• I didn't become a worse Librarian when I became a Grad Student

      Ribaric, Tim (2017-05-11)
      Presentation made at code4Lib North 2017 at University of Ottawa. Looks at the process and reflections of continuing education and graduate studies for mature students.
    • I still haven't found what I'm looking for: Reflections on 10+ years of providing library orientation and instruction to a Business English bridging program

      Lowry, Linda Darlene (2017-05-11)
      A librarian's personal reflection on 10 plus years of providing orientation and information literacy instruction to graduate students in a Business English bridging program at Brock University.
    • Identification and Characterization of microRNAs during Retinoic Acid-Induced Regeneration of a Molluscan Central Nervous System

      Walker, Sarah E; Spencer, Gaynor E.; Necakov, Aleksander; Carlone, Robert L. (MDPI, 2018-09-13)
      Retinoic acid (RA) is the biologically active metabolite of vitamin A and has become a well-established factor that induces neurite outgrowth and regeneration in both vertebrates and invertebrates. However, the underlying regulatory mechanisms that may mediate RA-induced neurite sprouting remain unclear. In the past decade, microRNAs have emerged as important regulators of nervous system development and regeneration, and have been shown to contribute to processes such as neurite sprouting. However, few studies have demonstrated the role of miRNAs in RA-induced neurite sprouting. By miRNA sequencing analysis, we identify 482 miRNAs in the regenerating central nervous system (CNS) of the mollusc Lymnaea stagnalis, 219 of which represent potentially novel miRNAs. Of the remaining conserved miRNAs, 38 show a statistically significant up- or downregulation in regenerating CNS as a result of RA treatment. We further characterized the expression of one neuronally-enriched miRNA upregulated by RA, miR-124. We demonstrate, for the first time, that miR-124 is expressed within the cell bodies and neurites of regenerating motorneurons. Moreover, we identify miR-124 expression within the growth cones of cultured ciliary motorneurons (pedal A), whereas expression in the growth cones of another class of respiratory motorneurons (right parietal A) was absent in vitro. These findings support our hypothesis that miRNAs are important regulators of retinoic acid-induced neuronal outgrowth and regeneration in regeneration-competent species.
    • Identification of a lipid-rich depot in the orbital cavity of the 13-lined ground squirrel

      MacCannell, Amanda DV; Sinclair, Kevin J; Tattersall, Glenn J; McKenzie, Charles A; Staples, James F (Company of Biologists, 2019-01-24)
      We discovered a previously undescribed orbital lipid depot in the 13-lined ground squirrel during the first ever magnetic resonance image (MRI) of this common experimental model of mammalian hibernation. In animals housed at constant ambient temperatures (5ºC or 25ºC, 12h L:12h D photoperiod) the volume of this depot increased in the autumn and decreased in the spring, suggesting an endogenous circannual pattern. Water-fat MRI revealed that throughout the year this depot is composed of ~40% lipid, similar to brown adipose tissue (BAT). During arousal from torpor, thermal images showed higher surface temperatures near this depot before the rest of the head warmed, suggesting a thermoregulatory function. This depot, however, does not contain uncoupling protein 1, a BAT biomarker, or uncoupling protein 3. Histology shows blood vessels in close proximity to each other, suggesting it may serve as a vascular rete, perhaps to preferentially warm the eye and brain during arousals.
    • Identification of Halloween Genes and RNA Interference-Mediated Functional Characterization of a Halloween Gene shadow in Plutella xylostella

