Kaludjerovic, Jovana; Chen, Jianmin; Ward, Wendy E. (Taylor & Francis, 2012-04-04)
      In mice, exposure to isoflavones (ISO), abundant in soy infant formula, during the first 5 d of life alters structural and functional development of reproductive organs. Effects of longer exposures are unknown. The study objective was to evaluate whether exposure to a combination of daidzein and genistein in the first 10 compared to 5 d of life results in greater adverse effects on ovarian and uterine structure in adult mice. Thirteen litters of 8–12 pups were cross-fostered and randomized to corn oil or ISO (2 mg daidzein + 5 mg genistein/kg body weight/d) for the first 5 or 10 d of life. The 10-d protocol mimicked the period when infants are fed soy protein formula (SPF) but avoids the time when suckling pups can consume the mother’s diet. Body and organ weights and histology of ovaries and uteri were analyzed. There were no differences in the ovary or uterus weight, number of ovarian follicles, number of multiple oocyte follicles, or percent of ovarian cysts with 5 or 10 d of ISO intervention compared to respective controls. The 10-d ISO group had higher body weights from 6 d to 4 mo. of age and a higher percent of hyperplasia in the oviduct than the respective control. Lower numbers of ovarian corpus lutea and a higher incidence of abnormal changes were reported in the uteri of both ISO groups compared to their respective controls. Five- and 10-d exposure to ISO had similar long-lasting adverse effects on the structures of ovaries and uterus in adult mice. Only the 10-d ISO exposure resulted in greater body weight gain at adulthood.
    • Early teen-work assemblages and embedded dependence

      Raby, Rebecca; Lehmann, Wolfgang (Brill, 2021)
      This chapter aims to trouble the common linkage often made between work, independence and adulthood by emphasizing how young workers are embedded in human and non-human collectivities of interwoven dependences. We focus on two 16-year-old participants from conventional interview and photo elicitation interview data with 32 Canadian young people discussing their first part-time jobs, to we recognize how our participants, and indeed all of us, are embedded ‘in the midst of an open-ended swirl of extensions and supplementations’ (Lee 2001, 115). These entangled dependences can activate privilege; they also bolster the illusion of individual independence and autonomy. The intent of this chapter is to work with ideas from Actor Network Theorist Nick Lee and from Deleuze and Guattari to reveal this illusion, for we are all enmeshed in dependency. We particularly focus on four components of teen-work assemblages: family; time, space and bodies; tools/machinery, practices and roles; and capitals/money.
    • Ecological Risk Assessment of Soil Heavy Metals and Pesticide Residues in Tea Plantations

      He, Haifang; Shi, Longqing; Yang, Guang; You, Minsheng; Vasseur, Liette (MDPI, 2020)
      Tea plantations have used many synthetic chemicals to ensure performance and control of pests. This has led to increased contamination of soils and reduced tea growth. We assessed the levels of heavy metals, including Cd, Cr, Pb, Cu, Ni, Zn, Hg, As, and pesticide residues, such as HCHs, biphenyl chrysanthemum ester, methamidophos, imidacloprid, permethrin, in the soil of tea plantations of Taiwan, Tibet, Guangdong, and Fujian. The Potential Ecological Risk Index and the Nemerow comprehensive pollution index were used to analyze the data. The results showed that risk indices in Tibet, Guangdong and Fuzhou were considered as moderate ecological harm level. Ecological risk assessment index of Anxi organic and Anxi conventional tea gardens suggested a "low" risk level. The Nemerow comprehensive pollution indices for soil pesticide residues in the tea plantations of Taiwan, Tibet, Anxi organic and Anxi conventional were considered mild. Guangdong and Fuzhou had values suggesting "slight pollution” levels. According to National Soil Environmental Quality Standard (GB15618-1995), soil in tea plantations in Taiwan, Tibet, and Anxi conventional matched the national first grade of soil quality and those from Guangdong, Fuzhou, and Anxi organic tea garden matched the national second grade.
    • Economic Analysis of Source Water Protection

      Adamowicz, Vic; Boxall, Peter; Lloyd-Smith, Pat; Appiah, Alfred; Silins, Uldis (2016)
    • Economic Analysis of Source Water Protection

      Adamowicz, Vic (2016)
      There is considerable interest, worldwide, in the evaluation of ecosystem services arising from management strategies such as source water protection (ecosystem management) as an alternative to infrastructure investments (capital, operating costs). However, there are relatively few detailed investigations of such systems. This project develops a conceptual framework and begins to construct the empirical analysis of the economic benefits and costs of source water protection. Project partners are interested in the extent to which landscape management can reduce water treatment costs and/or the risks of water supply interruptions, as well as how ecosystem service management interacts with capital investment requirements for water treatment. This project helps inform this process by assessing the costs and benefits of ecosystem services associated with water quality and quantity.
    • Ecosystem services for human well-being in the Credit River Watershed: A comparison of monetary valuation, multi-criteria non-monetary valuation and multi-scale integrated analysis of societal and ecosystem metabolism

