• On Whether Task Experience of the Peer Differentially Impacts Feedback Scheduling and Skill Acquisition of a Learner

      Patterson, Jae Todd; Mcrae, Matthew; Hansen, Steve (Frontiers Media, 2019)
      Previous research has shown that peers without task experience provided knowledge of results (KR) as effectively as performers who self-controlled their own KR schedule ( McRae et al., 2015 ). In the present experiment, a group of participants first practiced a motor task while self-controlling their KR during a defined acquisition period. Twenty-four hours after their last retention trial, these participants with motor experience then provided KR to a learner during their skill acquisition. Participants were required to learn a serial-timing task with a goal of 2,500 ms. Participants completed a defined acquisition period and then returned 24 h later for a retention test. In retention, learners who received KR from experienced peers were predicted to outperform learners who received KR from inexperienced peers. The results showed that performers learned the task similarly, independent of the peer’s previous task experience. However, the peer groups differed in their frequency of providing KR to the learner and showed a discrepancy between their self-reported KR provision strategy and when they actually provided KR. The results have theoretical implications for understanding the impact of self-control in motor learning contexts.
    • Open Access funds: getting a bigger bang for our bucks

      Yates, Elizabeth; Hampson, Crystal; Moore, Patricia; Glushko, Robert (2015-11)
    • Open Access funds: getting a bigger bang for our bucks

      Yates, Elizabeth; Hampson, Crystal; Moore, Patricia; Glushko, Robert (Charleston Library Conference 2015, 2015-11)
      Many libraries offer open access publishing funds to support authors in paying article processing charges (APC) levied by some OA journals. However, there are few standard practices for managing or assessing these funds. The Open Access Working Group (OAWG) of the Canadian Association of Research Libraries (CARL) was asked to investigate and articulate best practices for successful open access fund management. In spring 2015, the OAWG surveyed Canadian academic libraries with OA funds to review their criteria and collect feedback on current practices. The survey proved timely because many OA funds are under review. Shrinking budgets, ending pilots, and questions around scale and sustainability of funds provide context for some institutions revisiting or reconfiguring these funds. At the same time, Canada’s principal funding agencies have issued the new Tri-Agency Open Access Policy on Publications (effective May 2015) which mandates open access for funded research and which is increasing the demand from researchers for financial support from their institutions to pay APCs and other OA costs. This paper addresses findings of the survey, some best practices for open access publishing fund management, counter-arguments for OA funds, as well as other strategies developed by international agencies including SPARC.
    • Opera Singing and Fictional Truth

      Penner, Nina (Wiley Subscription Services, Inc, 2013)
      This paper concerns the ontological status and authorship of the music in opera, refining and expanding the work of Edward T. Cone (1989) and Peter Kivy (1991, 1994). Their proposal that opera characters live in a world fundamentally different from ours, a marvelous place where one’s every thought and deed passes to music—and where song rather than speech is the normative mode of communication/expression—has not received the attention it deserves in opera studies. According to the prevailing understanding of operatic metaphysics, proposed by Carolyn Abbate (1991), the majority of an opera’s music is not part of the ontology of the opera’s fictional world. Music is used as a medium to represent non-musical communicative/expressive acts. Abbate’s theory is predicated upon the assumption that it is possible to separate the linguistic and musical components of characters’ utterances and accord them different ontological statuses. The former is a part of the fictional world, but the latter is not, and thus characters do not have epistemic access to it. The problem is that song is the fusion of words and music. An adequate account of the meaning and illocutionary force of such an utterance can only arise from the consideration of both constituent components. Denying characters epistemic access to the musical portion of the utterances they and others make hinders their ability to understand these utterances, and leaves the interpreter unable to explain how they gain the knowledge that causes them to act in the manner that they do. My extension of Cone’s and Kivy’s work offers a more comprehensive examination of the orchestral music, and addresses several neglected phenomena that are important to the study of modern opera.
    • Oral history and the epistemology of testimony

