• The salvo combat model with a sequential exchange of fire

      Armstrong, Michael J. (Palgrave, 2014)
      This paper develops a version of the stochastic salvo combat model in which the exchange of fire is sequential, rather than simultaneous. This sequential-fire version is built by modifying the equations in the original simultaneous-fire version. The performance of the sequential model is tested by comparing its outputs to those of a Monte Carlo simulation. The fit between the model and the simulation is very close, especially for the mean and standard deviation of losses. The model is then applied to the Battle of the Coral Sea. The results suggest that attacking first would have given the American force a larger advantage than that provided by an extra aircraft carrier.
    • The salvo combat model with area fire

      Armstrong, Michael J. (Wiley Periodicals, Inc., 2013-12)
      This paper analyzes versions of the salvo model of missile combat where area fire is used by one or both sides in a battle. While these models share some properties with the area fire Lanchester model and the aimed fire salvo model, they also display some interesting differences, especially over the course of several salvos. Whereas the relative size of each force is important with aimed fire, with area fire it is the absolute size that matters. Similarly, while aimed fire exhibits square law behavior, area fire shows approximately linear behavior. When one side uses area and the other uses aimed fire, the model displays a mix of square and linear law behavior.
    • Saturation of SERCA's lipid annulus may protect against its thermal inactivation.

      Fajardo, Val Andrew; Trojanowski, Natalie S.; Castelli, Laura; Miotto, Paula; Amoye, Foyinsola; Ward, Wendy E.; Tupling, A. Russell; LeBlanc, Paul (Elsevier, 2017-01-26)
      The sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA) pumps are integral membrane proteins that catalyze the active transport of Ca2+ into the sarcoplasmic reticulum, thereby eliciting muscle relaxation. SERCA pumps are highly susceptible to oxidative damage, and cytoprotection of SERCA dampens thermal inactivation and is a viable therapeutic strategy in combating diseases where SERCA activity is impaired, such as muscular dystrophy. Here, we sought to determine whether increasing the percent of saturated fatty acids (SFA) within SERCA's lipid annulus through diet could protect SERCA pumps from thermal inactivation. Female Wistar rats were fed either a semi-purified control diet (AIN93G, 7% soybean oil by weight) or a modified AIN93G diet containing high SFA (20% lard by weight) for 17 weeks. Soleus muscles were extracted and SERCA lipid annulus and activity under thermal stress were analyzed. Our results show that SERCA's lipid annulus is abundant with short-chain (12–14 carbon) fatty acids, which corresponds well with SERCA's predicted bilayer thickness of 21 Å. Under control-fed conditions, SERCA's lipid annulus was already highly saturated (79%), and high-fat feeding did not increase this any further. High-fat feeding did not mitigate the reductions in SERCA activity seen with thermal stress; however, correlational analyses revealed significant and strong associations between % SFA and thermal stability of SERCA activity with greater %SFA being associated with lower thermal inactivation and greater % polyunsaturation and unsaturation index being associated with increased thermal inactivation. Altogether, these findings show that SERCA's lipid annulus may influence its susceptibility to oxidative damage, which could have implications in muscular dystrophy and age-related muscle wasting.
    • Scaling up research data services: a saga of organizational redesign gone awry

      Lowry, Linda (IASSIST, 2021-05-17)
      An academic library may initiate organizational renewal and redesign in order to better pursue new strategic priorities. In the case of the Brock University Library, one of these priorities was active engagement throughout the research life cycle. The draft organizational design framework proposed the creation of a new unit that takes a holistic life cycle approach to research, including data literacy, research data management and other services. Unfortunately, it also called for the elimination of the role of subject liaison librarians, who would be redeployed in other ways. No one was more shocked at this turn of events than me, because as the Business and Economics Librarian, I know how crucial it is to understand the disciplinary landscape with respect to research practices in order to develop research data services that align with researcher needs. This study provides evidence for the discipline-specific needs of business and economics researchers for data reference, data literacy, and data retrieval assistance, derived from a content analysis of graduate student theses and a review of consultation statistics. Will this evidence be sufficient to preserve this role, or will this become a saga of organizational redesign gone awry?
    • Scholarship as a Conversation: A Metaphor for Librarian-ESL Instructor Collaboration

