• Daily and annual cycles in thermoregulatory behaviour and cardio‑respiratory physiology of black and white tegu lizards

      Sanders, Colin E; Tattersall, Glenn J; Reichert, Michelle; Andrade, Denis V; Abe, Augusto S; Milsom, William K (2015)
      This study was designed to determine the manner in which metabolism is suppressed during dormancy in black and white tegu lizards (Tupinambis merianae). To this end, heart rate (f H), respiration rate (f R), and deep body temperature (T b) were continuously monitored in outdoor enclosures by radio-telemetry for nine months. There was a continuous decline in nighttime breathing and heart rate, at constant T b, throughout the late summer and fall suggestive of an active metabolic suppression that developed progressively at night preceding the entrance into dormancy. During the day, however, the tegus still emerged to bask. In May, when the tegus made a behavioural commitment to dormancy, T b (day and night) fell to match burrow temperature, accompanied by a further reduction in f H and f R. Tegus, under the conditions of this study, did arouse periodically during dormancy. There was a complex interplay between changes in f H and T b associated with the direct effects of temperature and the indirect effects of thermoregulation, activity, and changes in metabolism. This interplay gave rise to a daily hysteresis in the f H/T b relationship reflective of the physiological changes associated with warming and cooling as preferred T b alternated between daytime and nighttime levels. The shape of the hysteresis curve varied with season along with changes in metabolic state and daytime and nighttime body temperature preferences.
    • Data Analysis as the Next Step

      Ribaric, Tim (2600 Enterprises, Inc., 2022)
      Article outlines the importance of community action for providing infrastructure to support analysis and use of whistle-blower data. Datashare from ICIJ (https://datashare.icij.org/) is described.
    • Dataset to accompany manuscript "Tortoises develop and overcome position biases in a reversal learning task

      Bridgeman, Justin; Tattersall, Glenn (Springer, 2019)
      The capability of animals to alter their behaviour in response to novel or familiar stimuli, or behavioural flexibility, is strongly associated with their ability to learn in novel environments. Reptiles are capable of learning complex tasks and offer a unique opportunity to study the relationship between visual proficiency and behavioural flexibility. The focus of this study was to investigate the behavioural flexibility of red-footed tortoises and their ability to perform reversal learning. Reversal learning involves first learning a particular discrimination task, after which the previously rewarded cue is reversed and then subjects perform the task with new reward contingencies. Red-footed tortoises were required to learn to recognise and approach visual cues within a Y-maze. Once subjects learned the visual discrimination, tortoises were required to successfully learn 4 reversals. Tortoises required significantly more trials to reach criterion (80% correct) in the first reversal, indicating the difficulty of unlearning the positive stimulus presented during training. Nevertheless, subsequent reversals required a similar number of sessions to the training stage, demonstrating that reversal learning improved up to a point. All subjects tested developed a position bias within the Y-maze that was absent prior to training, but most were able to exhibit reversal learning. Red-footed tortoises primarily adopted a win-stay choice strategy while learning the discrimination without much evidence for a lose-shift choice strategy, which may explain limits to their behavioural flexibility. However, improving performance across reversals while simultaneously overcoming a position bias provides insights into the cognitive abilities of tortoises.
    • Dear SSHRC, What Do You Want? An Epistolary Narrative of Expertise, Identity, and Time in Grant Writing

      McGinn, Michelle K.; Acker, Sandra; Vander Kloet, Marie; Wagner, Anne (Institut für Qualitative Forschung, 2019)
      The current research climate has heightened expectations for social science researchers to secure research grant funding at the same time that such funding appears to be more competitive than ever. As a result, researchers experience anxiety, confusion, loss of confidence, second guessing, and a lack of trust in the system and themselves. This autoethnographic study provides an insider perspective on the intellectual, emotional, and physical experience of grant writing. A team of scholars document the production of a research grant for their major national funding agency, the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada. The story is presented through epistolary narrative in the form of a series of unsent letters addressed to the funding agency. The letters foreground themes of expertise, identity, and time as they were shaped through the grant-writing process. The analysis draws attention to unnecessary complexities and challenges that could and should be eliminated from granting processes if the intention is to foster quality research and strengthen research capacity. Implications may prove instructive for other grant applicants, resource personnel employed to support applicants, and potential funders.
    • Deciphering mollusc shell production: the roles of genetic mechanisms through to ecology, aquaculture and biomimetics

