• unboxing the canon - Episode 1: Revealing a Portrait

      Steer, Linda (2020-09-09)
      Episode 1, “Revealing a Portrait”, considers what the canon of art history is and looks to a painting by contemporary African American artist Titus Kaphar to consider what it excludes. It also addresses the notion of “subject positions,” a way of acknowledging who we are and how that influences what we see and how we look at art. Kaphar’s work aims to make the invisible visible, and to reveal those figures that have been excluded from art history. His work highlights the Black experience, which has been overlooked in traditional art history courses, museums and other art institutions. In his powerful 2017 TED Talk, Kaphar demonstrates to the audience how European art has erased Black people, and how those people might be brought to the forefront. He uncovers his slightly altered copy of a 17th century family portrait by Dutch artist Franz Hals. He then proceeds to white out the prominent figures with a mixture of white paint and linseed oil, eventually revealing a small Black boy in the group. Kaphar notes that “Historically speaking, in research on these kinds of paintings, I can find out more about the lace that the woman is wearing in this painting -- the manufacturer of the lace -- than I can about this character here, about his dreams, about his hopes, about what he wanted out of life” (Kaphar, Can Art Amend History?). Episode 1 asks listeners to think about the role of history in art and the ways in which historical art is connected to contemporary culture.
    • unboxing the canon - Episode 2: Reversing the Gaze

      Steer, Linda (2020-09-16)
      In this episode we examine contemporary Cree artist Kent Monkman's diptych mistikôsiwak on view now at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City. The monumental paintings were completed in 2019 and are called Welcoming the Newcomers and Resurgence of the People. In his words, Monkman aims to “reverse the gaze” from white settlers looking at Indigenous people to Indigenous people looking at settlers. Welcoming the Newcomers adapts figures and poses from a variety of works of art that depict the Indigenous people of Turtle Island from the point of view of white Europeans and settlers to present a different story and a different point of view about first contact. Resurgence of the People uses Emmanuel Leutze's 1851 Washington Crossing the Delaware as a source to picture contemporary immigration from Monkman's point of view.
    • unboxing the canon - Episode 3: Tear Down the Monuments!

      Steer, Linda (2020-09-23)
      This episode takes a look at the history of monuments and examines some of the issues surrounding monuments today. It considers the history of the Robert E Lee monument Richmond Virginia, its signification in relation to the history of equestrian sculptures and considers its role now. The removal of confederate statues in the American South is part of a worldwide movement to confront the violent legacy of colonialism, the trans-Atlantic slave trade, the attempted genocide of Indigenous people, and other atrocities committed by Europeans and settlers. In the wake of the #blm movement and the Calls to Action from the Truth and Reconciliation of Canada, this episode asks: what should we do with these monuments now? Dr. Steer examines several options and their implications, such as putting the monuments in a museum or park, contextualizing them, creating new monuments and new works of art, destroying the monuments, or leaving them as is.
    • unboxing the canon - Episode 4: Swallowed Whole

      Steer, Linda (2020-09-30)
      In this episode, called “Swallowed Whole,” Dr. Steer considers Gothic cathedrals as an art form and examines their relationship to European power structures. The episode begins with the earliest Christian art, in the catacombs of Rome, and ends with a brief consideration of the role and function of Western European churches today. This episode also covers the important role of relics in Medieval Christianity, the rise of pilgrimage culture in Europe and its connections to economics and architectural innovation, as well as the affective impact of the interior spaces of cathedrals.
    • unboxing the canon - Episode 5: Taken from the Headlines

      Steer, Linda (2020-10-07)
      “Taken from the Headlines” considers European history painting, its roots and its legacies. What exactly are history paintings? And why are they significant in the canon of Western art? In this episode of “Unboxing the Canon” Dr. Steer examines these questions along with some historical examples before turning to the present moment to consider how artists use this genre today and reflect on some of its limitations. This episode covers the concept of istoria and Renaissance narrative paintings, dramatic 19th century history paintings in France and their relationship to politics, and contemporary Indigenous work dealing with the trauma of the residential school system in Canada.
    • unboxing the canon - Episode 6: Light and Luxe

      Steer, Linda (2020-10-21)
      In this episode, called “Light and Luxe,” we take a look at the connections between Dutch painting, trade, and luxury during the so-called “Dutch Golden Age” of painting. We will focus on post-1650 genre painting as well as a new form of still life painting called Pronkstilleven (loosely translated as “ostentatious” or “sumptuous” still life) that emerged around the mid-17th century. Artists covered include Vermeer, Gerard ter Borch, and Willem Kalf.
    • unboxing the canon - Episode 7: Musing on Museums