      Bunch, Martin; Dupont, Diane (2015)
      Human health and well-being is fundamentally dependent on services provided by ecosystems. However, the importance of ecosystem services (ES) to human well-being, and of managing ecosystem and watershed resources to maintain such services, is not commonly understood by the public, and not well-enough articulated by environmental management and governance organizations. Beneficiaries of such services are often unaware of the nature of their dependence upon supporting ecosystems. This is particularly true in urbanized watersheds. Watershed management organizations are aware of such benefits to watershed residents, but they very rarely track and report measures of human well-being to demonstrate the efficacy of their work. Relationships among environmental determinants of health and well-being are multiple, diffuse and interact in complex non-linear ways that are difficult to parse and isolate. This presents a problem for normal science, which reduces problems to smaller components in attempts to understand them. Without a way to demonstrate and communicate these relationships, the ES that underpin our health and well-being will continue to be ignored and undermined.
    • Ecosystem-Based Adaptation to Protect Avian Species in Coastal Communities in the Greater Niagara Region, Canada

      Gauthier, Samantha; May, Bradley; Vasseur, Liette (MDPI AG, 2021-06-04)
      Coastal communities are increasingly vulnerable to climate change and its effects may push coastal ecosystems to undergo irreversible changes. This is especially true for shorebirds with the loss of biodiversity and resource-rich habitats to rest, refuel, and breed. To protect these species, it is critical to conduct research related to nature-based Solutions (NbS). Through a scoping review of scientific literature, this paper initially identified 85 articles with various ecosystem-based adaptation (EbA) strategies that could help conserve shorebird populations and promote ecotourism. Of these 85 articles, 28 articles had EbA strategies that were examined, with some like coral reefs and mangroves eliminated as they were inappropriate for this region. The scoping review identified four major EbA strategies for the Greater Niagara Region with living shorelines and beach nourishment being the most suitable, especially when combined. These strategies were then evaluated against the eight core principles of nature-based solutions protecting shorebird as well as human wellbeing. Living shoreline strategy was the only one that met all eight NbS principles. As the coastline of the region greatly varies in substrate and development, further research will be needed to decide which EbA strategies would be appropriate for each specific area to ensure their efficacy.
    • The Effect of Actions of Islamic Radicals on the Self-conceptualization of North American Muslims

      Ahmed, Ahmed (2018-03-17)
      This paper examines the experiences of Canadian and American Muslims in the post 9/11 period in relation to the effect of the actions of Islamic radicals on the self-conceptualization of North American Muslims’ identity and social inclusion. The paper analyzes data collected from semi-structured interviews with Muslim clerics on both sides of the Canadian-American border, as well as data collected from questionnaires distributed to Muslim students at Brock University and the State University of New York at Buffalo. The paper examines the ways in which the actions of Islamic radical groups abroad shape the identity and social inclusion of Canadian Muslims in the Niagara region in comparison to American Muslims in Buffalo, New York. The paper utilizes a cross-border analysis approach while employing symbolic interactionism and the mosaic and melting pot theories as theoretical frameworks in analysing the data collected during the study. This paper demonstrates that although both Canada and the United States responded to the events of 9/11 similarly, Muslims in the two nations maintain different reactions to similar events.
    • The Effect of Different Phases of Synchrony on Pain Threshold in a Drumming Task

