• Raising the Achievement of Immigrant Students: Towards a Multi-Layered Framework for Enhanced Student Outcomes

      Volante, Louis; Klinger, Don A.; Siegel, Melissa; Yahia, Leena (Sage, 2019-03-22)
      Results of international achievement surveys such as the Programme in International Student Assessment have consistently reported an achievement gap between immigrant and non-immigrant student populations around the world. This paper unpacks this persistent achievement gap by examining key characteristics that influence the performance of first- and second-generation immigrant students as well as the policies and practices that are associated with enhanced educational outcomes. A multi-layered framework is proposed to help policymakers juxtapose key characteristics of their immigrant students’ achievement against individual, family, school, community, and host society characteristics and policies. The discussion also underscores the importance of connecting this multi-layered framework with other important sectors within governments such as those responsible for the economy, health, social protection, and immigration. This paper also examines limitations with current large-scale data sets and the implications for research and policy analysis.
    • Reaching the Summit: Reimagining the Summit Series in the Canadian Cultural Memory

      JESS Press, 2022-10-03
      Reimagining the '72 Summit Series in the Canadian Cultural Memory.
    • Reasons for Forgiving: Individual Differences and Emotional Outcomes

      Belicki, Kathryn; Decourville, Nancy; Kamble, Shanmukh Vasant; Stewart, Tammy; Rubel, Alicia (SAGE Publications, 2020)
      This research is part of a program to identify common forms of forgiveness and study the outcomes associated with different ways of forgiving. Two samples, one in Canada (N = 274) and one in India (N = 159), completed a third version of the Reasons for Forgiving Questionnaire (R4FQ), several measures of individual differences, as well as measures of affect and mood while imagining their injurer. Nine R4FQ subscales were derived: For the Relationship, To Feel Better, Based on Principle, Because Injurer Reformed, To Demonstrate Moral Superiority, Because Understood Injurer, For God, Because of Social Pressure, and For Pragmatic Reasons. These subscales were differentially related to religiosity, attachment security, trait anger, collectivism, and individualism. Positive emotional outcomes were associated with forgiving for the relationship, based on principle, because injurer reformed, and because understood injurer. In contrast, negative outcomes were associated with forgiving To Demonstrate Moral Superiority, Because of Social Pressure, and For Pragmatic Reasons.
    • Recreational Reading of International Students in Academic Libraries

      Bordonaro, Karen (The Reading Matrix, 2011-09)
      survey of international students in a university library as to whether or not they engage in recreational reading and if they think it helps their language learning
    • Redux: Tabulating Transactions with Raspberry Pi and Visualizing Results

      Ribaric, Tim (code4Lib, 2018-05-07)
      Often in the library tech world we are not given the opportunity to attempt a project again. Effort spent re-doing a previous project in a different way, in some sense, means wasting time that could be used to work on new initiatives. This article describes a redux of a project, a revenge story so to speak. In 2013 the Arduino based Tabulatron first entered production at Brock University Library. The device had its flaws, an attempt to rectify those flaws was manifested in the creation of the PiTab, the story of which is presented here.
    • Refighting Pickett’s Charge: mathematical modeling of the Civil War battlefield

      Armstrong, Michael J.; Sodergren, Steven E. (Wiley, 2015)
      Objective. We model Pickett’s Charge at the Battle of Gettysburg to see whether the Confederates could have achieved victory by committing more infantry, executing a better barrage, or facing a weaker defense. Methods. Our mathematical modeling is based on Lanchester equations, calibrated using historical army strengths. We weight the Union artillery and infantry two different ways using two sources of data, and so have four versions of the model. Results. The models estimate that a successful Confederate charge would have required at least 1 to 3 additional brigades. An improved artillery barrage would have reduced these needs by about 1 brigade. A weaker Union defense could have allowed the charge to succeed as executed. Conclusions. The Confederates plausibly had enough troops to take the Union position and alter the battle’s outcome, but likely too few to further exploit such a success.
    • ReFRESH: Canada-US Transboundary Water Governance and the Columbia River Treaty Renegotiations