      Kenyon, Tim (Routledge (Taylor and Francis), 2016)
      Social epistemology has paid little attention to oral historiography as a source of expert insight into the credibility of testimony. One extant suggestion, however, is that oral historians treat testimony with a default trust reflecting a standing warrant for accepting testimony. The view that there is such a standing warrant is sometimes known as the Acceptance Principle for Testimony (APT). I argue that the practices of oral historians do not count in support of APT, all in all. Experts have commonly described oral traditions as oriented towards political, cultural and entertainment ends, and not only—or not even—towards an accurate depiction of past events. Even when accuracy is the emphasis, many historians of oral tradition do not trust such testimony as APT would suggest; the importance of gathering supporting evidence is a consistent emphasis. Yet oral historiography, both of traditions and more generally, does hold out lessons for the epistemology of testimony, implicating a wider range of social and contextual factors than the philosophical literature might otherwise reflect. Perhaps most importantly, it confirms the critical epistemological role of the audience in interpreting testimony and actively constructing testimonial contexts, a point that extends quite naturally to common testimonial exchanges.
    • Overcoming Language Barriers for Non-Native Speakers of English: Learner Autonomy in Academic Libraries

      Bordonaro, Karen (Association of College & Research Libraries, 2019)
      The purpose of this chapter is to give librarians a brief overview of the theory of learner autonomy and to explain how fostering its presence in libraries can help overcome language barriers for non-native speakers of English.
    • An oversimplification of physiological principles leads to flawed macroecological analyses

      Boyles, Justin G.; Levesque, Danielle L; Nowack, Julia; Wojciechowski, Michal S.; Stawski, Clare; Fuller, Andrea; Smit, Ben; Tattersall, Glenn J. (Wiley, 2019-09-15)
    • Oxygen toxicity: cellular mechanisms in normobaric hyperoxia

      Alva, Ricardo; Baiton, Adam; Bobinski, Ava; Mirza, Maha; Lazaran, Lucas; Samokysh, Lyuda; Obioru, Dede; Stuart, Jeffrey A.; Al Makhoul, Tala (Springer, 2022)
      In clinical settings, oxygen therapy is administered to preterm neonates and to adults with acute and chronic conditions such as COVID-19, pulmonary fibrosis, sepsis, cardiac arrest, carbon monoxide poisoning, and acute heart failure. In non-clinical settings, divers and astronauts may also receive supplemental oxygen. In addition, under current standard cell culture practices, cells are maintained in atmospheric oxygen, which is several times higher than what most cells experience in vivo. In all the above scenarios, the elevated oxygen levels (hyperoxia) can lead to increased production of reactive oxygen species from mitochondria, NADPH oxidases, and other sources. This can cause cell dysfunction or death. Acute hyperoxia injury impairs various cellular functions, manifesting ultimately as physiological deficits. Chronic hyperoxia, particularly in the neonate, can disrupt development, leading to permanent deficiencies. In this review, we discuss the cellular activities and pathways affected by hyperoxia, as well as strategies that have been developed to ameliorate injury.
    • Parenting Teamwork: The impact of a fathering intervention on mothers and infants in Vietnam

      Rempel, John K.; Rempel, Lynn A.; Hoa, Dinh Thi Phuong; Vui, Le Thi; Long, Tran Khanh (Child Development, 2019-04-01)
      A multi-faceted, relationally-focused intervention involving group and individual pre-and post-natal counseling, print resources, and community resources encouraged 390 fathers of newborn infants in Vietnam to responsively support mothers and work with them as a parenting team. Both partners completed questionnaires pre-birth and 1, 4, and 9-months post-birth on measures of breastfeeding support, exclusive breastfeeding duration, relationship quality, and infant development. Compared to 412 comparison group couples, intervention couples evidenced greater father support, especially in terms of helping and responsiveness to the mother’s needs. This support predicted longer exclusive breastfeeding duration, improved relationship quality, and higher levels of infant development at 9 months. Sensitively working together with mothers as a coordinated team enhanced couple’s relationship functioning and improved children’s developmental outcomes.
    • Peer idealization, internal examples, and the meta-philosophy of genius in the epistemology of disagreement

      Kenyon, Tim (Candian Philosophical Foundation, 2019-06-03)
      The epistemology of disagreement (EoD) has developed around a highly idealized notion of epistemic peers. The analysis of examples in the literature has not been very effective at mitigating this idealization, due to a tendency to focus on cases of extant philosophical disputes. This makes it difficult to spotlight the respects in which discussants are non-ideal, because the discussants are disciplinary colleagues. At the same time, widespread attitudes in academic philosophy about the importance of raw intelligence in doing philosophy can mislead us about the fragility and unpredictability of expertise. The use of such examples is not strong methodology.
    • Peer pressures: Social instability stress in adolescence and social deficits in adulthood in a rodent model