      Sullivan, Philip; Blacker, Mishka (Frontiers Research Foundation, 2017-06-22)
      Behavioral synchrony has been linked to endorphin activity (Cohen et al., 2010; Sullivan and Rickers, 2013; Sullivan et al., 2014; Tarr et al., 2015, 2016; Weinstein et al., 2016). This has been called the synchrony effect. Synchrony has two dominant phases of movement; in-phase and anti-phase. The majority of research investigating synchrony’s effect on endorphin activity has focused on in-phase synchrony following vigorous activities. The only research to investigate the effects of anti-phase synchrony on endorphin activity found that anti-phase synchronized rowing did not produce the synchrony effect (Sullivan et al., 2014). Anti-phase synchrony, however, is counterintuitive to the sport of rowing and may have interfered with the synchrony effect. This study investigated the effect of anti-phase synchrony on endorphin activity in a different task (i.e., drumming). University students (n D 30) were asked to drum solo and in in-phase and anti-phase pairs for 3 min. Pain threshold was assessed as an indirect indicator of endorphin activity prior to and following the task. Although the in-phase synchrony effect was not found, a repeated measures ANOVA found that there was a significant difference in pain threshold change among the three conditions [F(2,24) D 4.10, ! N2 D 0.255, p < 0.05). Post hoc t-tests showed that the anti-phase condition had a significantly greater pain threshold change than both the solo and in-phase conditions at p < 0.05. This is the first time that anti-phase synchrony has been shown to produce the synchrony effect. Because anti-phase drumming may have required more attention between partners than in-phase synchrony, it may have affected self-other merging (Tarr et al., 2014). These results support Tarr et al.’s (2014) model that multiple mechanisms account for the effect of synchrony on pain threshold, and suggest that different characteristics of the activity may influence the synchrony effect.
    • The effect of episodic future simulation and motivation on young children’s induced-state episodic foresight

      Mahy, Caitlin; Masson, Chelsey; Krause, Amanda M.; Mazachowsky, Tessa (Elsevier, 2020)
      Examined the impact of episodic simulation and motivation on children’s episodic foresight. Thirst was induced and children were asked to make future choices. 3- to 5-year-olds completed the pretzel task under 4 different experimental conditions. Children’s future predictions were most accurate in the motivation condition. A novel and motivating food item, a cupcake, helped children overcome their current state of thirst. Future simulation and motivation are two strategies that might help children improve their induced-state episodic foresight. In Study 1, 3- to 5-year-old children (N = 96) consumed pretzels (to induce thirst) and were asked what they would prefer the next day, pretzels or water. Children were randomly assigned to an experimental condition: (1) a standard thirsty condition, (2) an episodic simulation condition where they imagined being hungry the next day, (3) a motivation condition where children chose between a cupcake and water, or (4) a control condition (thirst was not induced). Future preferences did not differ by age and children were less likely to choose water (vs. a cupcake) in the motivation condition compared to the standard thirsty condition. Study 2 found that 3- to 5-year-old children (N = 22) were also less likely to choose water for right now versus a cupcake when thirst was induced.
    • The effect of psychological distance on young children's future predictions

      Mazachowsky, Tessa R.; Koktavy, Christine; Mahy, Caitlin (John Wiley and Sons, 2019)
      The current study examined the impact of psychological distance on children's performance on the pretzel task. In this task, children eat pretzels (inducing thirst) and then are asked to reason about future preferences (pretzels or water). Children typically perform poorly on this task, indicating a future preference for water over pretzels, potentially due to conflicting current and future states. Given past work showing that children's future reasoning is more accurate for another person, we asked 90 thirsty 3‐ to 7‐year‐olds to reason about their own and an experimenter's future preference. Results showed that thirsty children had more difficulty predicting their own future preference compared with the experimenter's. Thirstier children were more likely to predict a future preference for water. Thirst interacted with age when making a future choice for the experimenter. How psychological distance might boost episodic foresight and possible reasons for children's poor pretzel task performance are discussed. Does psychological distancing improve children's ability to make accurate future predictions when current and future states conflict? Using the Pretzel task, thirsty children were less accurate when predicting their own future preferences compared with the future preferences of another person. Psychological distancing may help children overcome their current state to reason more accurately about the future.
    • Effective attacks in the salvo combat model: salvo sizes and quantities of targets

      Armstrong, Michael J. (Wiley, 2007)
      This article considers two related questions of tactics in the context of the salvo model for naval missile combat. For a given set of targets, how many missiles should be fired to produce an effective attack? For a given available salvo size, how many enemy targets should be fired at? In the deterministic version of the model I derive a simple optimality relationship between the number of missiles to fire and the number of targets to engage. In the stochastic model I employ the expected loss inflicted and the probability of enemy elimination as the main performance measures, and use these to derive salvo sizes that are in some sense “optimal”. I find that the offensive firepower needed for an effective attack depends not only on a target’s total strength but also on the relative balance between its active defensive power and passive staying power.
    • The Effectiveness of Rocket Attacks and Defenses in Israel

      Armstrong, Michael J. (Oxford University Press, 2018-04-11)
      This empirical article studies rocket attacks and defenses in Israel during operations Protective Edge, Pillar of Defense, and Cast Lead, and also during the Second Lebanon War. It analyzes publicly available counts of rockets fired, fatalities, casualties, and property damage. The estimates suggest that interceptor deployment and civil defense improvements both reduced Israel’s losses slightly during Pillar of Defense and substantially during Protective Edge. They also imply that interceptor performance during Pillar of Defense may have been overstated. Ground offensives were the most expensive way to prevent rocket casualties. Interceptors were at least as cost-effective as military offensives, and their advantage improved over time.Without its countermeasures, Israel’s rocket casualties could have been more than fifty times higher during Operation Protective Edge. These results imply that Israel’s rocket concerns were more justified than critics admit, but its military operations were less worthwhile than intended.
    • Effects of Dairy Consumption on Body Composition and Bone Properties in Youth: A Systematic Review

