• C

      Ribaric, Tim (Rowman & Littlefield, 2016-06)
      This is chapter 8 of "The Librarian's Introduction to Programming Languages" entitled C. It introduces the C language in a context suitable for Librarians and information professionals.
    • Calmodulin-Binding Proteins in Muscle: A Minireview on Nuclear Receptor Interacting Protein, Neurogranin, and Growth-Associated Protein 43

      Moradi, Fereshteh; Copeland, Emily N; Baranowski, Ryan W; Scholey, Aiden E; Stuart, Jeffrey A; Fajardo, Val A (MDPI, 2020)
      Calmodulin (CaM) is an important Ca2+-sensing protein with numerous downstream targets that are either CaM-dependant or CaM-regulated. In muscle, CaM-dependent proteins, which are critical regulators of dynamic Ca2+ handling and contractility, include calcineurin (CaN), CaM-dependant kinase II (CaMKII), ryanodine receptor (RyR), and dihydropyridine receptor (DHPR).CaM-regulated targets include genes associated with oxidative metabolism, muscle plasticity, and repair. Despite its importance in muscle, the regulation of CaM—particularly its availability to bind to and activate downstream targets—is an emerging area of research. In this minireview, we discuss recent studies revealing the importance of small IQ motif proteins that bind to CaM to either facilitate (nuclear receptor interacting protein; NRIP) its activation of downstream targets, or sequester (neurogranin, Ng; and growth-associated protein 43, GAP43) CaM away from their downstream targets. Specifically, we discuss recent studies that have begun uncovering the physiological roles of NRIP, Ng, and GAP43 in skeletal and cardiac muscle, thereby highlighting the importance of endogenously expressed CaM-binding proteins and their regulation of CaM in muscle.
    • Canada's new Open Access policy: Integrating libraries into open scholarship

      Burpee, Jane; Coughlan, Rosarie; Johnston, Dave; Moore, Patricia; Yates, Elizabeth (2016-01)
    • Canada’s new Open Access Policy: what does it mean for Brock researchers?

      Yates, Elizabeth; Ribaric, Tim (2015-04-14)
      Canada’s new Tri-Agency Open Access Policy signals that Canada is embracing open research as a default position. While only funding recipients will be required to comply with the policy by making their journal articles Open Access, the policy stresses that all Canadian researchers are encouraged to follow suit. Attend this session to learn more about the policy regulations and how the Library can support Open Access to Brock research.
    • Canada’s provinces and territories should disclose cannabis data to support research

      Armstrong, Michael (Joule Inc, 2021-03-08)
      Despite cannabis legalization’s many potential impacts on Canadian society, provincial governments have disclosed few details about their recreational sales. Detailed proactive data disclosure, like that done in Colorado and Washington state, helps researchers understand legalization’s impacts and suggest regulatory improvements. To ensure Canada’s upcoming regulatory review is evidence-based, provinces must at least start monthly publication of the recreational cannabis sales data they already collect.
    • Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology Position Paper: Resistance Training in Children and Adolescents

      Behm, David G.; Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Falk, Bareket; Klentrou, Panagiota (2008)
      Many position stands and review papers have refuted the myths associated with resistance training (RT) in children and adolescents. With proper training methods, RT for children and adolescents can be relatively safe and improve overall health. The objective of this position paper and review is to highlight research and provide recommendations in aspects of RT that have not been extensively reported in the pediatric literature. In addition to the well-documented increases in muscular strength and endurance, RT has been used to improve function in pediatric patients with cystic fibrosis, cerebral palsy and burn victims. Increases in children’s muscular strength have been attributed primarily to neurological adaptations due to the disproportionately higher increase in muscle strength than in muscle size. Although most studies using anthropometric measures have not shown significant muscle hypertrophy in children, more sensitive measures such as magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound have suggested hypertrophy may occur. There is no minimum age for RT for children. However the training and instruction must be appropriate for children and adolescents involving a proper warm-up, cool-down and an appropriate choice of exercises. It is recommended that low-to-moderate intensity resistance should be utilized 2-3 times per week on non-consecutive days, with 1-2 sets initially, progressing to 4 sets of 8-15 repetitions for 8-12 exercises. These exercises can include more advanced movements such as Olympic style lifting, plyometrics and balance training, which can enhance strength, power, co-ordination and balance. However specific guidelines for these more advanced techniques need to be established for youth. In conclusion, a RT program that is within a child’s or adolescent’s capacity, involves gradual progression under qualified instruction and supervision with appropriately sized equipment can involve more advanced or intense RT exercises which can lead to functional (i.e. muscular strength, endurance, power, balance and co-ordination) and health benefits.
    • Canadian UNESCO Chairs : reflections on the futures of education

