• Managing Water and Watersheds for Co-benefits: Human well-being and ecosystem services in the Credit River Watershed

      Bunch, Martin; Morrison, Karen (2015)
      The importance of ecosystem services (ES) to human well-being, and of management of water and other watershed resources in maintaining such services, is not commonly understood by the general public, and not well-enough articulated by environmental management and governance organizations. Beneficiaries of such services are often unaware of the nature of their dependence upon supporting ecosystems. This is particularly true in urbanized watersheds, to the point where researchers discuss “nature deficit disorder” as an aspect of this disconnection. Watershed management organizations are aware of such benefits to watershed residents, but they very rarely track and report measures of human well-being to demonstrate the efficacy of their work. In managing water and watersheds such as the Credit River watershed, managers and policy makers deal with complex coupled human and natural systems that are characterized by irreducible uncertainty, multiple stakeholders, relationships that are often multiple, diffuse and interacting, and that are affected by strong driving forces such as urbanization and climate change. In such problematic situations the positioning of interventions on the landscape is an area of increased interest.
    • The Marzamemi Maritime Heritage Project: from the seabed to the museum and beyond

      Leidwanger, Justin; Greene, Elizabeth S.; Repola, Leopoldo; Sgroi, Farbizio (2021)
      The Marzamemi Maritime Heritage Project is a collaborative excavation, survey and heritage management initiative along south-east Sicily focusing on long-term structures of human interaction from prehistory through classical antiquity and up to the present. Situated between west and east, south and north, this corner of the island provides a vantage point for varied material manifestations of connectivity across millennia. Between 2013 and 2019, the project launched new investigations of the 6th-century AD Marzamemi 2 wreck (also known as the ‘church wreck’), which was originally explored by Gerhard Kapitän in the 1960s. The vessel sank while carrying perhaps 100 tonnes of prefabricated architectural elements – column shafts, capitals, bases and other decorative furnishings – in part intended to decorate a church. The project simultaneously aims to re-embed this and other local maritime heritage within the broader context of countless journeys along this shore. Through survey of historic maritime material culture alongside innovative museum development and immersive exhibits, we juxtapose ancient ships with still older and more recent heritage at the heart of this ‘Middle Sea’. In doing so, we aim to broaden 21st-century maritime archaeology in a way that leverages the past for new and challenging engagement with contemporary mobility and human connectivity.
    • Meaningful connections in dementia end of life care in long term care homes

      McCleary, Lynn; Thompson, Genevieve N; Venturato, Lorraine; Wickson-Griffiths, Abigail; Hunter, Paulette; Sussman, Tamara; Kaasalainen, Sharon (BMC, 2018)
      Background: Most persons with dementia die in long term care (LTC) homes, where palliative approaches are appropriate. However, palliative approaches have not been widely implemented and there is limited understanding of staff and family experiences of dying and bereavement in this context. Method: This descriptive qualitative study explored family and staff experiences of end of life and end of life care for persons with dementia in LTC homes. Eighteen focus groups were conducted with 77 staff members and 19 relatives of persons with dementia at four LTC homes in four Canadian provinces. Results: Three themes emerged: knowing the resident, the understanding that they are all human beings, and the long slow decline and death of residents with dementia. Discussion: Intimate knowledge of the person with dementia, obtained through longstanding relationships, was foundational for person-centred end of life care. Health care aides need to be included in end of life care planning to take advantage of their knowledge of residents with dementia. There were unmet bereavement support needs among staff, particularly health care aides. Persons with dementia were affected by death around them and existing rituals for marking deaths in LTC homes may not fit their needs. Staff were uncomfortable answering relatives’ questions about end of life. Conclusions: Longstanding intimate relationships enhanced end of life care but left health care aides with unmet bereavement support needs. Staff in LTC homes should be supported to answer questions about the trajectory of decline of dementia and death. Further research about residents’ experiences of deaths of other residents is needed.
    • Measuring and Mobilizing Citizen Preferences for Source Water Protection