      Steer, Linda (2020-11-04)
      This episode, called “Musing on Museums,” takes a look at the history of the modern Western museum and considers what stories museums tell and how. From wunderkammern and other private collections to the British Museum and the Louvre, museums are intimately connected to power. Contemporary artists Fred Wilson, Spring Hurlbut, and James Luna reveal the hidden histories of collecting and collections and ask us to think about what is collected and how those collections are organized. By troubling organization systems, contemporary artists uncover new ways of finding meaning in museum collections.
    • unboxing the canon - Episode 8: Appropriation and Copying

      Steer, Linda (2020-11-25)
      In this episode, “Appropriation & Copying,” I take a look at the ways in which artists refer to the work of their predecessors through copying and appropriation. Art instruction uses copying as a method to learn. In addition, artists refer to their predecessors in a myriad of ways by quoting or remaking existing works of art. We can think of the history of Western art as a conversation between works of art, past and present. Appropriation differs. Appropriation art takes a known work of art and uses it in a way that reveals something about the original, but also creates a new work of art. Sometimes the differences between the original and the new work of art are theoretical, yet not visible. As a form of cultural critique, appropriation can reveal sublimated meanings in a work of art, political meanings, or socio-cultural meanings. While the verb “appropriate” has various meanings, in this episode, to appropriate means taking a work of art and re-making it in a way that reveals the original’s meaning and simultaneously creates new meanings for the appropriation. This episode will briefly consider the modern work of Manet and Duchamp before turning towards contemporary art by Kehinde Wiley, Kara Walker, and Yasumasa Morimura, all of which appropriate the content or forms (or both) of the canon of Western art.
    • Understanding social connections in communities: how to use social network analysis. Guidelines document

      Vasseur, Liette; Morris, S.; Verville, A. (Coastal Communities Challenges Community-University Research Alliance project, 2014)
      Coastal communities have been known to be highly vulnerable to climate change, especially due to sea level rise and extreme events such as storm surges which lead to flooding and accelerated coastal erosion. Most of these communities however are ill equipped to understand the issues and find solutions or strategies to adapt to these changes. In the context of resilience, there is a need for these communities to integrate concepts of social-ecological systems and governance to move forward for a more sustainable territorial development. The main challenge for most of them is to acquire the tools to be able to move forward.
    • UNESCO Biosphere Reserves Towards Common Intellectual Ground

      Michell, Richard C.; May, Bradley; Purdy, Samantha; Vella, Crystal (InTech, 2012-03-14)
    • Use of biological control against arthropod pests in Canadian greenhouse crop production

      Vasseur, Liette; Labbe, Roselyne; Goettel, Mark S. (2018-10-02)
      Greenhouse horticultural production currently represents an important and growing sector of Canada's food and plant production systems. Since 2006, the value of greenhouse vegetable crops in Canada exceeds that of field grown crops, signaling an important shift in the way food is cultivated in the country. While many factors have contributed to this change, a major area of innovation includes the discoveries and advances made in the development of commercial greenhouse production systems as well as the integration of biological control strategies for sustainable pest management. With this focus, this review offers a brief overview of the Canadian greenhouse industry, including a descriptive list of commonly used biological control organisms, as well as the role Canadian research has played in the development of these agents. We also address the threats that Canadian greenhouse producers face by invasive pests and the complications these have created for the commercialization of novel biological control agents. This information may serve as a guide for the development of parallel technologies and tools in other parts of the world where greenhouse production is expanding.
    • Use of Information and Communications Technologies by Indigenous Civil Society Organizations in Ecuador

      Lupien, Pascal (Information, Communication and Society, 2019)
      Indigenous peoples are among the most marginalized population groups in the Western Hemisphere. In Latin America, they have engaged in diverse forms of collective action with varying degrees of success. Previous research has studied the “traditional” social movement strategies used by some of the more successful groups. We know relatively little, however, about how Indigenous groups use information and communication technologies (ICTs) to pursue their goals and engage in civic participation. While a growing number of researchers are studying the use of ICTs for the purpose of mobilization, recent studies on the use of technology by social movements tend to focus on a handful of high-profile Western cases of large-scale mobilization. Transnational NGOs have worked with Indigenous organizations to transfer technology and help set up webpages, social media accounts and hardware but we still know little about how they are being used and in what direction these technologies affect the power relationship in this very distinct social and political context. This study fills some of the gaps in our knowledge by looking at how Ecuadorian Indigenous organizations are using ICTs, the barriers they face and the factors that enhance or diminish their capacity to use technology effectively. It finds that while there are benefits and disadvantages, the barriers these groups face with respect to ICTs may be tipping the balance of power away from Indigenous movements.
    • Using Economics to Understand the Implications of Wildfires: An Alberta Case Study