      Bordonaro, Karen (2015)
      Invoking the metaphor of scholarship as a conversation offers academic librarians an excellent way to connect information literacy to university ESL (English as a second language) classes. This article describes how this particular metaphor has appeared in the literature of librarianship, and it suggests that this metaphor offers a deeper way to understand and promote information literacy to ESL students. It connects this deeper understanding of information literacy to ESL writing and speaking instructional approaches. These approaches include understanding scholarship as both a formal written end product and as a writing process in the creation, production and dissemination of knowledge. In addition, understanding scholarship as a conversation is described as including recognition of both formal and informal means of communication. Practical examples of classroom activities are also offered that librarians can use to support these different ways of illustrating scholarship as a conversation. Collaboration between librarians and instructors is advocated in order to fully invoke this metaphor as a way to connect information literacy to ESL classrooms.
    • Seasonal reproductive endothermy in tegu lizards

      Tattersall, Glenn J; Leite, Cleo A.C.; Sanders, Colin E; Cadena, Viviana; Andrade, Denis V; Abe, Augusto S; Milsom, William K (Science Advances, 2016-01)
    • Seasonal reproductive endothermy in tegu lizards

      Tattersall, Glenn J; Leite, Cleo A.C.; Sanders, Colin E; Cadena, Viviana; Andrade, Denis V; Abe, Augusto S; Milsom, William K (2016)
      With some notable exceptions, small ectothermic vertebrates are incapable of endogenously sustaining a body temperature substantially above ambient temperature. This view was challenged by our observations of nighttime body temperatures sustained well above ambient (up to 10°C) during the reproductive season in tegu lizards (~2 kg). This led us to hypothesize that tegus have an enhanced capacity to augment heat production and heat conservation. Increased metabolic rates and decreased thermal conductance are the same mechanisms involved in body temperature regulation in those vertebrates traditionally acknowledged as “true endotherms” : the birds and mammals. The appreciation that a modern ectotherm the size of the earliest mammals can sustain an elevated body temperature through metabolic rates approaching that of endotherms enlightens the debate over endothermy origins, providing support for the parental care model of endothermy, but not for the assimilation capacity model of endothermy. It also indicates that, contrary to prevailing notions, ectotherms can engage in facultative endothermy, providing a physiological analog in the evolutionary transition to true endothermy.
    • Self-Directed Second Language Learning in Libraries

      Bordonaro, Karen (International Society for Self-Directed Learning, 2018-11)
      This content analysis research study investigated self-directed language learning of adult English as a second language (ESL) learners in libraries. ESL learners are a growing population in libraries, and understanding how they can use or are using libraries helps libraries better serve them. The purpose of this study was to determine if they can or are engaging in self-directed learning in libraries. The documents analyzed comprised library journal articles and library websites. The first finding suggests that self-directed second language learning is taking place in libraries but mainly through online instruction. The second finding is that many types of second language learning material are available for use in and through libraries. The third finding is that physical spaces dedicated to second language learning do exist in libraries. Together, these findings show that library services, resources, and spaces can support self-directed second language learners in their learning.
    • Selling Infrastructure as a Service to faculty

      Ribaric, Tim (2020-10-23)
      Presentation material for session presented at 2020 Access Conference for session entitled Selling Infrastructure as a Service to faculty. Abstract: Libraries aim to provide tools and platforms to support the research enterprise of the institution. This session will look at how a Docker based IAAS service was branded and marketed to researchers. The real challenge was communicating what could be done with the service in a way that avoided jargon and was accessible to introductory users.
    • Sequential enzymatic and electrochemical functionalization of bromocyclohexadienediols: Application to the synthesis of (-)-conduritol C