      Moore, Michele-Lee; Garrick, Dustin (2016)
      The Columbia Basin is at a crossroads due to the potential termination of the 1964 Canada-US Columbia River Treaty. Once widely recognized as a world-leading, innovative approach to transboundary water governance, concerns are mounting about whether the renegotiation process can address the numerous issues that have emerged since 1964 and regain the Columbia River’s status as a recognized global leader in transboundary governance. In preparation for this milestone, Canadian and US agencies have begun to address what Kenney (2009) calls the “omissions of the past”: ecosystem integrity, cultural flows, indigenous values, and climate change (see Province of BC, 2013; U.S. Entity, 2013). The small body of scholarship that has characterized Canada-US transboundary water governance has primarily highlighted challenges, such as the limited power of local actors (Norman and Bakker, 2009) and the lack of resilience planning (Cosens and Williams, 2012). Questions remain about how to apply the emerging research on innovative governance approaches and water security, in light of these challenges. That is, how can governance innovation be supported in Canada’s transboundary basins, specifically in the Columbia given the critical juncture poised by the Treaty renegotiation process?
    • The Relationship Between Body Temperature, Heart Rate, Breathing Rate, and Rate of Oxygen Consumption, in the Tegu Lizard (Tupinambis merianae) at Various Levels of Activity

      Piercy, Joanna; Rogers, Kip; Reichert, Michelle; Andrade, Denis V; Abe, Augusto S; Tattersall, Glenn J; Milsom, William K (2015)
      The present study determined whether EEG and/or EMG recordings could be used to reliably define activity states in the Brazilian black and white tegu lizard (Tupinambis merianae) and then examined the interactive effects of temperature and activity states on strategies for matching O2 supply and demand. In a first series of experiments, the rate of oxygen consumption (V˙O2), breathing frequency (f R), heart rate (f H), and EEG and EMG (neck muscle) activity were measured in different sleep/wake states (sleeping, awake but quiet, alert, or moving). In general, metabolic and cardio-respiratory changes were better indictors of the transition from sleep to wake than were changes in the EEG and EMG. In a second series of experiments, the interactive effects of temperature (17, 27 and 37 °C) and activity states on f R, tidal volume (V T), the fraction of oxygen extracted from the lung per breath (FIO2–FEO2), f H, and the cardiac O2 pulse were quantified to determine the relative roles of each of these variables in accommodating changes in V˙O2. The increases in oxygen supply to meet temperature- and activity-induced increases in oxygen demand were produced almost exclusively by increases in f H and f R. Regression analysis showed that the effects of temperature and activity state on the relationships between f H, f R and V˙O2 was to extend a common relationship along a single curve, rather than separate relationships for each metabolic state. For these lizards, the predictive powers of f R and f H were maximized when the effects of changes in temperature, digestive state and activity were pooled. However, the best r 2 values obtained were 0.63 and 0.74 using f R and f H as predictors of met abolic rate, respectively.
    • Relationships between increases in Canadian cannabis stores, sales, and prevalence

      Armstrong, Michael J. (Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 2021-09-22)
      Background: This study estimated the relationships between increases in legal cannabis stores, legal cannabis sales, and cannabis prevalence in Canadian provinces between 2018 and 2020. Method: Government data were used to calculate changes in licensed store numbers, retail sales dollars, and past-three-month users in 10 provinces across six time periods. The resulting N = 60 observations were standardized per million residents aged 15 and up, and then analyzed via linear regression. Results: Store growth explained 46.3% of the variation in provincial sales growth; each added store was associated with added quarterly sales of $305 (95% CI: $208 to $402) thousand. By contrast, store growth explained only 7.7% of the variation in provincial user growth; each added store was associated with 696 (95% CI: 58 to 1334) added users. Conclusion: From 2018 to 2020, Canada’s rapid cannabis retail expansion was strongly related to legal sales growth but only weakly related to prevalence growth. This implies prevalence growth during that period was related more to legalization’s other aspects and/or to the continuation of already-existing trends.
    • Remote doctoral supervision experiences: Challenges and affordances

      Wisker, Gina; McGinn, Michelle K.; Bengtsen, Søren S. E.; Lokhtina, Irina; He, Faye; Cornér, Solveig; Leshem, Shosh; Inouye, Kelsey; Löfström, Erika (Informa UK Limited, 2021-11-25)
      The global pandemic has forced academics to engage in remote doctoral supervision, and the need to understand this activity is greater than ever before. This contribution involved a cross-field review on remote supervision pertinent in the context of a global pandemic. We have utilised the results of an earlier study bringing a supervision model into a pandemic-perspective integrating studies published about and during the pandemic. We identified themes central to remote supervision along five theory-informed dimensions, namely intellectual/cognitive, instrumental, professional/technical, personal/emotional and ontological dimensions, and elaborate these in the light of the new reality of remote supervision.
    • Renforcement des capacités de planification intégrée de l’utilisation du territoire et de l’eau