      Dupont, Diane (2016)
      Forested regions in northern and western Alberta provide approximately 88% of surface water supplies to Alberta’s population. It is critical that the risks associated with changes in water quality and the connections to upland forests are understood. One of the key risks arises from wildfires as these disturbances release a variety of contaminants into surface waters. These contaminants travel downstream to water utilities and may result in a range of possible outcomes from less severe (small change in operating costs) to more severe (shut-down of water utility and importation of water supplies). Recent increases in the magnitude of wildfires, along with increased provincial water demand, have resulted in a need to evaluate wildfire risk to downstream municipal drinking water supply and treatment systems. The project models the magnitude and likelihood of wildfire occurrences in source water regions in Alberta and combines fire/water transport and water utility cost models in order to undertake a cost-benefit analysis of existing and future management strategies for drinking water security.
    • Using Economics to Understand the Implications of Wildfires: An Alberta Case Study

      Dupont, Diane (2016)
      Les régions forestières du nord et de l’ouest de l’Alberta comptent environ 88 % de l’eau de surface utilisée par la population de l’Alberta. Il est essentiel de comprendre les risques associés aux changements dans la qualité de l’eau et les liens avec les forêts de montagne. Un des risques principaux concerne les feux de forêt, puisque ces incidents libèrent de nombreux contaminants dans les eaux de surface. Ces contaminants se déplacent ensuite en aval pour atteindre les réseaux d’adduction d’eau et peuvent entraîner une gamme de conséquences légères (p. ex., hausses des coûts d’exploitation) ou plus graves (fermeture de services d’approvisionnement et importation d’eau). De récentes hausses dans l’intensité des feux de forêt, ainsi que l’augmentation de la demande provinciale en eau ont mené au besoin d’évaluer les risques liés aux feux de forêt pour les systèmes de traitement et d’approvisionnement d’eau municipale en aval. Le projet modélise l’amplitude et la probabilité des feux de forêt dans les régions riches en eau de source en Alberta et combine des modèles de feux/transport de l’eau avec des modèles des coûts liés aux services d’eau afin de réaliser une analyse des coûts-avantages des stratégies de gestion existantes et futures, dans le but ultime d’améliorer la sécurité de l’eau potable.
    • Variability in the Insect and Plant Adhesins, Mad1 and Mad2, within the Fungal Genus Metarhizium Suggest Plant Adaptation as an Evolutionary Force

      Wyrebek, Michael; Bidochka, Michael (PLoS, 2013-03-13)
      Several species of the insect pathogenic fungus Metarhizium are associated with certain plant types and genome analyses suggested a bifunctional lifestyle; as an insect pathogen and as a plant symbiont. Here we wanted to explore whether there was more variation in genes devoted to plant association (Mad2) or to insect association (Mad1) overall in the genus Metarhizium. Greater divergence within the genus Metarhizium in one of these genes may provide evidence for whether host insect or plant is a driving force in adaptation and evolution in the genus Metarhizium. We compared differences in variation in the insect adhesin gene, Mad1, which enables attachment to insect cuticle, and the plant adhesin gene, Mad2, which enables attachment to plants. Overall variation for the Mad1 promoter region (7.1%), Mad1 open reading frame (6.7%), and Mad2 open reading frame (7.4%) were similar, while it was higher in the Mad2 promoter region (9.9%). Analysis of the transcriptional elements within the Mad2 promoter region revealed variable STRE, PDS, degenerative TATA box, and TATA box-like regions, while this level of variation was not found for Mad1. Sequences were also phylogenetically compared to EF-1a, which is used for species identification, in 14 isolates representing 7 different species in the genus Metarhizium. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the Mad2 phylogeny is more congruent with 59 EF-1a than Mad1. This would suggest that Mad2 has diverged among Metarhizium lineages, contributing to clade- and species-specific variation, while it appears that Mad1 has been largely conserved. While other abiotic and biotic factors cannot be excluded in contributing to divergence, these results suggest that plant relationships, rather than insect host, have been a major driving factor in the divergence of the genus Metarhizium.
    • Variability in the Insect and Plant Adhesins, Mad1 and Mad2, within the Fungal Genus Metarhizium Suggest Plant Adaptation as an Evolutionary Force