      Hudlicky, Tomas; Goulart Stollmaier, Juana (Elsevier, 2020-02-14)
      cis-Diene diol obtained from the microbial oxidation of bromobenzene was used as a substrate for the chemoenzymatic acetylation and epoxidation with lipases. The model studies showed that the regiochemistry of the acetylation is solvent-dependent. The chemoenzymatic epoxidation followed the expected regiochemistry when compared to the chemical epoxidation with m-CPBA, but with the unexpected formation of bromoconduritol-C, an important intermediate whose electrochemical reduction led to the synthesis of (-)-conduritol-C. Experimental and spectral data are provided for all new compounds.
    • SERCA2a tyrosine nitration coincides with impairments in maximal SERCA activity in left ventricles from tafazzin deficient mice

      Braun, Jessica L.; Hamstra, Sophie I.; Messner, Holt N.; Fajardo, Val A. (The Physiological Society, 2019-08)
      The sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA) is imperative for normal cardiac function regulating both muscle relaxation and contractility. SERCA2a is the predominant isoform in cardiac muscles and is inhibited by phospholamban (PLN). Under conditions of oxidative stress, SERCA2a may also be impaired by tyrosine nitration. Tafazzin (Taz) is a mitochondrial specific transacylase that regulates mature cardiolipin (CL) formation, and its absence leads to mitochondrial dysfunction and excessive production of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS). In the present study, we examined SERCA function, SERCA2a tyrosine nitration, and PLN expression/phosphorylation in left ventricles (LV) obtained from young (3-5 months) and old (10-12 months) wild-type (WT) and Taz knockdown (TazKD) male mice. These mice are a mouse model for Barth syndrome, which is characterized by mitochondrial dysfunction, excessive ROS/RNS production, and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Here, we show that maximal SERCA activity was impaired in both young and old TazKD LV, a result that correlated with elevated SERCA2a tyrosine nitration. In addition PLN protein was decreased, and its phosphorylation was increased in TazKD LV compared with control, which suggests that PLN may not contribute to the impairments in SERCA function. These changes in expression and phosphorylation of PLN may be an adaptive response aimed to improve SERCA function in TazKD mice. Nonetheless, we demonstrate for the first time that SERCA function is impaired in LVs obtained from young and old TazKD mice likely due to elevated ROS/RNS production. Future studies should determine whether improving SERCA function can improve cardiac contractility and pathology in TazKD mice
    • Serum MMP‐3 and its association with central arterial stiffness among young adults is moderated by smoking and BMI

      Iannarelli, Nathaniel J.; MacNeil, Adam J.; Dempster, Kylie S.; Wade, Terrance J.; O’Leary, Deborah D. (Wiley, 2021-06-10)
      Central arterial stiffness is an independent predictor of cardiovascular disease. It is characterized by a marked reduction in the elastin-collagen ratio of the arterial wall extracellular matrix (ECM), and is largely the result of degradation of various ECM components. Matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) may contribute to central arterial stiffness via its involvement in ECM homeostasis and remodeling. This study examined the association between serum MMP-3 concentrations and central arterial stiffness and potential interactions of MMP-3 and traditional cardiovascular risk factors in a population of healthy young adults. A total of 206 participants (n = 109 females) aged 19–25 years were included in the current study. Central arterial stiffness was measured non-invasively as carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) (m/s). MMP-3 concentrations (ng/ml) were measured using ELISA techniques. Regression analyses were used to examine the association between cfPWV and MMP-3, adjusting for age, sex, smoking status, body mass index (BMI), instantaneous mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate, and serum C-reactive protein. Interactions between MMP-3 with smoking, BMI, sex, and MAP were analyzed in subsequent regression models. MMP-3 was an independent predictor of cfPWV (β = 0.187, p = 0.007), and significant interactions between MMP-3 and regular smoking (β = 0.291, p = 0.022), and MMP-3 and BMI (β = 0.210, p = 0.013) were observed. Higher serum MMP-3 concentrations were associated with a faster cfPWV and thus, greater central arterial stiffness. Interactions between MMP-3 and smoking, and MMP-3 and BMI may, in part, drive the association between MMP-3 and central arterial stiffness.
    • Sex hormones play a role in vulnerability to sleep loss on emotion processing tasks

