sad face is displayed on a fearful body) if the two emotions are highly similar (e.g., sad/fear) but not if they are highly dissimilar (e.g., sad/happy). The current research investigated the emergence of this adult-like pattern. Using a sorting task, we identified the youngest age at which children could accurately sort isolated facial expressions and body postures and then measured whether their accuracy was impaired in the incongruent condition. Among the child participants, 6-year-olds showed congruency effects for sad/fear, but even 4-year-olds did not do so for sad/happy. Early emergence of this adult-like pattern is consistent with the dimensional and emotional seed models of emotion perception, although future research is needed to test the relative validity of these two models. Testing children with emotional faces presented in the context of body postures and background scenes is an important step toward understanding how they perceive emotions on a daily basis.