      Janmaat, John (2015)
      Three themes dominate environmental management: public participation, use of the best science, and cost effectiveness. While economic valuation has grown in prominence as an aid to achieving cost effectiveness, its methodology has been challenged as inappropriate for complex situations outside of respondents’ knowledge and experience. Preferences may be constructed through education and experience. Further, particularly for public goods, preferences may develop through a social discourse that confronts multiple value frames and in response to equity concerns. Some recent experiments have sought to elicit values for cost benefit analyses from deliberative groups with access to scientific information or expertise. This project furthers the development of deliberative valuation techniques through application in the Okanagan, and collaborative adaptation with other projects in the network. With a focus on source water protection in the Central Okanagan, a series of choice experiments will be conducted.
    • Mechanism and consequences for avoidance of superparasitism in the solitary parasitoid Cotesia vestalis

      Chen, Wen-Bin; Vasseur, Liette; Zhang, Shuai-Qi; Zhang, Han-Fang; Mao, Jun; Liu, Tian-Sheng; Zhou, Xian-Yong; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Jing; You, Min-Sheng; et al. (Nature Research, 2020)
      A parasitoid's decision to reject or accept a potential host is fundamental to its fitness. Superparasitism, in which more than one egg of a given parasitoid species can deposit in a single host, is usually considered sub-optimal in systems where the host is able to support the development of only a single parasitoid. It follows that selection pressure may drive the capacity for parasitoids to recognize parasitized hosts, especially if there is a fitness cost of superparasitism. Here, we used microsatellite studies of two distinct populations of Cotesia vestalis to demonstrate that an egg laid into a diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) larva that was parasitized by a conspecific parasitoid 10 min, 2 or 6 h previously was as likely to develop and emerge successfully as was the first-laid egg. Consistent with this, a naive parasitoid encountering its first host was equally likely to accept a healthy larva as one parasitized 10 min prior, though handling time of parasitized hosts was extended. For second and third host encounters, parasitized hosts were less readily accepted than healthy larvae. If 12 h elapsed between parasitism events, the second-laid egg was much less likely to develop. Discrimination between parasitized and healthy hosts was evident when females were allowed physical contact with hosts, and healthy hosts were rendered less acceptable by manual injection of parasitoid venom into their hemolymph. Collectively, these results show a limited capacity to discriminate parasitized from healthy larvae despite a viability cost associated with failing to avoid superparasitism.
    • Media Art Other - Episode 1

      2021-06-02
      In this first episode, I present Artist and Researcher David Bobier. David has worked in the field of disability art for decades. As a hard-of-hearing and (dis)abled media artist, his creative practice is centred on researching and expanding vibrotactile technology as a creative medium. In 2014 he founded VibraFusion Lab (now renamed Vibrafusion Lab Collective - VFLC) that aims to provide access to inclusive technologies for supporting greater accessibility in the arts. In this podcast, David speaks about his own experiences with (dis)abilities and foregrounds some of the organizations and people he has worked with along the way.
    • Media Art Other - Episode 2

      Ouellette, Troy (2021-06-03)
      In this second episode, I present Curator, Dr. Corinna Ghaznavi. Dr. Corinna Ghaznavi, is an independent curator and freelance writer. Since 1997 she has curated exhibitions across Canada. Her writing has been published in Canadian and European art magazines as well as in numerous exhibition catalogues. In 2011 she completed her PhD, which focused on the question of the animal in contemporary art.
    • Media Art Other - Episode 3

      Ouellette, Troy (2021-06-09)
      In this third episode, I am pleased to present Sound Artist and Researcher Kevin Curtis-Norcross. Over the course of his career, he has captured forest ecologies in 18 countries over the past 40 years. From Sweden to central and South America and across Canada, Kevin has documented various ecosystems that draw our attention to the real wonders of the world - those being the life forces of insects, animals and plants that populate and continue to negotiate the changing biodiversity in the Anthropocene. Kevin’s recordings are usually done in an acoustically uncontrolled environment (traditionally called the “field”) hence field recording, which presents various challenges even to professional sound artists. In the work of Kevin Curtis-Norcross we get a glimpse of how biodiverse our planet really is because we are following the narrative of the species that make up our surroundings. His acoustic ecology recordings also act as a record of the vanishing sonic environments that have flourished over millennia to be captured in the here and now.
    • Media Art Other - Episode 4