      McCormick, Cheryl M; Hodges, Travis E; Simone, Jonathan J (Elsevier Ltd, 2014)
      Studies in animal models generate and test hypotheses regarding developmental stagespecific vulnerability that might inform research questions about human development. In both rats and humans, peer relationships are qualitatively different in adolescence than at other stages of development, and social experiences in adolescence are considered important determinants of adult social function. This review describes our adolescent rat social instability stress model and the long-lasting effects social instability has on social behaviour in adulthood as well as the possible neural underpinnings. Effects of other adolescent social stress experiences in rats on social behaviours in adulthood also are reviewed. We discuss the role of hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) function and glucocorticoid release in conferring differential susceptibility to social experiences in adolescents compared to adults. We propose that although differential perception of social experiences rather than immature HPA function may underlie the heightened vulnerability of adolescents to social instability, the changes in the trajectory of brain development and resultant social deficits likely are mediated by the heightened glucocorticoid release in response to repeated social stressors in adolescence compared to in adulthood.
    • Peer-to-Peer Energy Trading and Energy Conversion in Interconnected Multi-Energy Microgrids Using Multi-Agent Deep Reinforcement Learning

      Chen, Tianyi; Bu, Shengrong; Liu, Xue; Kang, Jikun; Yu, F. Richard; Han, Zhu (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2021)
      A key aspect of multi-energy microgrids (MEMGs) is the capability to efficiently convert and store energy in order to reduce the costs and environmental impact. Peer-to-peer (P2P) energy trading is a novel paradigm for decentralized energy market designs. In this paper, we investigate the external P2P energy trading problem and internal energy conversion problem within interconnected residential, commercial and industrial MEMGs. These two problems are complex decision-making problems with enormous high-dimensional data and uncertainty, so a multi-agent deep reinforcement learning approach combining the multi-agent actor-critic algorithm with the twin delayed deep deterministic policy gradient algorithm is proposed. The proposed approach can handle the high-dimensional continuous action space and aligns with the nature of P2P energy trading with multiple MEMGs. Simulation results based on three real-world MG datasets show that the proposed approach significantly reduces each MG's average hourly operation cost. The impact of carbon tax pricing is also considered.
    • Perceptions of Technology and Manifestations of Language Learner Autonomy

      Bordonaro, Karen (Computer-Assisted Language Learning Electronic Journal, 2003-06)
      a grounded theory study investigating perceptions of technology by learners of English as a second language
    • The perfect space: classroom environments and learning outcomes

      Yates, Elizabeth; Cotton, Justine (2015-01-27)
      What impact does a classroom space have on learning outcomes for students? Does a perfect library teaching space exist? This presentation highlights the findings of a 2014 survey of teaching librarians and library staff at Ontario universities and colleges exploring the effect of library/learning commons learning spaces on instructional design and learning outcomes.
    • Personal Librarians: can we help with student retention?

      Yates, Elizabeth (2018-03)
      A strong body of research shows positive correlations between use of library resources and student success amd retention. Research on retention also shows the importance of students feeling connected to their university community. Personal librarian programs address both of those outcomes by promoting the use of library services and resources and by building positive relationships between students and their librarians. This lightning talk will describe a new personal librarian program aimed at improving student retention rates at Brock University in Ontario, Canada, where the university’s retention rates are below the provincial average and increasing retention is a campus priority.
    • Phenological and social characterization of three Lasioglossum (Dialictus) species inferred from long-term trapping collections

      Journal of Hymenoptera Research, 2021-12-30
      Detailed social and phenological data collected from nesting aggregations exist for relatively few sweat bee species because nesting aggregations are rarely found in large numbers, even when local populations are highly abundant. This limits researchers’ abilities to assess the social status of many species, which in turn, limits our ability to trace the sequence of evolutionary steps between alternative social states. To address this problem, we demonstrate the utility of rehydrated, pinned specimens from pan trap and netting collections for generating inferences about the phenology and social status of a well-studied sweat bee species, Lasioglossum (Dialictus) laevissimum. A detailed comparison of phenology and reproductive traits, between pinned specimens and those in a previous nesting study, produced similar results for bivoltine foraging activity and eusocial colony organization typical in this species. We then used pinned specimens from monitoring studies to describe, for the first time, the foraging phenology and social behaviour of two additional Dialictus species, L. hitchensi and L. ellisiae. Both L. hitchensi and L. ellisiae each exhibited two peaks in abundance during their breeding seasons, indicating two periods of foraging activity, which correspond to provisioning of spring and summer broods. Differences in body size, wear, and ovarian development of spring and summer females indicated that L. hitchensi is most likely eusocial, while L. ellisiae is either solitary or communal. This study demonstrates that analyses of specimens obtained from flower and pan trap collections can be used for assessing the phenology and social organization of temperate sweat bees in the absence of nesting data. The phenological and social lability of many sweat bee species make them ideal for studying geographic and temporal variability in sociality, and analyses of pan trap collections can make these studies possible when direct observations are impossible.
    • A pilot project to develop an integrated Canadian hydro-economic model