      Canadian Commission for UNESCO (Canadian Commission for UNESCO, 2020)
      'UNESCO's Futures of Education is a global initiative to reimagine and rethink education by 2050. Through an open consultation process involving youth, educators, civil society, governments, businesses, and other stakeholders, it will gather ideas that will shape our future. A publication on how knowledge, education and learning will look like by 2050 will be presented during the next UNESCO General Conference in November 2021. A first issue called Humanistic Futures of Learning: Perspectives from UNESCO Chairs and UNITWIN Networks has been published in January 2020. This is the first collection bringing together the perspectives of a UNESCO flagship network that holds a privileged place in the research ecosystem. Indeed, the UNESCO Chairs are uniquely positioned contribute to the global debate on the futures of education. The call for contributions generated enormous interest; UNESCO received 178 submissions by more than 400 authors. Of these, a selection of 48 reflection papers by over 100 authors from 65 institutions were selected. The main findings were presented in January 2020 at the first meeting of the International Commission on the Futures of Education. We are particularly pleased that the contributions of six of our Canadian UNESCO Chairs have been selected to contribute to the global reflection'
    • Capacity Development for Integrated Land and Water Use Planning

      Xu, Wei (2015)
      Water governance frameworks have been widely adopted, however, there is as of yet little guidance on how such arrangements should operate, be evaluated, or be improved. There is a lack of clarity in identifying the components of these arangements, which hinders a consistent understanding of water governance. Furthermore, assorted water governance capacity elements are anaylzyed individually, but there is a lack of comprehensive framework upon which capacity of water governance can be assessed. Recent changes in Alberta’s water governance structure provide a window on water governance implementation and an opportunity to calrify important questions surrounding successful water governance.
    • Carbon translocation from a plant to an insect-pathogenic endophytic fungus

      Behie, Scott W.; Moreria, Camila C.; Sementchoukova, Irina; Barelli, Larissa; Zelisko, Paul M.; Bidochka, Michael J. (Nature Publishing Group, 2017-12-18)
      Metarhizium robertsii is a common soil fungus that occupies a specialized ecological niche as an endophyte and an insect pathogen. Previously, we showed that the endophytic capability and insect pathogenicity of Metarhizium are coupled to provide an active method of insect-derived nitrogen transfer to a host plant via fungal mycelia. We speculated that in exchange for this insect-derived nitrogen, the plant would provide photosynthate to the fungus. By using 13 CO 2 , we show the incorporation of 13 C into photosynthate and the subsequent translocation of 13 C into fungal-specific carbohydrates (trehalose and chitin) in the root/endophyte complex. We determined the amount of 13 C present in root-associated fungal biomass over a 21-day period by extracting fungal carbohydrates and analysing their composition using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. These findings are evidence that the host plant is providing photosynthate to the fungus, likely in exchange for insect-derived nitrogen in a tripartite, and symbiotic, interaction.
    • Cassowary casques act as thermal windows

      Eastick, Danielle; Tattersall, Glenn; Watson, Simon; Lesku, John; Robert, Kylie (Nature Publishing Group, 2019-02-13)
      Many ideas have been put forward for the adaptive value of the cassowary casque; and yet, its purpose remains speculative. Homeothermic animals elevate body temperature through metabolic heat production. Heat gain must be offset by heat loss to maintain internal temperatures within a range for optimal performance. Living in a tropical climate, cassowaries, being large bodied, dark feathered birds, are under thermal pressure to offload heat. We tested the original hypothesis that the casque acts as a thermal window. With infrared thermographic analyses of living cassowaries over an expansive range of ambient temperatures, we provide evidence that the casque acts as a thermal radiator, offloading heat at high temperatures and restricting heat loss at low temperatures. Interestingly, at intermediate temperatures, the casque appears thermally heterogeneous, with the posterior of the casque heating up before the front half. These findings might have implications for the function of similar structures in avian and non-avian dinosaurs.
    • Category-specific face prototypes are emerging, but not yet mature, in 5-year-old children