      Carlone, Bob (Wiley, 2020-08)
      Most molluscs possess shells, constructed from a vast array of microstructures and architectures. The fully formed shell is composed of calcite or aragonite. These CaCO3 crystals form complex biocomposites with proteins, which although typ- ically less than 5% of total shell mass, play significant roles in determining shell microstructure. Despite much research effort, large knowledge gaps remain in how molluscs construct and maintain their shells, and how they produce such a great diversity of forms. Here we synthesize results on how shell shape, microstructure, composition and organic content vary among, and within, species in response to numerous biotic and abiotic factors. At the local level, temperature, food supply and predation cues significantly affect shell morphology, whilst salinity has a much stronger influence across lat- itudes. Moreover, we emphasize how advances in genomic technologies [e.g. restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-Seq) and epigenetics] allow detailed examinations of whether morphological changes result from phenotypic plas- ticity or genetic adaptation, or a combination of these. RAD-Seq has already identified single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with temperature and aquaculture practices, whilst epigenetic processes have been shown significantly to mod- ify shell construction to local conditions in, for example, Antarctica and New Zealand. We also synthesize results on the costs of shell construction and explore how these affect energetic trade-offs in animal metabolism. The cellular costs are still debated, with CaCO3 precipitation estimates ranging from 1–2 J/mg to 17–55 J/mg depending on experimental and environmental conditions. However, organic components are more expensive ($29 J/mg) and recent data indicate transmembrane calcium ion transporters can involve considerable costs. This review emphasizes the role that molecular analyses have played in demonstrating multiple evolutionary origins of biomineralization genes. Although these are char- acterized by lineage-specific proteins and unique combinations of co-opted genes, a small set of protein domains have been identified as a conserved biomineralization tool box. We further highlight the use of sequence data sets in providing candidate genes for in situ localization and protein function studies. The former has elucidated gene expression modular- ity in mantle tissue, improving understanding of the diversity of shell morphology synthesis. RNA interference (RNAi) and clustered regularly interspersed short palindromic repeats - CRISPR-associated protein 9 (CRISPR-Cas9) experi- ments have provided proof of concept for use in the functional investigation of mollusc gene sequences, showing for example that Pif (aragonite-binding) protein plays a significant role in structured nacre crystal growth and that the Lsdia1 gene sets shell chirality in Lymnaea stagnalis. Much research has focused on the impacts of ocean acidification on molluscs. Initial studies were predominantly pessimistic for future molluscan biodiversity. However, more sophisticated experi- ments incorporating selective breeding and multiple generations are identifying subtle effects and that variability within mollusc genomes has potential for adaption to future conditions. Furthermore, we highlight recent historical studies based on museum collections that demonstrate a greater resilience of molluscs to climate change compared with exper- imental data. The future of mollusc research lies not solely with ecological investigations into biodiversity, and this review synthesizes knowledge across disciplines to understand biomineralization. It spans research ranging from evolution and development, through predictions of biodiversity prospects and future-proofing of aquaculture to identifying new biomi- metic opportunities and societal benefits from recycling shell products.

      Murgu, Cal (Music Library Association, 2021-06)
      In this essay, we detail the pedagogical collaboration between a digital humanities librarian, a professor of music and digital media, and a second-year music student that took the form of a design sprint. The product of the design sprint was the Mapping Sentiments through Music (MStM) application. Using this project as a case study, we argue that both digital humanities and music education share a commonality: both disciplines can incorporate elements of design thinking to be successful. As a result, our efforts center direct experimentation with a team, and foster design thinking by promoting descriptive exchange, creative problem solving, and the creation of emergent rather than explicitly delimited meanings. We conclude with several remarks on overlaps between music and design pedagogy, and on librarian-faculty collaborations. This article was published in the Music Library Association’s journal, Notes 77, 4, June 2021, and 561-585. The version of record is available at https://proxy.library.brocku.ca/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=150204301&site=ehost-live&scope=site. This material may not be copied or reposted without written permission of MLA
    • Developing an understanding of others’ emotional states: Relations among affective theory of mind and empathy measures in early childhood