      Xu, Wei (2015)
      pour l’instant peu d’indications sur la façon d’exploiter ces structures, de les évaluer ou de les améliorer. Il y a un manque de clarté concernant l’identification des composantes de ces structures, ce qui nuit à la compréhension de la gouvernance de l’eau. De plus, certains éléments de la capacité de gouvernance de l’eau sont analysés individuellement, mais on a besoin d’un cadre de travail complet qui permettrait d’évaluer les capacités de gouvernance de l’eau. De récents changements dans la structure de gouvernance de l’eau en Alberta offrent une certaine mesure d’orientation pour la gouvernance de l’eau ainsi qu’une occasion de clarifier d’importantes questions entourant la bonne gouvernance de l’eau.
    • Repetition of chemistry from a recently retracted paper. A cautionary note.

      Bedard, Korey; Ryan, Wilson; Baidilov, Daler; Tius, Marcus; Hudlicky, Tomas (Elsevier, 2018-06-20)
      The base-catalyzed condensation reaction between (E)-4-phenylbut-2-enal and phenylpropargyl aldehyde recently reported in the literature to provide formylcyclobutadiene was repeated under the published conditions. The product obtained was identified as (E)-5-phenyl-2-((E)-styryl)pent-2-en-4-ynal rather than the reported 2-phenyl-3-styrylcyclobutadiene-1-carboxaldehyde. The structure assignment is supported by NMR and IR data and a x-ray structure of the crystalline alcohol obtained by Luche reduction.
    • Representing young and older adult faces: Shared or age-specific prototypes?

      Short, Lindsey A.; Proletti, Valentina; Mondloch, Catherine J. (Taylor & Francis, 2015-09)
      Young adults recognize young adult faces more accurately than older adult faces and are more sensitive to how individual young faces deviate from a norm/prototype. Here we used an adaptation paradigm to examine whether young and older adult faces are represented by separable norms and the extent to which the coding dimensions for these two categories overlap. In Experiment 1, following adaptation to oppositely distorted young and older faces (e.g., expanded young and compressed older faces), adults’ normality judgments simultaneously shifted in opposite directions for the two face categories, providing evidence for separable norms. In Experiment 2, participants were adapted to distorted faces from a single age category (e.g., compressed young); aftereffects transferred across face age but were larger for the face age that matched adaptation. Collectively, these results provide evidence that young and older faces are processed with regard to separable norms that share some underlying coding dimensions. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
    • Reptile thermogenesis and the origins of endothermy

      Tattersall, Glenn J (2016)
      Extant endotherms have high rates of metabolism, elevated body temperatures, usually tight control over body temperature, and a reasonable scope for further increases in metabolism through locomotor activity. Vertebrate ectotherms, on the other hand, rely on behavioural thermoregulation and cardiovascular adjustments to facilitate warming, and generally lack specific biochemical and cellular mechanisms for sustained, elevated metabolism. Nevertheless, the ancestral condition to endothermy is thought to resemble that of many extant reptiles, which raises the question of the origins and selection pressures relevant to the transitional state. Numerous hypotheses have emerged to explain the multiple origins of endothermy in vertebrates, including thermoregulatory, locomotory, and reproductive activity as possible drivers for these sustained and elevated metabolic rates. In this article, I discuss recent evidence for facultative endothermy in an extant lepidosaur, the tegu lizard. Since lepidosaurs are a sister group to the archosaurs, understanding how a novel form of endothermy evolved will open up opportunities to test the compatibility or incompatibility of the various endothermy hypotheses, with potential to elucidate and resolve long contentious ideas in evolutionary physiology.
    • A research capacity strengthening project for infectious diseases in Honduras: experience and lessons learned