      Short, Lindsey A.; Lee, Kang; Genyue, Fu; Mondloch, Catherine J. (Elsevier Ltd, 2014-10)
      Adults’ expertise in face recognition has been attributed to norm-based coding. Moreover, adults possess separable norms for a vari-ety of face categories (e.g., race, sex, age) that appear to enhancerecognition by reducing redundancy in the information shared byfaces and ensuring that only relevant dimensions are used toencode faces from a given category. Although 5-year-old childrenprocess own-race faces using norm-based coding, little is knownabout the organization and refinement of their face space. The cur-rent study investigated whether 5-year-olds rely on category-spe-cific norms and whether experience facilitates the development ofdissociable face prototypes. In Experiment 1, we examinedwhether Chinese 5-year-olds show race-contingent opposing after-effects and the extent to which aftereffects transfer across face raceamong Caucasian and Chinese 5-year-olds. Both participant racesshowed partial transfer of aftereffects across face race; however,there was no evidence for race-contingent opposing aftereffects.To examine whether experience facilitates the development of cat-egory-specific prototypes, we investigated whether race-contin-gent aftereffects are present among Caucasian 5-year-olds withabundant exposure to Chinese faces (Experiment 2) and thentested separate groups of 5-year-olds with two other categorieswith which they have considerable experience: sex (male/femalefaces) and age (adult/child faces) (Experiment 3). Across all threecategories, 5-year-olds showed no category-contingent opposingaftereffects. These results demonstrate that 5 years of age is a stagecharacterized by minimal separation in the norms and associated oding dimensions used for faces from different categories andsuggest that refinement of the mechanisms that underlie expertface processing occurs throughout childhood.
    • Caveats of chronic exogenous corticosterone treatments in adolescent rats and effects on anxiety-like and depressive behavior and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function

      Waters, Patti; McCormick, Cheryl M (BioMed Central, 2011)
      Background: Administration of exogenous corticosterone is an effective preclinical model of depression, but its use has involved primarily adult rodents. Using two different procedures of administration drawn from the literature, we explored the possibility of exogenous corticosterone models in adolescence, a time of heightened risk for mood disorders in humans. Methods: In experiment 1, rats were injected with 40 mg/kg corticosterone or vehicle from postnatal days 30 to 45 and compared with no injection controls on behavior in the elevated plus maze (EPM) and the forced swim test (FST). Experiment 2 consisted of three treatments administered to rats from postnatal days 30 to 45 or as adults (days 70 to 85): either corticosterone (400 μg/ml) administered in the drinking water along with 2.5% ethanol, 2.5% ethanol or water only. In addition to testing on EPM, blood samples after the FST were obtained to measure plasma corticosterone. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and alpha level of P < 0.05 were used to determine statistical significance. Results: In experiment 1, corticosterone treatment of adolescent rats increased anxiety in the EPM and decreased immobility in the FST compared to no injection control rats. However, vehicle injected rats were similar to corticosterone injected rats, suggesting that adolescent rats may be highly vulnerable to stress of injection. In experiment 2, the intake of treated water, and thus doses delivered, differed for adolescents and adults, but there were no effects of treatment on behavior in the EPM or FST. Rats that had ingested corticosterone had reduced corticosterone release after the FST. Ethanol vehicle also affected corticosterone release compared to those ingesting water only, but differently for adolescents than for adults. Conclusions: The results indicate that several challenges must be overcome before the exogenous corticosterone model can be used effectively in adolescents.
    • Cell-selective modulation of the Drosophila neuromuscular system by a neuropeptide