      Kouvelioti, Rozalia; Josse, Andrea R; Klentrou, Panagiota (American Society for Nutrition, 2017-10-11)
      Background: According to previous reviews, there is no clear evidence on the effects of dairy consumption on body composition and bone properties in pediatric populations. There is a need for further assessment of existing findings and the methodologic quality of studies before summarizing the evidence. Objective: The aim of the study was to assess the quality, methodologies, and substantive findings of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that examined the effects of dairy consumption on body size, body composition, and bone properties in children and adolescents. Methods: After searching PubMed and Google Scholar up to December 2016, 15 RCTs were retained and included in this systematic review for further analysis. The quality of the included studies was assessed via the Jadad scale; detailed methodologic and statistical characteristics were evaluated, and the main findings were summarized. Results: The effects of dairy consumption were found to be significant for bone structure and nonsignificant for body size and composition. Eight of the 11 RCTs that assessed bone found significant effects (P , 0.05) for bone mineral content and bone mineral density (BMD), with an average 8% increase in BMD after 16 mo of dairy consumption. Conversely, significant effects (P , 0.05) were found only in 2 of the 14 RCTs that focused on body size (i.e., height and weight) and in only 1 of the 11 RCTs that focused on body composition (i.e., lean mass). Conclusions: The systematic consumption of dairy products may benefit bone structure and development, but it does not appear to affect body composition or body size in children and adolescents. On the basis of the Jadad scale, the methodologic quality of the 15 RCTs was rated as good overall. However, there were methodologic disparities and limitations that may have led to nonsignificant results, particularly for body size and composition. Future RCTs designed to address these limitations are warranted.
    • Effects of lethality on naval combat models

      Armstrong, Michael J. (Wiley, 2004)
      In the context of both discrete time salvo models and continuous time Lanchester models we examine the effect on naval combat of lethality: that is, the relative balance between the offensive and defensive attributes of the units involved. We define three distinct levels of lethality and describe the distinguishing features of combat for each level. We discuss the implications of these characteristics for naval decision-makers; in particular, we show that the usefulness of the intuitive concept "more is better" varies greatly depending on the lethality level.
    • The electromyographic threshold in boys and men

      Pitt, Brynlynn; Dotan, Raffy; Millar, Jordan; Long, Devon; Tokuno, Craig; O'Brien, Thomas (Springer, 2015-01-15)
      Abstract Background Children have been shown to have higher lactate (LaTh) and ventilatory (VeTh) thresholds than adults, which might be explained by lower levels of type-II motor-unit (MU) recruitment. However, the electromyographic threshold (EMGTh), regarded as indicating the onset of accelerated type-II MU recruitment, has been investigated only in adults. Purpose To compare the relative exercise intensity at which the EMGTh occurs in boys versus men. Methods Participants were 21 men (23.4 ± 4.1 years) and 23 boys (11.1 ± 1.1 years), with similar habitual physical activity and peak oxygen consumption (VO2pk) (49.7 ± 5.5 vs. 50.1 ± 7.4 ml kg−1 min−1, respectively). Ramped cycle ergometry was conducted to volitional exhaustion with surface EMG recorded from the right and left vastus lateralis muscles throughout the test (~10 min). The composite right–left EMG root mean square (EMGRMS) was then calculated per pedal revolution. The EMGTh was then determined as the exercise intensity at the point of least residual sum of squares for any two regression line divisions of the EMGRMS plot. Results EMGTh was detected in 20/21 of the men (95.2 %) and only in 18/23 of the boys (78.3 %). The boys’ EMGTh was significantly higher than the men’s (86.4 ± 9.6 vs. 79.7 ± 10.0 % of peak power output at exhaustion; p < 0.05). The pattern was similar when EMGTh was expressed as percentage of VO2pk. Conclusions The boys’ higher EMGTh suggests delayed and hence lesser utilization of type-II MUs in progressive exercise, compared with men. The boys–men EMGTh differences were of similar magnitude as those shown for LaTh and VeTh, further suggesting a common underlying factor.
    • Electrophysiological correlates of the fexible allocation of visual working memory resources