      Peng, Lu; Wang, Lei; Zou, Ming-Min; Vasseur, Liette; Chu, Li-Na; Qin, Yu-Dong; Zhai, Yi-Long (Frontiers Media, 2019)
      Ecdysteroids play an essential role in controlling insect development and reproduction. Their pathway is regulated by a group of enzymes called Halloween gene proteins. The relationship between the Halloween genes and ecdysteroid synthesis has yet to be clearly understood in diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), a worldwide Lepidoptera pest attacking cruciferous crops and wild plants. In this study, complete sequences for six Halloween genes, neverland ( nvd ), shroud ( sro ), spook ( spo ), phantom ( phm ), disembodied ( dib ), shadow ( sad ), and shade ( shd ), were identified. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a strong conservation in insects, including Halloween genes of P. xylostella that was clustered with all other Lepidoptera species. Three Halloween genes, dib , sad , and shd were highly expressed in the adult stage, while nvd and spo were highly expressed in the egg and pupal stages, respectively. Five Halloween genes were highly expressed specifically in the prothorax, which is the major site of ecdysone production. However, shd was expressed predominantly in the fat body to convert ecdysone into 20-hydroxyecdysone. RNAi-based knockdown of sad , which is involved in the last step of ecdysone biosynthesis, significantly reduced the 20E titer and resulted in a longer developmental duration and lower pupation of fourth-instar larvae, as well as caused shorter ovarioles and fewer fully developed eggs of P. xylostella . Furthermore, after the knockdown of sad , the expression levels of Vg and VgR genes were significantly decreased by 77.1 and 53.0%. Meanwhile, the number of eggs laid after 3 days was significantly reduced in sad knockdown females. These results suggest that Halloween genes may play a critical role in the biosynthesis of ecdysteroids and be involved in the development and reproduction of P. xylostella . Our work provides a solid basis for understanding the functional importance of these genes, which will help to screening potential genes for pest management of P. xylostella.
    • Identification of renin progenitors in the mouse bone marrow that give rise to B-cell leukaemia

      Liang, Ping (2014-02)
      cell of origin and triggering events for leukaemia are mostly unknown. Here we show that the bone marrow contains a progenitor that expresses renin throughout development and possesses a B-lymphocyte pedigree. This cell requires RBP-J to differentiate. Deletion of RBP-J in these renin-expressing progenitors enriches the precursor B-cell gene programme and constrains lymphocyte differentiation, facilitated by H3K4me3 activating marks in genes that control the pre-B stage. Mutant cells undergo neoplastic transformation, and mice develop a highly penetrant B-cell leukaemia with multi-organ infiltration and early death. These reninexpressing cells appear uniquely vulnerable as other conditional models of RBP-J deletion do not result in leukaemia. The discovery of these unique renin progenitors in the bone marrow and the model of leukaemia described herein may enhance our understanding of normal and neoplastic haematopoiesis.
    • Im/migrant Passages: Crossing Visual, Spatial and Textual Boundaries - Im/migrations : passages visuels, spatiaux et textuels

      Colella, Carmela; El-Hoss, Tamara; Parayre, Catherine (Small Walker Press, 2020)
      To emigrate is to leave, to immigrate is to arrive and stay, to migrate is to move, often as a result of forced displacement. Most emigrants, immigrants, migrants and/or refugees frequently face difficult, if not heartbreaking decisions when they decide they must settle elsewhere. According to the latest UNHCR estimates, 65.6 million people have been forcibly displaced worldwide by war, poverty, and/or climate change. Many live(d) in refugee/migrant camps where they often face(d) inhumane conditions, discrimination, violence, and racism, while others spend/spent most of their lives in transit camps. Contributions to this volume explore topics in literature, graphic novels, visual arts, film, dance, and education.
    • Imaginer le futur de la mobilisation des connaissances

      Hewitt, Ted (Conseil de recherches en sciences humaines, 2021)
      La Commission canadienne pour l’UNESCO (CCUNESCO) et le Conseil de recherches en sciences humaines (CRSH) partagent un engagement profond envers le soutien à la production et l’accès à un savoir diversifié et inclusif au profit des générations actuelles et futures. Nous reconnaissons l’importance de lier la recherche aux problèmes mondiaux urgents. Nous avons l’occasion de travailler ensemble pour s’assurer que les résultats de la recherche aient un maximum d’impact, tout en tenant compte des divers systèmes de pensées. Assurer une mobilisation efficace des connaissances est incontournable pour répondre aux défis auxquels notre monde est confronté.
    • Imagining the Future of Knowledge Mobilization : Perspectives from UNESCO Chairs