      Ormerod, Kiel G.; Krans, Jacob L.; Mercier, Joffre (2015-03)
      Neuropeptides can modulate physiological properties of neurons in a cell-specific manner. The present work examines whether a neuropeptide can also modulate muscle tissue in a cell-specific manner, using identified muscle cells in third instar larvae of fruit flies. DPKQDFMRFa, a modulatory peptide in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, has been shown to enhance transmitter release from motor neurons and to elicit contractions by a direct effect on muscle cells. We report that DPKQDFMRFa causes a nifedipine-sensitive drop in input resistance in some muscle cells (6 and 7) but not others (12 and 13). The peptide also increased the amplitude of nerve-evoked contractions and compound excitatory junctional potentials (EJPs) to a greater degree in muscle cells 6 and 7 than 12 and 13. Knocking down FMRFa receptor (FR) expression separately in nerve and muscle indicate that both presynaptic and postsynaptic FR expression contributed to the enhanced contractions, but EJP enhancement was due mainly to presynaptic expression. Muscle-ablation showed that DPKQDFMRFa induced contractions and enhanced nerve-evoked contractions more strongly in muscle cells 6 and 7 than cells 12 and 13. In situ hybridization indicated that FR expression was significantly greater in muscle cells 6 and 7 than 12 and 13. Taken together, these results indicate that DPKQDFMRFa can elicit cell-selective effects on muscle fibres. The ability of neuropeptides to work in a cell-selective manner on neurons and muscle cells may help explain why so many peptides are encoded in invertebrate and vertebrate genomes.
    • CENTRAL NORTH ATLANTIC PALEOCEANOGRAPHY DURING THE LATE EARLY PLEISTOCENE (SPANNING MARINE ISOTOPE STAGE 21) BASED ON A HIGH-RESOLUTION DINOFLAGELLATE CYST RECORD

      Dube, Mukudzei M (2019)
      A high-resolution dinoflagellate cyst record from Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Site U1313, constrained by an ultra-high resolution δ18O record from the same sample set, is established to enhance our understanding of the paleoceanography and structure of Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 21 in the central North Atlantic. Changes in cyst abundance, composition of cyst assemblages, and their diversity reflect major regional shifts in climate and ocean circulation for this time interval (866–814 ka). The following paleoenvironmental indicators are used: Operculodinium centrocarpum sensu Wall & Dale (North Atlantic Current), Nematosphaeropsis labyrinthus and Impagidinium pallidum (subpolar gyre), total Impagidinium species (subtropical gyre), and protoperidiniacean cysts (biological productivity). The integration of stable isotope and the generated dinoflagellate cyst data shows MIS 21 to have been climatically unstable and interrupted between 830 and 840 ka by two significant cool episodes. These are resolved using the relative abundance of cooler-water species and by tracking the abundance of O. centrocarpum. During MIS 21, Site U1313 was predominantly under the influence of the subtopical gyre until after 835 ka when the NAC was re-established until the end of MIS 21. This study also extends the stratigraphic range of Fibrocysta? fusiforma from its previously documented range top in the Lower Pleistocene at 2.3 Ma to ~812 ka in the present study. An unnamed Spiniferites species (Spiniferites sp. 1) is confined to the latest phase of MIS 22. Two unidentified acritarchs (Acritarch spp. 1 and 2) occur throughout MIS 21 and merit further investigation.
    • Changes to the Human Serum Proteome in Response to High Intensity Interval Exercise: A Sequential Top-Down Proteomic Analysis

      Kurgan, Nigel; Noaman, Nour; Pergande, Melissa R.; Cologna, Stephanie M.; Coorssen, Jens R.; Klentrou, Panagiota (Frontiers, 2019-04-02)
      Exercise has been shown to improve health status and prevent chronic diseases. In contrast, overtraining can lead to maladaptation and detrimental health outcomes. These outcomes appear to be mediated in part by released peptides and, potentially, alterations in protein abundances and their modified forms, termed proteoforms. Proteoform biomarkers that either predict the beneficial effects of exercise or indicate (mal)adaptation are yet to be elucidated. Thus, we assessed the influence of highintensity interval exercise (HIIE) on the human serum proteome to identify novel exerciseregulated proteoforms. To this end, a top-down proteomics approach was used, whereby two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was used to resolve and differentially profile intact proteoforms, followed by protein identification via liquid chromatographytandem mass spectrometry. Blood was collected from six young-adult healthy males, pre-exercise and 5 min and 1 h post-exercise. Exercise consisted of a maximal cycle ergometer test followed by 8 min × 1 min high-intensity intervals at 90% Wmax, with 1 min non-active recovery between intervals. Twenty resolved serum proteoforms changed significantly in abundance at 5 min and/or 1 h post-HIIE, including apolipoproteins, serpins (protease inhibitors), and immune system proteins, known to have broad anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects, involvement in lipid clearance, and cardio-/neuro-protective effects. This initial screening for potential biomarkers indicates that a top-down analytical proteomic approach may prove useful in further characterizing the response to exercise and in understanding the molecular mechanisms that lead to health benefits, as well as identifying novel biomarkers for exercise (mal)adaptation.
    • Characterization of Alzheimer's disease‐like neuropathology in Duchenne's muscular dystrophy using the DBA/2J mdx mouse model