      Gallant, Caitlyn M. M.; Lavis, Lydia; Mahy, Caitlin (Wiley, 2020)
      Theory of mind (ToM) consists of cognitive and affective components; however, few studies have evaluated the coherence of affective ToM measures and their associations with empathy. This research examined the relations among affective ToM tasks and assessments of empathy, measured directly and via parent reports in 4‐ to 6‐year‐olds. Children (N = 117) completed: an Appearance‐Reality Emotion Task, an adapted Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test, an Affective Stories Task, and an empathy task. Parents reported on children’s ToM and empathy, and language was assessed using a Picture Vocabulary Test. Controlling for language, no relationships were found among affective ToM measures and children’s age was only related to the Affective Stories Task. Further, controlling for age, only parent‐reported empathy was associated with the Appearance‐Reality Emotion Task. Once vocabulary and age were controlled, measures of affective ToM are unrelated and different developmental patterns emerged across measures. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject Affective theory of mind is a distinct subcomponent of theory of mind that corresponds to an independent developmental mechanism. However, little research has been conducted on affective ToM, its developmental trajectory during the preschool years, its assessment, and its relationship with related constructs, such as empathy. What the present study adds Children’s performance on affective ToM tasks was unrelated once age and language abilities were accounted for. Thus, there is a need to examine affective ToM and its measurement more extensively to ensure we are effectively capturing this construct. This study was the first to establish a Preschool Reading the Mind in the Eyes Task that uses images of children and pictorial response options and an Affective Stories Task that captures age‐related changes in affective ToM beyond language skills.
    • Development and application of assay for determining β-glucosidase activity in human saliva

      Stradwick, Lauren; Inglis, Debbie; Kelly, Jennifer; Pickering, Gary (BioMed Central, 2017)
      β-glucosidase is an enzyme important to flavour enhancement. It hydrolyzes glucosides to release aglycones—aroma precursors that are bound to a sugar molecule—thereby making them available to contribute to the flavour of foods and beverages. While there is strong interest within the food and beverage industry to optimizing flavour through the use of exogenous and endogenous glucosidase in production, little is known regarding the possible occurrence of these enzymes within the human oral cavity. This could be an important source of flavour release and/or account for some differences between individuals in flavour perception. In the present study, we determined whether β-glucosidase is present in human saliva. First, an existing spectrophotometric assay that uses p-nitrophenyl-β-O- D -glucopyranoside as a substrate was modified and optimized for use in human saliva. The following variables were evaluated and where necessary, optimized: linearity of the assay signal, possible matrix interference, the effect of heat inactivation of the saliva, absorbance wavelength maxima, substrate saturation concentration, maximum saliva volume and the inclusion of α-cyclodextrin. The modified assay was then used to screen for β-glucosidase activity in the saliva of 20 individuals. Of the 20 samples analyzed, four were tentatively identified as containing active β-glucosidase and were further investigated.
    • Development of a dual-factor measure of adolescent mental health: an analysis of cross-sectional data from the 2014 Canadian Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study

      King, Nathan; Davison, Colleen M; Pickett, William (BMJ, 2021-09-30)
      Introduction Studies of adolescent mental health require valid measures that are supported by evidence-based theories. An established theory is the dual-factor model, which argues that mental health status is only fully understood by incorporating information on both subjective well-being and psychopathology. Objectives To develop a novel measure of adolescent mental health based on the dual-factor model and test its construct validity. Design Cross-sectional analysis of national health survey data. Setting and participants Nationally weighted sample of 21 993 grade 6–10 students; average age: 14.0 (SD 1.4) years from the 2014 Canadian Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study. Measures Self-report indicators of subjective well-being (life satisfaction, positive and negative affect), and psychopathology (psychological symptoms and overt risk-taking behaviour) were incorporated into the dual-factor measure. Characteristics of adolescents families, specific mental health indicators and measures of academic and social functioning were used in the assessment of construct validity. Results Proportions of students categorised to the four mental health groups indicated by the dual-factor measure were 67.6% ‘mentally healthy’, 17.5% ‘symptomatic yet content’, 5.5% ‘asymptomatic yet discontent’ and 9.4% ‘mentally unhealthy’. Being mentally healthy was associated with the highest functioning (greater social support and academic functioning) and being mentally unhealthy was associated with the worst. A one-unit increase (ranges=0–10) in peer support (OR 1.19; 95%CI 1.15 to 1.22), family support (OR 1.32; 95%CI 1.28 to 1.36), student support (OR 1.20; 95%CI 1.17 to 1.24) and average school marks (OR 1.18; 95%CI 1.10 to 1.27) increased the odds of being symptomatic yet content versus mentally unhealthy. Mentally healthy youth were the most likely to live with both parents (77% vs ≤65%) and report their family as well-off (62% vs ≤53%). Conclusions We developed a novel, construct valid dual-factor measure of adolescent mental health. This potentially provides a nuanced and comprehensive approach to the assessment of adolescent mental health that is direly needed.
    • Development of homeothermic endothermy is delayed in high-altitude native deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus)

