• Navigating babysitting as liminal, gendered, and undervalued work

      Easterbrook, Riley; Raby, Rebecca; Lehmann, Wolfgang (Sage Journals, 2020-09-14)
      Babysitting is a common early-work experience in the West, yet there is little research on babysitters. From in-depth, qualitative interviews with 16 babysitters, we explore three themes related to liminality and gender inequality in babysitting. First, babysitting is a skilled job; many babysitters undertook formal and informal training and used it at work. Second, babysitters occupy a liminal position between childhood and adulthood, bringing challenges and opportunities at work. Finally, babysitters thoughtfully negotiate pay, but sometimes experience challenges doing so.
    • Navigating the Tensions in Collaborative Watershed Governance: Water Governance and Indigenous Communities in British Columbia, Canada

      Simms, Rosie; Harris, Leila; Joe, Nadia; Bakker, Karen (EDGES, 2016-06)
      First Nations in British Columbia (BC), Canada, have historically been—and largely continue to be—excluded from colonial governments’ decision-making and management frameworks for fresh water. However, in light of recent legal and legislative changes, and also changes in water governance and policy, there is growing emphasis in scholarship and among legal, policy and advocacy communities on shifting water governance away from a centralized single authority towards an approach that is watershed-based, collaborative, and involves First Nations as central to decisionmaking processes. Drawing on community-based research, interviews with First Nations natural resource staff and community members, and document review, the paper analyzes the tensions in collaborative water governance, by identifying First Nations’ concerns within the current water governance system and exploring how a move towards collaborative watershed governance may serve to either address, or further entrench, these concerns. This paper concludes with recommendations for collaborative water governance frameworks which are specifically focused on British Columbia, but which have relevance to broader debates over Indigenous water governance.
    • New conserved vorticity integrals for moving surfaces in multi-dimensional fluid flow

      Anco, Stephen C. (Springer Basel, 2014-09)
      For inviscid fluid flow in any n-dimensional Riemannian manifold, new conserved vorticity integrals generalizing helicity, enstrophy, and entropy circulation are derived for lower-dimensional surfaces that move along fluid streamlines. Conditions are determined for which the integrals yield constants of motion for the fluid. In the case when an inviscid fluid is isentropic, these new constants of motion generalize Kelvin’s circulation theorem from closed loops to closed surfaces of any dimension.
    • New pathways for teaching and learning: the posthumanist approach

      Blaikie, Fiona; Daigle, Christine; Vasseur, Liette (Canadian Commission for UNESCO, 2020)
      “How does one “posthuman” teach another? Applying a posthumanist approach to education involves rethinking pedagogy, knowledge production and dissemination. If there is a need to understand the world differently, we must “defamiliarize [our] mental habits” (Braidotti 2019, 77) by moving away from a humanist worldview. This worldview has not only shaped our thoughts, but also our institutions. Universities and education systems are structured around binaried teacher-learner relationships, as well as seeing disciplines and school subjects as discrete entitites with their own objects and methods of study and practices. What changes must we bring about so that we can imagine and understand the world and ourselves in new ways? A posthuman approach can change the way we value ourselves, other species, the planet, and beyond. It requires thinking about the system as a whole instead of each agent as a perfect independent entity; it requires valuing all agents and their relationality.”
    • Non-HDL cholesterol level and depression among Canadian elderly—a cross-sectional analysis of the baseline data from the CLSA

      Liu, Jian (Canadian Science Publishing, 2020-09-11)
      To explore whether nonhigh-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-c) is associated with depression, a total of 26 819 Canadians aged 45–85 from the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging (CLSA) were included in analysis. Non-HDL-c, the difference between total-c and HDL-c, was categorized into five levels, i.e., <2.6, 2.6 to <3.7, 3.7 to <4.8, 4.8 to 5.7, and ≥5.7 mmol/L. History of clinical depression was collected by questionnaire at an in-home interview, and current potential depression status was determined by CES-D10 (Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale 10 questions version) score, i.e., ≥10 vs. <10. Logistic continuation ratio model for ordinal data was used to estimate the odds of being at or above a higher non-HDL-c category for depression status. Compared with those without clinical depression history and currently undepressed, the adjusted odds ratios (95% CI) were 1.09 (1.02, 1.17) for those without clinical depression history but currently depressed, 1.05 (0.98, 1.12) for those had clinical depression history but currently undepressed, and 1.21 (1.10, 1.32) for those had clinical depression history and currently depressed. The average of non-HDL-c for four depression groups were 3.64, 3.71, 3.69, and 3.82 mmol/L, respectively, and group 4 was statistically higher than others (p < 0.001). In conclu- sion, people with both current depression and a history clinical depression are at an increased risk of having high level of non-HDL-c.
    • Nonsuicidal Self-Injury and Suicidal Behavior: A Latent Class Analysis among Young Adults