      Hewitt, Ted (Canadian Commission for UNESCO, 2021)
      These themes weave through a new portfolio of thought leadership papers reflecting on the subject of Knowledge Mobilization (KMb): the process described by the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada (SSHRC) as “encompassing a wide range of activities relating to the production and use of research results, including knowledge synthesis, dissemination, transfer, exchange, and co-creation or co-production by researchers and knowledge users.”1 Such activities, and others referenced in the papers written by seven members (six Canadian and one German) of the UNESCO Chairs network, aim to bridge the sometimes-deep divide between the creation of new knowledge and its application for social benefit. As several of these papers note, the KMb enterprise has assumed heightened importance in the face of the COVID-19 pandemic and other grand challenges confronting humanity. But interest in KMb is not new, and a body of experience lies ready to inform efforts to learn and improve.
    • The impact of age, ongoing task difficulty, and cue salience on preschoolers’ prospective memory performance: The role of executive function

      Mahy, Caitlin; Moses, Louis; Kliegel, Matthias (Elsevier, 2014)
      5-year-old children had better prospective memory than 4-year-olds.•Children had better prospective memory performance for salient compared to non-salient cues.•Prospective memory performance was not affected by ongoing task difficulty.•Prospective memory suffered most when cues were non-salient and the ongoing task was difficult.•Inhibition fully mediated the relation between age and prospective memory performance. The current study examined the impact of age, ongoing task (OT) difficulty, and cue salience on 4- and 5-year-old children’s prospective memory (PM) and also explored the relation between individual differences in executive function (working memory, inhibition, and shifting) and PM. OT difficulty and cue salience are predicted to affect the detection of PM cues based on the multiprocess framework, yet neither has been thoroughly investigated in young children. OT difficulty was manipulated by requiring children to sort cards according to the size of pictured items (easy) or by opposite size (difficult), and cue salience was manipulated by placing a red border around half of the target cues (salient) and no border around the other cues (non-salient). The 5-year-olds outperformed the 4-year-olds on the PM task, and salient PM cues resulted in better PM cues compared with non-salient cues. There was no main effect of OT difficulty, and the interaction between cue salience and OT difficulty was not significant. However, a planned comparison revealed that the combination of non-salient cues and a difficult OT resulted in significantly worse PM performance than that in all of the other conditions. Inhibition accounted for significant variance in PM performance for non-salient cues and for marginally significant variance for salient cues. Furthermore, individual differences in inhibition fully mediated the effect of age on PM performance. Results are discussed in the context of the multiprocess framework and with reference to preschoolers’ difficulty with the executive demands of dividing attention between the OT and PM task.
    • The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on early career researcher activity, development, career, and well-being: the state of the art

      Lokhtina, Irina A.; Castelló, Montserrat; Lambrechts, Agata Agnieszka; Löfström, Erika; McGinn, Michelle K.; Skakni, Isabelle; van der Weijden, Inge (Emerald, 2022-06-01)
      DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH. This is a systematic literature review of English-language peer-reviewed studies published 2020–2021, which provided empirical evidence of the impact of the pandemic on early career researcher (ECR) activity and development. The search strategy involved (a) online databases (Scopus, Web of Science, and Overton); (b) well-established higher education journals (based on Scopus classification), and (c) references in the retained articles (snowballing). The final sample included 11 papers. PURPOSE. The aim of this paper is to identify the documented effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on ECR activity, development, career prospects, and well-being. FINDINGS. The evidence shows that ECRs have been affected in terms of (a) research activity, (b) researcher development, (c) career prospects, and (d) well-being. Although many negative consequences were identified, some promising learning practices have arisen; however, these opportunities were not always fully realised. The results raise questions about differential effects across fields and possible long-term consequences where some fields and some scholars may be worse off due to priorities established as societies struggle to recover. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS. There is a need for revised institutional and national policies to ensure that sufficient measures are implemented to support ECRs' research work in a situation where new duties and chores were added during the pandemic. ORIGINALITY/VALUE. This paper provides insights into the impacts of the initial societal challenges of the pandemic on ECRs across disciplines that may have long-lasting effects on their academic development and well-being.
    • Impacts of Road Dust on Small Subarctic Lake Systems