      Robertson, Cayleih E.; Tattersall, Glenn J.; McClelland, Grant B. (The Royal Society Publishing, 2019-06-28)
      Altricial mammals begin to independently thermoregulate during the firstfew weeks of postnatal development. In wild rodent populations, this isalso a time of high mortality (50–95%), making the physiological systemsthat mature during this period potential targets for selection. High altitude(HA) is a particularly challenging environment for small endotherms owingto unremitting low O2and ambient temperatures. While superior thermo-genic capacities have been demonstrated in adults of some HA species, itis unclear if selection has occurred to survive these unique challengesearly in development. We used deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) nativeto high and low altitude (LA), and a strictly LA species (Peromyscus leucopus),raised under common garden conditions, to determine if postnatal onset ofendothermy and maturation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) is affected byaltitude ancestry. We found that the onset of endothermy correspondswith the maturation and activation of BAT at an equivalent age in LAnatives, with 10-day-old pups able to thermoregulate in response to acutecold in both species. However, the onset of endothermy in HA pups wassubstantially delayed (by approx. 2 days), possibly driven by delayedsympathetic regulation of BAT. We suggest that this delay may be part ofan evolved cost-saving measure to allow pups to maintain growth ratesunder the O2-limited conditions at HA.
    • The development of prospective memory in children: An executive framework

      Mahy, Caitlin; Moses, Louis; Kliegel, Matthias (Elsevier, 2014)
      Existing literature on children's prospective memory has been reviewed. An executive framework for studies on prospective memory development has been suggested. This study proposes a developmental model of prospective memory. Prospective memory (PM), the ability to remember to carry out one's intentions in the future, is critical for children's daily functioning and their ability to become independent from caregivers. This review assesses the current state of research on children's prospective memory. Using an executive functioning framework the literature can be organized into studies examining four factors that influence PM. We discuss studies that have manipulated the nature of the intention, the content or length of the retention interval, the nature of the ongoing task, and the nature of the PM cue. Further, we propose a model that attempts to account for the development of PM across childhood based on advances in executive control. Finally, we suggest promising future directions for research.
    • The development of prospective memory in young schoolchildren: The impact of ongoing task absorption, cue salience, and cue centrality

      Kliegel, Matthias; Mahy, Caitlin E.V.; Voigt, Babett; Henry, Julie D.; Rendell, Peter G.; Aberle, Ingo (Elsevier, 2013)
      •9- and 10-year-olds outperformed 6- to 7-year-olds in event-based prospective memory. •Varying cue centrality, age effects only emerged with cues outside the center of attention. •Findings suggest developing executive control as cognitive mechanism. •Alternative conceptual explications are deeper encoding or changes in meta-memory. This study presents evidence that 9- and 10-year-old children outperform 6- and 7-year-old children on a measure of event-based prospective memory and that retrieval-based factors systematically influence performance and age differences. All experiments revealed significant age effects in prospective memory even after controlling for ongoing task performance. In addition, the provision of a less absorbing ongoing task (Experiment 1), higher cue salience (Experiment 2), and cues appearing in the center of attention (Experiment 3) were each associated with better performance. Of particular developmental importance was an age by cue centrality (in or outside of the center of attention) interaction that emerged in Experiment 3. Thus, age effects were restricted to prospective memory cues appearing outside of the center of attention, suggesting that the development of prospective memory across early school years may be modulated by whether a cue requires overt monitoring beyond the immediate attentional context. Because whether a cue is in or outside of the center of attention might determine the amount of executive control needed in a prospective memory task, findings suggest that developing executive control resources may drive prospective memory development across primary school age.
    • Détermination des coûts du changement climatique : une étude de cas qui utilise des données sur le climat, sur l’utilisation des terres et sur la qualité de l’eau pour évaluer les impacts économiques du changement climatique sur la santé publique à l’échelle locale