      Hamza, Chloe E.; Willoughby, Teena (PLoS, 2013-03-27)
      Although there is a general consensus among researchers that engagement in nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is associated with increased risk for suicidal behavior, little attention has been given to whether suicidal risk varies among individuals engaging in NSSI. To identify individuals with a history of NSSI who are most at risk for suicidal behavior, we examined individual variability in both NSSI and suicidal behavior among a sample of young adults with a history of NSSI (N = 439, Mage = 19.1). Participants completed self-report measures assessing NSSI, suicidal behavior, and psychosocial adjustment (e.g., depressive symptoms, daily hassles). We conducted a latent class analysis using several characteristics of NSSI and suicidal behaviors as class indicators. Three subgroups of individuals were identified: 1) an infrequent NSSI/not high risk for suicidal behavior group, 2) a frequent NSSI/not high risk for suicidal behavior group, and 3) a frequent NSSI/high risk for suicidal behavior group. Follow-up analyses indicated that individuals in the ‘frequent NSSI/high risk for suicidal behavior’ group met the clinical-cut off score for high suicidal risk and reported significantly greater levels of suicidal ideation, attempts, and risk for future suicidal behavior as compared to the other two classes. Thus, this study is the first to identity variability in suicidal risk among individuals engaging in frequent and multiple methods of NSSI. Class 3 was also differentiated by higher levels of psychosocial impairment relative to the other two classes, as well as a comparison group of non-injuring young adults. Results underscore the importance of assessing individual differences in NSSI characteristics, as well as psychosocial impairment, when assessing risk for suicidal behavior.
    • De nouvelles voies pour l’enseignement et l’apprentissage : l’approche posthumaniste

      Blaikie, Fiona; Daigle, Christine; Vasseur, Liette (Commission canadienne pour l’UNESCO, 2020)
      La pédagogie, c’est-à-dire la méthode et la pratique de l’enseignement, est relationnelle et complexe, et elle dépend des conditions du moment. Si l’enseignement à distance en ligne peut sembler judicieux, le fait d’y recourir de façon systématique pour remplacer l’enseignement indique une vision étroite de l’éducation que l’on considère, à tort, comme étant une simple transmission de contenu. Selon la logique à l’œuvre dans la crise actuelle, puisque le contenu ne peut être diffusé en classe, les enseignants et leurs élèves peuvent rapidement adopter d’autres outils technologiques pour assurer l’enseignement et l’apprentissage à distance. Cette approche exige des élèves qu’ils apprennent dans une sorte de vide, et leurs parents, tuteurs ou gardiens doivent assumer le rôle des éducateurs, souvent sans avoir accès au matériel nécessaire ni à l’Internet, ou sans avoir la capacité, le temps et l’intérêt nécessaires pour faciliter l’apprentissage (Cerna, 2020; ONU, 2020).
    • Novel energy savings to multiple stressors in birds: The ultradian regulation of body temperature

      Tattersall, Glenn J; Rousesel, Damien; Voituron, Yann; Teulier, Loic (Royal Society Publishing, 2016-09-28)
      This study aimed to examine thermoregulatory responses in birds facing two commonly experienced stressors, cold and fasting. Logging devices allowing long-term and precise access to internal body temperature were placed within the gizzards of ducklings acclimated to cold (CA) (5°C) or thermoneutrality (TN) (25°C). The animals were then examined under three equal 4-day periods: ad libitum feeding, fasting and re-feeding. Through the analysis of daily as well as short-term, or ultradian, variations of body temperature, we showed that while ducklings at TN show only a modest decline in daily thermoregulatory parameters when fasted, they exhibit reduced surface temperatures from key sites of vascular heat exchange during fasting. The CA birds, on the other hand, significantly reduced their short-term variations of body temperature while increasing long-term variability when fasting. This phenomenon would allow the CA birds to reduce the energetic cost of body temperature maintenance under fasting. By analysing ultradian regulation of body temperature, we describe a means by which an endotherm appears to lower thermoregulatory costs in response to the combined stressors of cold and fasting.
    • On Whether Task Experience of the Peer Differentially Impacts Feedback Scheduling and Skill Acquisition of a Learner