      2021-07-12
      Anderson Wilson Projects is comprised of Curator, Shannon Anderson and Design Professor, Jay Wilson. In this podcast they speak about their collaborative curatorial process, the artists they have worked with, and talk about their digital web-work produced through the pandemic.
    • Media Art Other Episode 5

      Ouellette, Troy (2021-07-28)
      In this episode, Professor Cook will speak about some of her curatorial projects and focus on the work of Alexandra Daisy Ginsberg. For those who do not know Alexandra Daisy Ginsberg's work, it's important to note that this particular artist is at the forefront of creating artistic projects that work in conjunction with artificial intelligence --- she examines subjects as wide-ranging as machine learning, synthetic and evolutionary biology and ecology. She challenges notions of progress and extends the envelope of media art beyond what we would generally associate it with. These include: the sub-genres of VR and Augmented Reality, Sensory Art, Robotics, Sound Art and Bio Art – to name a few.
    • Mesurer et mobiliser les préférences des citoyens concernant la protection des sources hydriques

      Janmaat, John (2015)
      Trois thèmes dominent la gestion environnementale : la participation du public, le recours aux meilleures connaissances scientifiques et la rentabilité. Alors que l’évaluation économique prenait une importance croissante en tant que moyen d’atteindre la rentabilité, certains avançaient que sa méthodologie ne convenait pas aux situations complexes dépassant les connaissances et l’expérience des sujets interrogés. Il est possible que les préférences résultent de l’éducation et de l’expérience. De plus, il se peut que, dans le cas des biens publics, les préférences se développent par le biais d’un discours social confrontant de multiples cadres de valeurs et abordant des préoccupations en matière d’équité. De récentes expériences ont tenté de cerner les valeurs pouvant servir dans le cadre d’analyses coûts-bénéfices, et ce, auprès de groupes de délibération ayant accès à de l’information ou de l’expertise scientifique. Ce projet contribue au développement de techniques d’évaluation par la délibération, par le biais de l’application dans l’Okanagan et d’une adaptation de collaboration avec d’autres projets du réseau. Une série d’expériences sur le choix sera menée dans la région Central Okanagan en mettant l’accent sur la protection des sources hydriques.
    • Metarhizium robertsii ammonium permeases (MepC and Mep2) contribute to rhizoplane colonization and modulates the transfer of insect derived nitrogen to plants

      Moonjely, Soumya; Zhang, Xing; Fang, Weiguo; Bidochka, Michael J (Public Library of Science, 2019)
      The endophytic insect pathogenic fungi (EIPF) Metarhizium promotes plant growth through symbiotic association and the transfer of insect-derived nitrogen. However, little is known about the genes involved in this association and the transfer of nitrogen. In this study, we assessed the involvement of six Metarhizium robertsii genes in endophytic, rhizoplane and rhizospheric colonization with barley roots. Two ammonium permeases (MepC and Mep2) and a urease, were selected since homologous genes in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi were reported to play a pivotal role in nitrogen mobilization during plant root colonization. Three other genes were selected on the basis on RNA-Seq data that showed high expression levels on bean roots, and these encoded a hydrophobin (Hyd3), a subtilisin-like serine protease (Pr1A) and a hypothetical protein. The root colonization assays revealed that the deletion of urease, hydrophobin, subtilisin-like serine protease and hypothetical protein genes had no impact on endophytic, rhizoplane and rhizospheric colonization at 10 or 20 days. However, the deletion of MepC resulted in significantly increased rhizoplane colonization at 10 days whereas ΔMep2 showed increased rhizoplane colonization at 20 days. In addition, the nitrogen transporter mutants also showed significantly higher 15N incorporation of insect derived nitrogen in barley leaves in the presence of nutrients. Insect pathogenesis assay revealed that disruption of MepC, Mep2, urease did not reduce virulence toward insects. The enhanced rhizoplane colonization of ΔMep2 and ΔMepC and insect derived nitrogen transfer to plant hosts suggests the role of MepC and Mep2 in Metarhizium-plant symbiosis.
    • MNK: GRADconnect, 16th Annual Graduate Student Research Conference Program