      Renzetti, Steven (2015)
      Un des rapports possibles entre le changement climatique et la santé publique tient à la façon dont le changement climatique pourrait accroître la probabilité de l'exposition humaine à des pathogènes d’origine hydrique. Il se peut que le changement climatique ait cet effet à cause 1) de la survie accrue des agents pathogènes fécaux dans les sols attribuable aux températures et aux précipitations, 2) du transport de pathogènes par voie terrestre et de leur passage dans les sources d’eau, et 3) de l’accroissement des risques découlant de la défaillance des systèmes de traitement de l’eau et de désinfection provoquée par des inondations et des débordements des réseaux pluviaux, des réseaux d’égouts et des fosses septiques.
    • Did the UK COVID-19 Lockdown Modify the Influence of Neighbourhood Disorder on Psychological Distress? Evidence From a Prospective Cohort Study

      Teo, Celine; Kim, Chungah; Nielsen, Andrew; Young, Thomas; O'Campo, Patricia; Chum, Antony (Frontiers Media, 2021)
      National lockdown in the UK during the COVID-19 pandemic severely restricted the mobility of residents and increased time spent in their residential neighbourhoods. This is a unique opportunity to understand how an exogenous factor that reduces mobility may influence the association between neighbourhood social environment and mental health. This study investigates whether the COVID-19 lockdown may modify the effect of neighbourhood disorder on psychological distress. Methods: We tracked changes in psychological distress, using the UK household longitudinal survey across the pre-COVID and lockdown periods in 16,535 adults. Neighbourhood disorder was measured along two subscales: social stressors and property crime. Fixed-effects regression was used to evaluate whether the widespread reduction in mobility modifies the association between the subscales of neighbourhood disorder and psychological distress. Results: The effect of neighbourhood social stressors on psychological distress was stronger in the lockdown period compared to the pre-COVID period. Compared to the pre-COVID period, the effect of being in neighbourhoods with the highest social stressors (compared to the lowest) on psychological distress increased by 20% during the lockdown. Meanwhile, the effect of neighbourhood property crime on mental health did not change during the lockdown. Conclusion: The sudden loss of mobility as a result of COVID-19 lockdown is a unique opportunity to address the endogeneity problem as it relates to mobility and locational preferences in the study of neighbourhood effects on health. Vulnerable groups who have limited mobility are likely more sensitive to neighbourhood social stressors compared to the general population.
    • Dietary Strategies to Optimize Wound Healing after Periodontal and Dental Implant Surgery: An Evidence-Based Review

      Lau, Beatrice Y.; Johnston, Bryan D.; Fritz, Peter C.; Ward, Wendy E. (Bentham Science Publishers, 2013-04-05)
      Methods to optimize healing through dietary strategies present an attractive option for patients, such that healing from delicate oral surgeries occurs as optimally as possible with minimal patient-meditated complications through improper food choices. This review discusses findings from studies that have investigated the role of diet, either whole foods or individual dietary components, on periodontal health and their potential role in wound healing after periodontal surgery. To date, research in this area has largely focused on foods or individual dietary components that may attenuate inflammation or oxidant stress, or foster de novo bone formation. These studies suggest that a wide variety of dietary components, including macronutrients and micronutrients, are integral for optimal periodontal health and have the potential to accelerate oral wound healing after periodontal procedures. Moreover, this review provides guidance regarding dietary considerations that may help a patient achieve the best possible outcome after a periodontal procedure.
    • Differential attentional allocation and subsequent recognition for young and older adult faces

      Short, Lindsey A.; Semplonius, Thalia; Proletti, Valentina; Mondloch, Catherine J. (Taylor & Francis, 2014-10)
      Studies examining own-age recognition biases report inconsistent results and often utilize paradigms that present faces individually and in isolation. We investigated young and older adults' attention towards young and older faces during learning and whether differential attention influences recognition. Participants viewed complex scenes while their eye movements were recorded; each scene contained two young and two older faces. Half of the participants formed scene impressions and half prepared for a memory test. Participants then completed an old/new face recognition task. Both age groups looked longer at young than older faces; however, only young adults showed an own-age recognition advantage. Participants in the memory condition looked longer at faces but did not show enhanced recognition relative to the impressions condition. Overall, attention during learning did not influence recognition. Our results provide evidence for a young adult face bias in attentional allocation but suggest that longer looking does not necessarily indicate deeper encoding.
    • Differential Profiles of Gut Microbiota and Metabolites Associated with Host Shift of Plutella xylostella