      Zhu, Liang; Anello, Rebecca; Ruhland, Kathleen; Pisaric, Michael; Kokelj, Steven; Prince, Tyler; Smol, John (Arctic, 2019-12-20)
      Arctic regions have been experiencing increasing pressures from multiple environmental stressors, most notably rapid climate change and human development. Previous research has demonstrated the impacts of calcareous dust from gravel roads on surrounding vegetation and permafrost, whereas aquatic systems have remained largely unstudied. Here, we explore whether 1) the chronic generation of dust from the 740 km long Dempster Highway has affected water chemistry and diatom assemblages in lakes in the Peel Plateau region of the Northwest Territories, and 2) accelerated regional warming has affected these lakes. A suite of 27 water chemistry variables was assessed from 28 lakes along a 40 m – 26 km distance from the highway. Paleolimnological analyses of biological proxies (diatoms, visible reflectance spectroscopy-derived chlorophyll-a, and an index of chrysophyte scales to diatoms [S:D]) were undertaken on dated sediment cores from two lakes near the highway and one lake situated far from the highway, outside the expected range of dust transport. Conductivity and calcium exhibited a wide range of measurements across our 28 sites; lakes within 1 km of the highway generally exhibited higher ions and related variables than more distant lakes. Analyses of diatom assemblages indicated that the two shallower sites near the highway underwent modest compositional changes over the past approximately 100 years, whereas changes recorded at the farther site were more pronounced. The diatom records, supported by chlorophyll-a and S:D indices, indicated that changes in both the near and far lakes were consistent with warming, with little discernable impact from road dust. Whilst chemical changes associated with the half-century old highway corridor appear clear, they are not yet of sufficient magnitude to elicit a directional biological response in algal assemblages.
    • Impacts of Smooth Pigweed (Amaranthus hybridus) on Cover Crops in Southern Ontario

      VanVolkenburg, Heather; Guinel, Frederique C.; Vasseur, Liette (MDPI, 2020-04-08)
      Amaranthushybridus is anoxious weed in Ontario, with demonstrated allelopathic properties that can lead to decreased agricultural production. We tested the germination and growth of five cover crop species exposed to A. hybridus extracts, and to dried or fresh materials in soil. A germination index was calculated, and the dry weight of plant organs were measured to quantify responses to treatments. All species had reduced germination (≤29%) in 100% extract. Trifolium pratense had significant root weight reductions in extract (52%) and dried (72%) treatments, whereas shoot weight only decreased (48%) in dried treatment. Medicagosativa shoot weight decreased (52%) in 20g fresh treatment, while root weight decreased (62%) in dried treatment. Shoot weight of Raphanus sativus increased (32%) at mid-extract concentrations, while root weight increased (33%) only with dried treatment; however, both its shoot and root weight decreased (>40%) in fresh treatment. Only the shoot weight of Loliummultiflorum increased (41% in 75% extract and 55% in dried treatment). Both Cichorium intybus shoot and root weights decreased (~50%) in fresh treatment. Crop responses to A. hybridus are complex, and material and species-dependant. Further testing in the field may provide a more comprehensive understanding of how to improve the management of A. hybridus.
    • Improved Water Demand Forecasting to Promote Sustainable Water Management

      Renzetti, Steven (2015)
      The Region of Durham in Ontario is a fast growing urban area east of Toronto and has a population of 650,000, covering an area of 2500 km2. It has a single tiered water supply system with the regional agency acting as a retailer to provide water to households, businesses, institutions and farms. In 2014 its output was 63,555 Mega Litres. The Region of Durham’s water agency faces many challenges including growing demands, ageing infrastructure, water quality concerns and rising costs operations. Forecasting water demands on a daily basis is remarkably difficult. Variables such as weather conditions, operational changes, watermain breaks, business cycles, human behaviour, economic and social factors effect water demand forecasting, but it is difficult to quantify those factors and thus difficult to make an accurate prediction. The water industry has responded to this challenge by developing sophisticated procedures for forecasting. The approaches used include Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) and time series statistical modeling, which takes into consideration all possible factors as input variables to build forecasting model. The Region of Durham has thus far relied upon ANN with mixed results. Through several years of observation, overall the ANN forecasting model can predict a relatively accurate water demand for next 24 hour period (R2 >0.7) in some pressure zones. Winter forecasting is more accurate than summer because outdoor water use is extremely variable.
    • Incidencia de las TIC en la Comercialización de los Productos de las Comunidades Rurales Indígenas en el Ecuador