      Lustig, K. A.; Stoakley, E. M.; MacDonald, K. J.; Geniole, S. N.; McCormick, C. M.; Cote, K. A. (Elsevier, 2017-10-06)
      The central aim of this study was to investigate hormones as a predictor of individual vulnerability or resiliency on emotion processing tasks following one night of sleep restriction. The restriction group was instructed to sleep 3 a.m.–7 a.m. (13 men, 13 women in follicular phase, 10 women in luteal phase of menstrual cycle), and a control group slept 11 p.m.–7 a.m. (12 men, 12 follicular women, 12 luteal women). Sleep from home was verified with actigraphy. Saliva samples were collected on the evening prior to restriction, and in the morning and afternoon following restriction, to measure testosterone, estradiol, and progesterone. In the laboratory, event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded during presentation of images and faces to index neural processing of emotional stimuli. Compared to controls, sleep-restricted participants had a larger amplitude Late Positive Potential (LPP) ERP to positive vs neutral images, reflecting greater motivated attention towards positive stimuli. Sleep-restricted participants were also less accurate categorizing sad faces and exhibited a larger N170 to sad faces, reflecting greater neural reactivity. Sleep-restricted luteal women were less accurate categorizing all images compared to control luteal women, and progesterone was related to several outcomes. Morning testos- terone in men was lower in the sleep-restricted group compared to controls; lower testosterone was associated with lower accuracy to positive images, a greater difference between positive vs neutral LPP amplitude, and lower accuracy to sad and fearful faces. In summary, women higher in progesterone and men lower in testos- terone were more vulnerable to the effects of sleep restriction on emotion processing tasks. This study highlights a role for sex and sex hormones in understanding individual differences in vulnerability to sleep loss.
    • A shared cabin in the woods: The presence and presents of writing in residential academic writing retreats

      Ratković, Snežana; McGinn, Michelle K.; Martinovic, Dragana; McQuirter Scott, Ruth (Equinox Publishing, 2019-11-27)
      In this paper, we investigated a model of academic development based upon a recurring residential academic writing retreat combining individual writing times, workshops, work-in-progress groups and one-on-one consultations with shared meals and informal gatherings in a natural environment. Using a case study research approach, we analysed data accumulated from seven annual residential writing retreats for education scholars. Participants included 39 academics, administrative staff, senior doctoral students and community partners from multiple institutions. We found evidence that the retreats enhanced participants’ knowledge of writing and publishing processes, advanced their academic careers, built scholarly capacity at their institutions and strengthened writing pedagogy. The data indicated that the presence of writing and writers at the residential academic writing retreats generated presents (i.e., gifts) for the participants. The presence of writing time, writing goals and writing activities in the company of other writers were key to the retreat pedagogy. Participants appreciated gifts of time and physical space and described giving and receiving peer feedback and emotional support as forms of gift exchange within the community. The resulting writing strategies, competencies and identities provided the gift of sustainability. The analysis confirmed that this ongoing, immersive, cross-institutional, cross-rank, institutionally funded model of academic development was effective and responsive to the needs of individual scholars.
    • sidelines

      Reid, Brittany (JESS Press, 2021-06-21)
      Sidelines is a collection of poetic memories about sport. Each narrative poem features a recollected moment, based on personal experiences, misremembered histories, or imaginative guessing games. In the process, Sidelines explores the complex contradictions of living and loving through sport by extending the concept of “participation” to include sporting culture’s more marginal players. As a work of sport literature, this poetic biomythography considers how the sidelines are a liminal space that is peripheral, yet central to the world of sport. As a poetic memoir, it is a longing but hopeful account of how sports can inform your self-conception, even when you believe you are out of play.
    • Sleep problems among sexual minorities: a longitudinal study on the influence of the family of origin and chosen family