      Sanchez, Ana Lourdes; Canales, Maritza; Enriquez, Lourdes; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Zelaya, Ada Argentina; Espinoza, Vilma Esther; Fontecha, Gustavo Adolfo (Co-Action Publishing, 2013-08-07)
      Background: In Honduras, research capacity strengthening (RCS) has not received sufficient attention, but an increase in research competencies would enable local scientists to advance knowledge and contribute to national priorities, including the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Objective: This project aimed at strengthening research capacity in infectious diseases in Honduras, focusing on the School of Microbiology of the National Autonomous University of Honduras (UNAH). The primary objective was the creation of a research-based graduate program for the continued training of researchers. Parallel objectives included institutional strengthening and the facilitation of partnerships and networks. Methods: Based on a multi-stakeholder consultation, an RCS workplan was designed and undertaken from 2007 to 2012. Due to unexpected adverse circumstances, the first 2 years were heavily dedicated to implementing the project's flagship, an MSc program in infectious and zoonotic diseases (MEIZ). In addition, infrastructure improvements and demand-driven continuing education opportunities were facilitated; biosafety and research ethics knowledge and practices were enhanced, and networks fostering collaborative work were created or expanded. Results: The project coincided with the peak of UNAH's radical administrative reform and an unprecedented constitutional crisis. Challenges notwithstanding, in September 2009, MEIZ admitted the first cohort of students, all of whom undertook MDG-related projects graduating successfully by 2012. Importantly, MEIZ has been helpful in expanding the School of Microbiology's traditional etiology-based, disciplinary model to infectious disease teaching and research. By fulfilling its objectives, the project contributed to a stronger research culture upholding safety and ethical values at the university. Conclusions: The resources and strategic vision afforded by the project enhanced UNAH's overall research capacity and its potential contribution to the MDGs. Furthermore, increased research activity and the ensuing improvement in performance indicators at the prime Honduran research institution invoke the need for a national research system in Honduras.
    • Resilience in a Watershed Governance Context: A Primer

      Plummer, Ryan; Krievins, Katrina; Baird, Julia; Brandes, Oliver; Curry, Allen; Imhof, Jack; Mitchell, Simon; Moore, Michele-Lee; Swartling, Asa Gerger (2015-10)
    • Responsiveness of Household Water Demands to Price and Non-Price Conservation Tools

      Dupont, Diane (2015)
      Canada has apparently abundant water resources: approximately 7% of the world’s renewable fresh water with less than one percent of its population. Pressure on the resource is growing with annual water withdrawals increasing by almost 90% in the last twenty years leading Canadians to be second highest per capita users of water in the world. Water utility managers want to put into place conservation strategies that will ensure a more sustainable use of available water supplies, particularly, in the face of increasing variability of precipitation arising from climate change. They are increasingly turning to price tools (raising water rates) instead of traditional non-price tools (summer water restrictions) to encourage conservation. However, there is little information on the responsiveness of consumer demands to price changes. Establishing the efficacy of such a tool for curbing water use is one policy problem addressed by this research. A second problem is how to incorporate price responsiveness into the ability to predict future water demands and revenue streams that will support future infrastructure maintenance and improvements.
    • Rethinking property in c\a\n\a\d\a

      Blackwell, Adrian; Devine, Bonnie; Kaewan Dang, Tiffany; Fortin, David; reid stewart, luugigyoo patrick (Small Walker Press and Salon für Kunstbuch, 2021-11-10)
      Indigenous and settler architects and urbanists reimagine Canadian cities and discuss property division as the hinge between settler colonialism and architecture/urban form. The conversation is informed by the issue 12-13 of the journal Scapegoat: Architecture / Landscape / Political Economy titled c\a\n\a\d\a: delineating nation state capitalism edited by David Fortin and Adrian Blackwell. Rethinking property in c\a\n\a\d\a transcribes a virtual round table conversation co-hosted by the Research Centre in Interdisciplinary Arts and Creative Culture (Centre for Studies in Arts and Culture, Marilyn I. Walker School of Fine and Performing Arts, Brock University) and the Salon für Kunstbuch (Vienna, Austria) on 10 November 2021.
    • Rethinking the Diegetic-Nondiegetic Distinction in the Film Musical

      Penner, Nina (University of Illinois Press, 2017)
      This paper exposes problems with the diegetic/nondiegetic distinction as a means of describing film-musical numbers. Tracing the use of these terms from Plato to present-day cinema studies, the author identifies a divergence of meaning between scholarship on film musicals and that directed toward non-musical films. Film-musical scholars' idiosyncratic use of these terms not only poses obstacles to effective scholarly dialogues across film genres but also leads to logical problems when the standard criteria for diegetic status are combined with the realism criterion presupposed by most scholars of film musicals. As an alternative means of describing differences between film-musical numbers, the author proposes two scalar concepts. One tracks the number's degree of realism in terms of its dramatic context, performers' skill levels and preparation, identification of a fictional source for its accompaniment, and visual effects. The other measures the performance's degree of formality and intended function. At the formal end of the spectrum, there are numbers with a strict separation of performers and audience members, where the performance is intended primarily for aesthetic appreciation or entertainment. On the other end are spontaneous performances that are intended primarily for communicative or expressive purposes, which often have no fictional audience aside from the performers. In between these extremes lie communal performances, in which audience members tend to become performers in the course of the number. Such songs and dances are intended as much for community building or cheering loved ones as for aesthetic appreciation or entertainment.