      Lupien, Pascal (Canadian Journal of Latin American and Caribbean Studies, 2019-11-25)
      Given the fact that many Indigenous communities produce various types of products, the use of ICTs to promote and sell their goods could provide them with important income and thus increase their economic independence. Although a growing number of researchers are studying the use of ICTs in social movements, we still know little about the impact of ICTs on the Indigenous peoples of the Americas. This article therefore addresses the following questions: What is the impact of ICTs on the commercial activities of indigenous organizations? and In what ways do ICTs strengthen or hinder their ability to achieve economic independence? We respond to these questions through examining the use of ICTs by civil society organizations in Ecuador. We note that while there are advantages and disadvantages, Indigenous communities are unable to overcome the challenges they face with respect to using ICTs for commercial purposes.
    • Incorporating Language Skills Strategies into Library Instruction for ESL Students

      Bordonaro, Karen (Association of College & Research Libraries, 2011-04)
      a self-reflection study of the incorporation of language skills strategies in speaking, listening, reading, and writing in a library instruction classroom setting
    • Indigenous Movements, Collective Action, and Social Media: New Opportunities or New Barriers?

      Lupien, Pascal (SAGE Open, 2020-04)
      Indigenous peoples remain among the most marginalized population groups in the Americas. The decline of the Indigenous protest cycle in Latin America by the mid-2000s meant that research on collective action turned elsewhere just as the use of social media was becoming more prominent in the tactical repertoire of collective action, and we know little about how Indigenous groups have adapted new technologies for the purpose of civic engagement. If social media has begun to take the place of disruptive action (the most effective tactics in the 1990s according to Indigenous leaders), if personalized action is replacing collective identity (a strength of the Indigenous movements in the 1980s–1990s) and if their access to technology is limited, what does this mean for the ability of Indigenous communities to pursue their claims? Based on 2 years of fieldwork, this article addresses this question from the perspective of Indigenous organizations in three Latin American countries, Bolivia, Chile, and Ecuador. We find that some Indigenous organizations have benefited from the use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in terms of enhanced communication, access to information, visibility, interest promotion, and commercialization of products and services. At this point in time, however, it appears that the disadvantages outweigh the benefits.
    • Indigenous Water Co-Governance: Emerging Models of Distributed Water Governance in British Columbia and Alberta

      Bourassa, Carrie (2015)
      The emphasis on Indigenous law is of pressing importance given that evolving legal frameworks have created expanded approaches to Indigenous title, rights, and traditional territories and hence expanded roles for Indigenous peoples in resource governance. This creates a challenge for all levels of government (including Indigenous governments), as new models of governance (and stakeholder relationships) are being debated and indeed created. This challenge has inter-related economic, policy and governance dimensions. Indigenous communities in Canada are currently grappling with a range of water-related issues, including access to safe drinking water, environmental water quality, and associated health and livelihoods issues. In some regions, particularly Western and Northern Canada, these issues are exacerbated by development pressures associated with resource extraction (e.g. oil and gas development, forestry, hydro-electricity). In this context, there are number of challenges that stem from legal and regulatory frameworks, including inadequate consultation, lack of community capacity to participate in engagement and consultation processes, insufficient transparency, and outdated regulations (e.g. with respect to new pollutants) and perceived regulatory capture. In the absence of effective responses to these challenges, there are a number of potential consequences, including expensive and protracted litigation, higher appeals to (and thus increased caseloads for) regulatory oversight bodies, and political mobilization and protest.