      2021-04-12
      The program and session abstracts for the 16th Annual Graduate Student Research Conference held April 12 - 16, 2021.
    • Modeling short-range ballistic missile defense and Israel's Iron Dome system

      Armstrong, Michael J. (Institute for Operations Research and Management Science (INFORMS), 2014-09)
      This paper develops a model of short-range ballistic missile defense and uses it to study the performance of Israel’s Iron Dome system. The deterministic base model allows for inaccurate missiles, unsuccessful interceptions, and civil defense. Model enhancements consider the trade-offs in attacking the interception system, the difficulties faced by militants in assembling large salvos, and the effects of imperfect missile classification by the defender. A stochastic model is also developed. Analysis shows that system performance can be highly sensitive to the missile salvo size, and that systems with higher interception rates are more “fragile” when overloaded. The model is calibrated using publically available data about Iron Dome’s use during Operation Pillar of Defense in November 2012. If the systems performed as claimed, they saved Israel an estimated 1778 casualties and $80 million in property damage, and thereby made preemptive strikes on Gaza about 8 times less valuable to Israel. Gaza militants could have inflicted far more damage by grouping their rockets into large salvos, but this may have been difficult given Israel’s suppression efforts. Counter-battery fire by the militants is unlikely to be worthwhile unless they can obtain much more accurate missiles.
    • Moisture-driven shift in the climate sensitivity of white spruce xylem anatomical traits is coupled to large-scale oscillation patterns across northern treeline in northwest North America

      Lange, Jelena; Carrer, Marco; Pisaric, Michael F.J.; Porter, Trevor J.; Seo, Jeong-Wook; Trouillier, Mario; Wilmking, Martin (Wiley Online, 2019-12-04)
      Tree growth at northern treelines is generally temperature‐limited due to cold and short growing seasons. However, temperature‐induced drought stress was repeatedly reported for certain regions of the boreal forest in northwestern North America, provoked by a significant increase in temperature and possibly reinforced by a regime shift of the Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO). The aim of this study is to better understand physiological growth reactions of white spruce, a dominant species of the North American boreal forest, to PDO regime shifts using quantitative wood anatomy and traditional tree‐ring width analysis. We investigated white spruce growth at latitudinal treeline across a > 1,000 km gradient in northwestern North America. Functionally important xylem anatomical traits (lumen area, cell‐wall thickness, cell number) and tree‐ring width were correlated with the drought‐sensitive standardized precipitation‐evapotranspiration index (SPEI) of the growing season. Correlations were computed separately for complete phases of the PDO in the 20th century, representing alternating warm/dry (1925–1946), cool/wet (1947–1976) and again warm/dry (1977–1998) climate regimes. Xylem anatomical traits revealed water‐limiting conditions in both warm/dry PDO regimes, while no or spatially contrasting associations were found for the cool/wet regime, indicating a moisture‐driven shift in growth‐limiting factors between PDO periods. Tree‐ring width reflected only the last shift of 1976/77, suggesting different climate thresholds and a higher sensitivity to moisture availability of xylem anatomical traits compared to tree‐ring width. This high sensitivity of xylem anatomical traits permits to identify first signs of moisture‐driven growth in treeline white spruce at an early stage, suggesting quantitative wood anatomy being a powerful tool to study climate change effects in the northwestern North American treeline ecotone. Projected temperature increase might challenge growth performance of white spruce as a key component of the North American boreal forest biome in the future, when drier conditions are likely to occur with higher frequency and intensity.
    • Moisture‐driven shift in the climate sensitivity of white spruce xylem anatomical traits is coupled to large‐scale oscillation patterns across northern treeline in northwest North America