      Yang, Fei-Ying; Saqib, Hafiz Sohaib Ahmed; Chen, Jun-Hui; Ruan, Qian-Qian; Vasseur, Liette; He, Wei-Yi; You, Min-Sheng (MDPI, 2020)
      Evolutionary and ecological forces are important factors that shape gut microbial profiles in hosts, which can help insects adapt to different environments through modulating their metabolites. However, little is known about how gut microbes and metabolites are altered when lepidopteran pest species switch hosts. In the present study, using 16S-rDNA sequencing and mass spectrometry-based metabolomics, we analyzed the gut microbiota and metabolites of three populations of : one feeding on radish (PxR) and two feeding on peas (PxP; with PxP-1 and PxP-17 being the first and 17th generations after host shift from radish to peas, respectively). We found that the diversity of gut microbes in PxP-17 was significantly lower than those in PxR and PxP-1, which indicates a distinct change in gut microbiota after host shift. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analysis revealed that the functions of energy metabolism, signal transduction, and xenobiotics biodegradation and metabolism were increased in PxP-17, suggesting their potential roles in host adaptation. Metabolic profiling showed a significant difference in the abundance of gut metabolites between PxR and PxP-17, and significant correlations of gut bacteria with gut metabolites. These findings shed light on the interaction among plants, herbivores, and symbionts, and advance our understanding of host adaptation associated with gut bacteria and metabolic activities
    • Discourses of Masculinity and Femininity in The Hunger Games: "Scarred," "Bloody," and "Stunning"

      Woloshyn, Vera; Taber, Nancy; Lane, Laura (RedFame Publishing, 2013-02-28)
      This article explores how characters in The Hunger Games trilogy are portrayed relative to Connell's gendered discourses of hegemonic masculinity, marginal masculinity, and emphasized femininity. We briefly review the plot of The Hunger Games trilogy and then discuss the ways in which three of the characters are represented with respect to societal gendered discourses, heteronormativity, and the use of violence. We argue that the ways in which these aspects are portrayed relate to the main characters' performance of discourses of hegemonic masculinity (Gale), marginalized masculinity (Peeta), and a complex amalgamation of the two that also draws somewhat on emphasized femininity (Katniss). Finally, we conclude that, while the trilogy could be read as taking a feminist stance with a strong female protagonist, it nonetheless also constrains Katniss in heteronormative ways.
    • Diverse Primitive Basalts from an Extensional Back-arc Setting: Fort Rock Volcanic Field, Oregon

      Frank, Popoli (2016)
      The Fort Rock Volcanic Field study area (FRVF) is situated in a highly complex volcanic and tectonic extensional back arc setting, influenced by multiple episodes involving the subduction of the Juan de Fuca Plate under the North American Plate, eruptions from the Western and High Cascades, High Lava Plains (HLPs), Newberry, and extension from the Basin & Range continental rift zone. Hydrovolcanic eruptions created tuff rings/cones and maars, while conventional eruptions created cinder cones, and lava fields in the FRVF area. These landforms contain a diverse array of primitive basalts, with an Mg# (xMgO / (xMgO + xFeO) * 100) > 60 (molar %), deducing information of mantle source regions and melting processes through geochemical analyses of major and trace elements to achieve a greater understanding of the complex tectonic framework and eruptive history of the FRVF. Geochemical data was acquired through X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) for 75 mafic basaltic samples. FRVF basalts analyzed four diverse primitive magma types; low-K tholeiites (LKTs), calc-alkaline basalts (CABs), high Mg# basaltic andesites (BAs), and ocean island basalts (OIBs). These magma types are further separated into western/central and eastern sections of the FRVF based on their major and trace element variations. These variations suggest the subduction enrichment, mantle fertility, and the depth and degree of partial melting trends of their primary mantle sources depend on their distribution across the FRVF.