      Patterson, Jae Todd; Mcrae, Matthew; Hansen, Steve (Frontiers Media, 2019)
      Previous research has shown that peers without task experience provided knowledge of results (KR) as effectively as performers who self-controlled their own KR schedule ( McRae et al., 2015 ). In the present experiment, a group of participants first practiced a motor task while self-controlling their KR during a defined acquisition period. Twenty-four hours after their last retention trial, these participants with motor experience then provided KR to a learner during their skill acquisition. Participants were required to learn a serial-timing task with a goal of 2,500 ms. Participants completed a defined acquisition period and then returned 24 h later for a retention test. In retention, learners who received KR from experienced peers were predicted to outperform learners who received KR from inexperienced peers. The results showed that performers learned the task similarly, independent of the peer’s previous task experience. However, the peer groups differed in their frequency of providing KR to the learner and showed a discrepancy between their self-reported KR provision strategy and when they actually provided KR. The results have theoretical implications for understanding the impact of self-control in motor learning contexts.
    • Open Access funds: getting a bigger bang for our bucks

      Yates, Elizabeth; Hampson, Crystal; Moore, Patricia; Glushko, Robert (2015-11)
    • Open Access funds: getting a bigger bang for our bucks

      Yates, Elizabeth; Hampson, Crystal; Moore, Patricia; Glushko, Robert (Charleston Library Conference 2015, 2015-11)
      Many libraries offer open access publishing funds to support authors in paying article processing charges (APC) levied by some OA journals. However, there are few standard practices for managing or assessing these funds. The Open Access Working Group (OAWG) of the Canadian Association of Research Libraries (CARL) was asked to investigate and articulate best practices for successful open access fund management. In spring 2015, the OAWG surveyed Canadian academic libraries with OA funds to review their criteria and collect feedback on current practices. The survey proved timely because many OA funds are under review. Shrinking budgets, ending pilots, and questions around scale and sustainability of funds provide context for some institutions revisiting or reconfiguring these funds. At the same time, Canada’s principal funding agencies have issued the new Tri-Agency Open Access Policy on Publications (effective May 2015) which mandates open access for funded research and which is increasing the demand from researchers for financial support from their institutions to pay APCs and other OA costs. This paper addresses findings of the survey, some best practices for open access publishing fund management, counter-arguments for OA funds, as well as other strategies developed by international agencies including SPARC.
    • Opera Singing and Fictional Truth

      Penner, Nina (Wiley Subscription Services, Inc, 2013)
      This paper concerns the ontological status and authorship of the music in opera, refining and expanding the work of Edward T. Cone (1989) and Peter Kivy (1991, 1994). Their proposal that opera characters live in a world fundamentally different from ours, a marvelous place where one’s every thought and deed passes to music—and where song rather than speech is the normative mode of communication/expression—has not received the attention it deserves in opera studies. According to the prevailing understanding of operatic metaphysics, proposed by Carolyn Abbate (1991), the majority of an opera’s music is not part of the ontology of the opera’s fictional world. Music is used as a medium to represent non-musical communicative/expressive acts. Abbate’s theory is predicated upon the assumption that it is possible to separate the linguistic and musical components of characters’ utterances and accord them different ontological statuses. The former is a part of the fictional world, but the latter is not, and thus characters do not have epistemic access to it. The problem is that song is the fusion of words and music. An adequate account of the meaning and illocutionary force of such an utterance can only arise from the consideration of both constituent components. Denying characters epistemic access to the musical portion of the utterances they and others make hinders their ability to understand these utterances, and leaves the interpreter unable to explain how they gain the knowledge that causes them to act in the manner that they do. My extension of Cone’s and Kivy’s work offers a more comprehensive examination of the orchestral music, and addresses several neglected phenomena that are important to the study of modern opera.
    • Oral history and the epistemology of testimony

      Kenyon, Tim (Routledge (Taylor and Francis), 2016)
      Social epistemology has paid little attention to oral historiography as a source of expert insight into the credibility of testimony. One extant suggestion, however, is that oral historians treat testimony with a default trust reflecting a standing warrant for accepting testimony. The view that there is such a standing warrant is sometimes known as the Acceptance Principle for Testimony (APT). I argue that the practices of oral historians do not count in support of APT, all in all. Experts have commonly described oral traditions as oriented towards political, cultural and entertainment ends, and not only—or not even—towards an accurate depiction of past events. Even when accuracy is the emphasis, many historians of oral tradition do not trust such testimony as APT would suggest; the importance of gathering supporting evidence is a consistent emphasis. Yet oral historiography, both of traditions and more generally, does hold out lessons for the epistemology of testimony, implicating a wider range of social and contextual factors than the philosophical literature might otherwise reflect. Perhaps most importantly, it confirms the critical epistemological role of the audience in interpreting testimony and actively constructing testimonial contexts, a point that extends quite naturally to common testimonial exchanges.
    • Overcoming Language Barriers for Non-Native Speakers of English: Learner Autonomy in Academic Libraries