      Lange, Jelena; Carrer, Marco; Pisaric, Michael; Porter, Trevor; Seo, Jeong‐Wook; Trouillier, Mario; Wilmking, Martin (Wiley, 2019-12-04)
      Tree growth at northern treelines is generally temperature-limited due to cold and short growing seasons. However, temperature-induced drought stress was repeatedly reported for certain regions of the boreal forest in northwestern North America, provoked by a significant increase in temperature and possibly reinforced by a regime shift of the Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO). The aim of this study is to better understand physiological growth reactions of white spruce, a dominant species of the North American boreal forest, to PDO regime shifts using quantitative wood anatomy and traditional tree-ring width analysis. We investigated white spruce growth at latitudinal treeline across a >1000 km gradient in northwestern North America. Functionally important xylem anatomical traits (lumen area, cellwall thickness, cell number) and tree-ring width were correlated with the drought-sensitive standardized precipitation-evapotranspiration index (SPEI) of the growing season. Correlations were computed separately for complete phases of the PDO in the 20th century, representing alternating warm/dry (1925-1946), cool/wet (1947-1976) and again warm/dry (1977-1998) climate regimes. Xylem anatomical traits revealed water-limiting conditions in both warm/dry PDO regimes, while no or spatially contrasting associations were found for the cool/wet regime, indicating a moisturedriven shift in growth-limiting factors between PDO periods. Tree-ring width reflected only the last shift of 1976/77, suggesting different climate thresholds and a higher sensitivity to moisture availability of xylem anatomical traits compared to tree-ring width. This high sensitivity of xylem anatomical traits permits to identify first signs of moisture-driven growth in treeline white spruce at an early stage, suggesting quantitative wood anatomy being a powerful tool to study climate change effects in the northwestern North American treeline ecotone. Projected temperature increase might challenge growth performance of white spruce as a key component of the North American boreal forest biome in the future, when drier conditions are likely to occur with higher frequency and intensity.
    • Molecular Characterization and the Function of Argonaute3 in RNAi Pathway of Plutella xylostella

      Hameed, Muhammad Salman; Wang, Zhengbing; Vasseur, Liette; Yang, Guang (MDPI, 2018-04-01)
      Argonaute (Ago) protein family plays a key role in the RNA interference (RNAi) process in different insects including Lepidopteran. However, the role of Ago proteins in the RNAi pathway of Plutella xylostella is still unknown. We cloned an Argonaute3 gene in P. xylostella ( PxAgo3 ) with the complete coding sequence of 2832 bp. The encoded protein had 935 amino acids with an expected molecular weight of 108.9 kDa and an isoelectric point of 9.29. It contained a PAZ (PIWI/Argonaute/Zwile) domain and PIWI (P-element-induced whimpy testes) domain. PxAgo3 was classified into the Piwi subfamily of Ago proteins with a high similarity of 93.0% with Bombyx mori Ago3 (BmAgo3). The suppression of PxAgo3 by dsPxAgo3 was observed 3 h after treatment and was maintained until 24 h. Knockdown of PxAgo3 decreased the suppression level of PxActin by dsPxActin in P. xylostella cells, while overexpression of PxAgo3 increased the RNAi efficiency. Our results suggest that PxAgo3 play a key role in the double stranded RNA (dsRNA)-regulated RNAi pathway in P. xylostella .
    • Multiple Roles of Librarians

      Alsop, Justine; Bordonaro, Karen (Electronic Journal of Academic and Special Librarianship, 2007)
      a survey of academic librarians investigating other roles on campus they may work in besides that of librarian (ex. ESL teacher, aerobics instructor)
    • Municipal Water Demand Simulation and Projection Project

      Renzetti, Steven; Dupont, Diane; Price, James (2015)
    • Navigating babysitting as liminal, gendered, and undervalued work

      Easterbrook, Riley; Raby, Rebecca; Lehmann, Wolfgang (Sage Journals, 2020-09-14)
      Babysitting is a common early-work experience in the West, yet there is little research on babysitters. From in-depth, qualitative interviews with 16 babysitters, we explore three themes related to liminality and gender inequality in babysitting. First, babysitting is a skilled job; many babysitters undertook formal and informal training and used it at work. Second, babysitters occupy a liminal position between childhood and adulthood, bringing challenges and opportunities at work. Finally, babysitters thoughtfully negotiate pay, but sometimes experience challenges doing so.