      Bidochka, Michael J. (PLOS ON, 2013-03)
      Several species of the insect pathogenic fungus Metarhizium are associated with certain plant types and genome analyses suggested a bifunctional lifestyle; as an insect pathogen and as a plant symbiont. Here we wanted to explore whether there was more variation in genes devoted to plant association (Mad2) or to insect association (Mad1) overall in the genus Metarhizium. Greater divergence within the genus Metarhizium in one of these genes may provide evidence for whether host insect or plant is a driving force in adaptation and evolution in the genus Metarhizium. We compared differences in variation in the insect adhesin gene, Mad1, which enables attachment to insect cuticle, and the plant adhesin gene, Mad2, which enables attachment to plants. Overall variation for the Mad1 promoter region (7.1%), Mad1 open reading frame (6.7%), and Mad2 open reading frame (7.4%) were similar, while it was higher in the Mad2 promoter region (9.9%). Analysis of the transcriptional elements within the Mad2 promoter region revealed variable STRE, PDS, degenerative TATA box, and TATA box-like regions, while this level of variation was not found for Mad1. Sequences were also phylogenetically compared to EF-1a, which is used for species identification, in 14 isolates representing 7 different species in the genus Metarhizium. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the Mad2 phylogeny is more congruent with 59 EF-1a than Mad1. This would suggest that Mad2 has diverged among Metarhizium lineages, contributing to clade- and species-specific variation, while it appears that Mad1 has been largely conserved. While other abiotic and biotic factors cannot be excluded in contributing to divergence, these results suggest that plant relationships, rather than insect host, have been a major driving factor in the divergence of the genus Metarhizium.
    • Variation among 532 genomes unveils the origin and evolutionary history of a global insect herbivore

      Vasseur, Liette (Nature, 2020-05-08)
      The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella is a cosmopolitan pest that has evolved resistance to all classes of insecticide, and costs the world economy an estimated US $4-5 billion annually. We analyse patterns of variation among 532 P. xylostella genomes, representing a worldwide sample of 114 populations. We find evidence that suggests South America is the geographical area of origin of this species, challenging earlier hypotheses of an Old-World origin. Our analysis indicates that Plutella xylostella has experienced three major expansions across the world, mainly facilitated by European colonization and global trade. We identify genomic signatures of selection in genes related to metabolic and signaling pathways that could be evidence of environmental adaptation. This evolutionary history of P. xylostella provides insights into transoceanic movements that have enabled it to become a worldwide pest.
    • A verification study of the stochastic salvo combat model

      Armstrong, Michael J. (Springer, 2011)
      When the stochastic version of the salvo combat model was designed, several assumptions and approximations were made to keep its mathematical structure relatively simple. This paper examines the impact of those simplifications by comparing the outputs of the stochastic model to those from a Monte Carlo simulation across 486 scenarios. The model generally performed very well, even where the battle size was relatively small or the damage inflicted by each missile was not normally distributed. The model’s accuracy did decrease where missiles were positively correlated instead of independent.
    • Videopoetry = Vidéopoésie

      Dugas, Daniel H.; LeBlanc, Valerie (Small Walker Press, 2020)
      Canadian digital artist and videopoet Valerie LeBlanc and Canadian poet, musician, and videopoet ******** Daniel H. Dugas have been working together since 1990. Daniel H. Dugas was born in Montréal, QC. Poet, videographer, essayist and musician, Dugas has exhibited and participated in exhibitions, festivals and literary events in Canada and internationally. His ninth book of poetry: L’esprit du temps/The Spirit of the Time won the 2016 Antonine-Maillet-Acadie Vie award and the 2018 Éloizes: Artiste de l’année en littérature. daniel.basicbruegel.com | Videos distributed through: vtape.org *********** Pluridisciplinary artist and writer, Valerie LeBlanc was born in Halifax, Nova Scotia. She has worked and presented throughout Canada and internationally. LeBlanc’s first video: Homecoming was collected and screened by the National Gallery of Canada. She is the creator of the MediaPackBoard (MPB), a portable screening / performance device. valerie.basicbruegel.com | Videos distributed through: vtape.org ********** Their specific uniqueness within the videopoetry world also lies in the musicality of speaking two languages. LeBlanc’s first language is English and her second French; and Dugas’ is French with English second. (Sarah Tremlett)
    • Violence Against Indigenous Women in Canada: A Colonial Legacy or Tragedy?

      McComb, Caitlyn (2018-03-17)
      In 2015 the Canadian government launched its National Inquiry into Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women and Girls (MMIW) (2015), identifying that it was one of the most urgently important issues facing Canadian society. This inquiry marks a pivotal moment in Canadian history where either a true reckoning may begin with regards to the imbedded colonial legacy of violence against Indigenous women in Canada or the status quo upheld. This paper will use Sherene Razack’s research on violence against women (2016) and the concepts of gendered disposability and Indigenous dysfunction to explore this topic. It will examine the murder of dozens of women in the Downtown Eastside of Vancouver, and the lack of attention given to their plight by the police, as an example of gendered disposability. As Amber Dean (2015) argues, the Downtown Eastside provides a clear example of how disposability and dysfunction work to sanction the physical violence many Indigenous women experience. Ultimately, the three goals portrayed as solutions to the problem of colonial violence are simple. Primarily, to identify measures that will eliminate violence against Indigenous women and girls, to provide justice, and lastly to incorporate practices that address the systemic violence these women face. However, achieving them is the part that remains complex. Can Canada learn about its colonial history and still be doomed to repeat past injustices?