      Salahub, Christine; Lockhart, Holly A; Dube, Blaire; Al-Aidroos, Naseem; Emrich, Stephen (Nature Publishing Group, 2019-12-19)
      Visual working memory is a brief, capacity-limited store of visual information that is involved in a large number of cognitive functions. To guide one’s behavior effectively, one must efficiently allocate these limited memory resources across memory items. Previous research has suggested that items are either stored in memory or completely blocked from memory access. However, recent behavioral work proposes that memory resources can be flexibly split across items based on their level of task importance. Here, we investigated the electrophysiological correlates of flexible resource allocation by manipulating the distribution of resources amongst systematically lateralized memory items. We examined the contralateral delay activity (CDA), a waveform typically associated with the number of items held in memory. Across three experiments, we found that, in addition to memory load, the CDA flexibly tracks memory resource allocation. This allocation occurred as early as attentional selection, as indicated by the N2pc. Additionally, CDA amplitude was better-described when fit with a continuous model predicted by load and resources together than when fit with either alone. Our findings show that electrophysiological markers of attentional selection and memory maintenance not only track memory load, but also the proportion of memory resources those items receive.
    • Electrophysiological correlates of top-down attentional modulation in olfaction

      Singh, Archana K; Touhara, Kazushige; Okamoto, Masako (Nature Research (Part of Springer Nature), 2019)
      The capacity to pay attention is important for the cognitive ability, for example, evaluating an object for its qualities. Attention can selectively prioritize the neural processes that are relevant to a given task. Neuroimaging investigations on human attention are primarily focused on vision to the exclusion of other sensory systems, particularly olfaction. Neural underpinnings of human olfactory attention are still not clearly understood. Here, we combined electroencephalographic measurements of olfactory event related potential with electrical neuroimaging to investigate how the neural responses after inhaling the same odor differ between conditions with varying levels of attention, and, in which brain areas. We examined the neural responses when participants attended to a rose-like odor of phenylethyl alcohol for evaluating its pleasantness versus its passive inhalation. Our results gathered significant evidence for attentional modulation of the olfactory neural response. The most prominent effect was found for the late positive component, P3, of olfactory event related potential within a second from the odor onset. The source reconstruction of this data revealed activations in a distributed network of brain regions predominantly in inferior frontal cortex, insula, and inferior temporal gyrus. These results suggest that the neuronal modulations from attention to olfactory pleasantness may be subserved by this network.
    • Emerging themes in the development of prospective memory during childhood

      Mahy, Caitlin; Kliegel, Matthias; Marcovitch, Stuart (Elsevier, 2014)
      Six years ago, Kvavilashvili, Kyle, and Messer (2008) called for more research in the area of chil dren’s prospective memory (PM), defined as the ability to remember to carry out delayed intentions (Einstein & McDaniel, 1990). At that time, the literature on PM in children was scant, although a few well-developed paradigms were available to measure PM in preschool-age children (Kvavilashvili, Messer, & Ebdon, 2001) and older children during middle childhood (Kerns, 2000). Although there is still much work to be done, the last few years have seen a steep rise in the number of studies on the topic of PM during childhood examining children as young as 2 years using a wide variety of time- and event-based PM paradigms. This recent increase in research activity in children’s PM was reflected in the high number of initial submissions for this special issue (20 manuscripts). The current special issue on the development of PM during childhood offers an overview of this burgeoning area of research, studying children from toddlerhood to adolescence, who are typically and atypically developing, using a wide variety of methods, including naturalistic tasks, experimental tasks, and parent report measures. In what follows, we first discuss the four sections of this special issue: PM research during early childhood, PM and episodic future thinking, PM in clinical populations, and PM during adolescence. We then highlight some emerging themes in this collection of articles that cut across these sections and highlight the contribution such topics will make to the field of PM.
    • The End of Libraries and Librarianship - Part 34

      Gordon, Ian D. (The Informed Librarian Online, 2021-01-04)
      Librarians have bemoaned the constant clatter overheard from commentators that libraries are obsolete and no longer relevant. This observation is contrary to the lived experiences of those that serve in and depend upon public and academic libraries. A call to action challenges librarians everywhere to change this narrative by intentionally sharing stories of their essential work, service, community building… with anyone who will listen. An annotated list of readings and streaming videos is provided that builds on the inspirational work of David Lankes, Lisa Peet, Lance Werner, Mark Smith, Shamichael Hallman, Catherine Murray-Must, Michael Stephens and others. Libraries are observed to be places of transformative change. Librarians are found to be passionate, courageous and indispensable. Story telling is a powerful instrument for librarians and people that volunteer and serve in libraries to make the seemingly invisible work of libraries - more visible.