      Bordonaro, Karen (Association of College & Research Libraries, 2019)
      The purpose of this chapter is to give librarians a brief overview of the theory of learner autonomy and to explain how fostering its presence in libraries can help overcome language barriers for non-native speakers of English.
    • An oversimplification of physiological principles leads to flawed macroecological analyses

      Boyles, Justin G.; Levesque, Danielle L; Nowack, Julia; Wojciechowski, Michal S.; Stawski, Clare; Fuller, Andrea; Smit, Ben; Tattersall, Glenn J. (Wiley, 2019-09-15)
      EDITORIAL
    • Parenting Teamwork: The impact of a fathering intervention on mothers and infants in Vietnam

      Rempel, John K.; Rempel, Lynn A.; Hoa, Dinh Thi Phuong; Vui, Le Thi; Long, Tran Khanh (Child Development, 2019-04-01)
      A multi-faceted, relationally-focused intervention involving group and individual pre-and post-natal counseling, print resources, and community resources encouraged 390 fathers of newborn infants in Vietnam to responsively support mothers and work with them as a parenting team. Both partners completed questionnaires pre-birth and 1, 4, and 9-months post-birth on measures of breastfeeding support, exclusive breastfeeding duration, relationship quality, and infant development. Compared to 412 comparison group couples, intervention couples evidenced greater father support, especially in terms of helping and responsiveness to the mother’s needs. This support predicted longer exclusive breastfeeding duration, improved relationship quality, and higher levels of infant development at 9 months. Sensitively working together with mothers as a coordinated team enhanced couple’s relationship functioning and improved children’s developmental outcomes.
    • Peer idealization, internal examples, and the meta-philosophy of genius in the epistemology of disagreement

      Kenyon, Tim (Candian Philosophical Foundation, 2019-06-03)
      The epistemology of disagreement (EoD) has developed around a highly idealized notion of epistemic peers. The analysis of examples in the literature has not been very effective at mitigating this idealization, due to a tendency to focus on cases of extant philosophical disputes. This makes it difficult to spotlight the respects in which discussants are non-ideal, because the discussants are disciplinary colleagues. At the same time, widespread attitudes in academic philosophy about the importance of raw intelligence in doing philosophy can mislead us about the fragility and unpredictability of expertise. The use of such examples is not strong methodology.
    • Peer pressures: Social instability stress in adolescence and social deficits in adulthood in a rodent model

      McCormick, Cheryl M; Hodges, Travis E; Simone, Jonathan J (Elsevier Ltd, 2014)
      Studies in animal models generate and test hypotheses regarding developmental stagespecific vulnerability that might inform research questions about human development. In both rats and humans, peer relationships are qualitatively different in adolescence than at other stages of development, and social experiences in adolescence are considered important determinants of adult social function. This review describes our adolescent rat social instability stress model and the long-lasting effects social instability has on social behaviour in adulthood as well as the possible neural underpinnings. Effects of other adolescent social stress experiences in rats on social behaviours in adulthood also are reviewed. We discuss the role of hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) function and glucocorticoid release in conferring differential susceptibility to social experiences in adolescents compared to adults. We propose that although differential perception of social experiences rather than immature HPA function may underlie the heightened vulnerability of adolescents to social instability, the changes in the trajectory of brain development and resultant social deficits likely are mediated by the heightened glucocorticoid release in response to repeated social stressors in adolescence compared to in adulthood.
    • Peer-to-Peer Energy Trading and Energy Conversion in Interconnected Multi-Energy Microgrids Using Multi-Agent Deep Reinforcement Learning

      Chen, Tianyi; Bu, Shengrong; Liu, Xue; Kang, Jikun; Yu, F. Richard; Han, Zhu (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2021)
      A key aspect of multi-energy microgrids (MEMGs) is the capability to efficiently convert and store energy in order to reduce the costs and environmental impact. Peer-to-peer (P2P) energy trading is a novel paradigm for decentralized energy market designs. In this paper, we investigate the external P2P energy trading problem and internal energy conversion problem within interconnected residential, commercial and industrial MEMGs. These two problems are complex decision-making problems with enormous high-dimensional data and uncertainty, so a multi-agent deep reinforcement learning approach combining the multi-agent actor-critic algorithm with the twin delayed deep deterministic policy gradient algorithm is proposed. The proposed approach can handle the high-dimensional continuous action space and aligns with the nature of P2P energy trading with multiple MEMGs. Simulation results based on three real-world MG datasets show that the proposed approach significantly reduces each MG's average hourly operation cost. The impact of carbon tax pricing is also considered.