      Chum, Antony; Nielsen, Andrew; Teo, Celine (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2021-12-21)
      Background: There is growing evidence that lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) adults experience more sleep problems than the general population. As LGB individuals experience a signifcantly greater risk of family rejection and low family support, our study investigates the role of family support as a potential determinant of LGB sleep problems over a prolonged period, and whether friend support (i.e. chosen family) can mitigate the efect of low family support. Given the importance of sleep on mental and physical health, study results may help shed light on persistent health disparities across sexual orientations. Methods: Our sample included 1703 LGB individuals from the UK Household Longitudinal Study (UKHLS). Mixed-efect logistic regressions were used to estimate the efect of family and friend support on the development of sleep problems after 24months while controlling for potential confounders. A modifed Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index was used to measure 1) presence of any sleep problems, 2) short sleep duration, and 3) poor sleep quality. Results: Family support at baseline was independently associated with all sleep problems in our study after 24-months: 1 SD increase in family support was associated with a 0.94 times lower risk of sleep problems (95% C.I=0.90-0.98), a 0.88 times lower risk of short sleep duration (95% C.I=0.81-0.95), and a 0.92 times lower risk of sleep quality (95% C.I=0.93-0.98). Support from one’s chosen family (proxied by friend support) did not mitigate the efects of low family support on sleep problems. Conclusions: Our study found a consistent efect of family support across all sleep outcomes along with evidence of a persistent efect after 24months. Our fndings point to the importance of targeting family support in designing interventions aimed at reducing LGB sleep problems.
    • Social cues can push amphibious fish to their thermal limits

      Currie, Suzanne; Tattersall, Glenn J (2018-10-31)
      Social context can impact how animals respond to changes in their physical environment. We used an aggressive, amphibious fish, the mangrove rivulus (Kryptolebias marmoratus) with environmentally-determined sociality to test the hypothesis that social interactions would push fish to their thermal limits. We capitalized on the propensity of rivulus to emerge from warming water and demonstrated that social stimuli, produced by their reflection, increased emersion threshold without changing critical thermal maximum, effectively diminishing thermal safety margins. When rivulus were denied air access, surface behaviours dramatically increased, supplanting social interactions. This suggests that assessing the terrestrial environment is crucially important. We conclude that social stimulation narrows the scope for survival in naturally stressful conditions.
    • Social Justice Aspects of Water Allocation Mechanisms

      Bjornlund, Henning (2015)
      Water is scarce in southern Alberta, and climate change predictions suggest that water might be even scarcer. There is increasing pressure to leave more water in rivers for environmental purposes, which will further increase water scarcity for extractive users. There is also an urgent need to find mechanisms to allocate and reallocate water among competing uses, such as water for the environment and for extractive uses. Achieving these objectives within current water dependent communities will involve different socioeconmic impacts. The level of impact will depend on the policy choices made, the acceptability of such policies among stakeholders, water users reactions to such policies, and the ability of current water users to cope with less water. These issues are examined in this project.
    • A Social Network Analysis For Knowledge Integration and Extension of WEPGN Research

      Bharadwaj, Lalita; Dupont, Diane; Bradford, Lori (2015)
      Solutions for complex water challenges not only require the development of novel data collection and modeling tools, but also the creation of strong research clusters and innovative knowledge mobilization instruments. There is a need to understand the focus and nature of interdisciplinary collaborative research, as well as the functionality and collaborative nature of the networks of researchers, extension and integration of partnerships. Deriving these solutions is essential for the integration and extension of research knowledge beyond disciplinary silos so that deeper understanding and relationship building between those who make water policy decisions and those who are impacted by them can be made.