      Dupont, Diane (2015)
      Governments in Canada currently do not have the capacity to analyze the two-way relationship between economic activities and hydrologic conditions at the river basin level. Canada also does not have an integrated hydro-economic computer model for practical policy and decision-making towards sustainable water use. This project will demonstrate the feasibility and efficacy of developing such integrated models. Furthermore, the model will provide governments with new ways to assess both the implications of economic development strategies on water resources and the implications of water allocation policies on local economic activity.
    • Plant microbiome analysis after Metarhizium amendment reveals increases in abundance of plant growth-promoting organisms and maintenance of disease-suppressive soil

      Waller, Alison S.; Behie, Scott W.; Bidochka, Michael J.; Barelli, Larissa (Public Library of Science, 2020-01)
      The microbial community in the plant rhizosphere is vital to plant productivity and disease resistance. Alterations in the composition and diversity of species within this community could be detrimental if microbes suppressing the activity of pathogens are removed. Species of the insect-pathogenic fungus, Metarhizium, commonly employed as biological control agents against crop pests, have recently been identified as plant root colonizers and provide a variety of benefits (e.g. growth promotion, drought resistance, nitrogen acquisition). However, the impact of Metarhizium amendment on the rhizosphere microbiome has yet to be elucidated. Using Illumina sequencing, we examined the community profiles (bacteria and fungi) of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) rhizosphere (loose soil and plant root) after amendment with M. robertsii conidia, in the presence and absence of an insect host. Although alpha diversity was not significantly affected overall, there were numerous examples of plant growth-promoting organisms that significantly increased with Metarhizium amendment (Bradyrhizobium, Flavobacterium, Chaetomium, Trichoderma). Specifically, the abundance of Bradyrhizobium, a group of nitrogen-fixing bacteria, was confirmed to be increased using a qPCR assay with genus-specific primers. In addition, the ability of the microbiome to suppress the activity of a known bean root pathogen was assessed. The development of disease symptoms after application with Fusarium solani f. sp. phaseoli was visible in the hypocotyl and upper root of plants grown in sterilized soil but was suppressed during growth in microbiome soil and soil treated with M. robertsii. Successful amendment of agricultural soils with biocontrol agents such as Metarhizium necessitates a comprehensive understanding of the effects on the diversity of the rhizosphere microbiome. Such research is fundamentally important towards sustainable agricultural practices to improve overall plant health and productivity.
    • Post-hatch heat warms adult beaks: irreversible physiological plasticity in Japanese quail

      Tattersall, Glenn (Royal Society Publishing, 2013-08)
      Across taxa, the early rearing environment contributes to adult morphological and physiological variation. For example, in birds, environmental temperature plays a key role in shaping bill size and clinal trends across latitudinal/thermal gradients. Such patterns support the role of the bill as a thermal window and in thermal balance. It remains unknown whether bill size and thermal function are reversibly plastic. We raised Japanese quail in warm (308C) or cold (158C) environments and then at a common intermediate temperature. We predicted that birds raised in cold temperatures would develop smaller bills than warm-reared individuals, and that regulation of blood flow to the bill in response to changing temperatures would parallel the bill’s role in thermal balance. Cold-reared birds developed shorter bills, although bill size exhibited ‘catch-up’ growth once adults were placed at a common temperature. Despite having lived in a common thermal environment as adults, individuals that were initially reared in the warmth had higher bill surface temperatures than coldreared individuals, particularly under cold conditions. This suggests that blood vessel density and/or the control over blood flow in the bill retained a memory of early thermal ontogeny. We conclude that post-hatch temperature reversibly affects adult bill morphology but irreversibly influences the thermal physiological role of bills and may play an underappreciated role in avian energetics