      Hayward, Grant C.; Caceres, Daniela; Copeland, Emily N.; Baranowski, Bradley J.; Mohammad, Ahmad; Whitley, Kennedy C.; Fajardo, Val A.; MacPherson, Rebecca E. K. (Wiley, 2021-11-11)
      Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a progressive muscle wasting disorder caused by a mutation in the dystrophin gene. In addition to muscle pathology, some patients with DMD will exhibit cognitive impairments with severity being linked to age and type of genetic mutation. Likewise, some studies have shown that mdx mice display impairments in spatial memory compared with wild-type (WT) controls, while others have not observed any such effect. Most studies have utilized the traditional C57BL/10 (C57) mdx mouse, which exhibits a mild disease phenotype. Recently, the DBA/2J (D2) mdx mouse has emerged as a more severe and perhaps clinically relevant DMD model; however, studies examining cognitive function in these mice are limited. Thus, in this study we examined cognitive function in age-matched C57 and D2 mdx mice along with their respective WT controls. Our findings show that 8- to 12-week-old C57 mdx mice did not display any differences in exploration time when challenged with a novel object recognition test. Conversely, age-matched D2 mdx mice spent less time exploring objects in total as a well as less time exploring the novel object, suggestive of impaired recognition memory. Biochemical analyses of the D2 mdx brain revealed higher soluble amyloid precursor protein b(APPb) and APP in the prefrontal cortex of mdx mice compared with WT, and lower soluble APPa in the hippocampus, suggestive of a shift towards amyloidogenesis and a similar pathogenesis to Alzheimer’s disease. Furthermore, our study demonstrates the utility of the D2 mdx model in studying cognitive impairment.
    • Characterization of neutral sphingomyelinase activity and isoform expression in rodent skeletal muscle mitochondria

      Silvera, Sebastian; Wilkinson, Jennifer A.; LeBlanc, Paul J. (Elsevier, 2021)
      Skeletal muscle is composed of fiber types that differ in mitochondrial content, antioxidant capacity, and susceptibility to apoptosis. Ceramides have been linked to oxidative stress-mediated apoptotic intracellular signalling and the enzyme neutral sphingomyelinase (nSMase) is, in part, responsible for generating these ceramides through the hydrolysis of sphingomyelin. Despite the role of ceramides in mediating apoptosis, there is a gap in the literature regarding nSMase in skeletal muscle mitochondria. This study aimed to characterize total nSMase activity and individual isoform expression in isolated subsarcolemmal (SS) mitochondria from soleus, diaphragm, plantaris, and extensor digitorum longus (EDL). Total nSMase activity did not differ between muscle types. nSMase2 content was detectable in all muscles and higher in EDL, soleus, and plantaris compared to diaphragm whereas nSMase3 was undetectable in all muscles. Finally, total nSMase activity positively correlated to nSMase2 protein content in soleus but not the other muscles.These findings suggest that nSMase associated with SS mitochondria may play a role in intracellular signalling processes involving ceramides in skeletal muscle and nSMase2 may be the key isoform, specifically in slow twitch muscle like soleus. Further studies are needed to fully elucidate the specific contribution of nSMase, along with the role of the various isoforms and mitochondrial subpopulation in generating mitochondrial ceramides in skeletal muscle, and its potential effects on mediating apoptosis.
    • Characterizing SERCA Function in Murine Skeletal Muscles after 35–37 Days of Spaceflight

      Braun, Jessica L.; Geromella, Mia S.; Hamstra, Sophie I.; Messner, Holt N.; Fajardo, Val A. (MDPI AG, 2021-10-29)
      It is well established that microgravity exposure causes significant muscle weakness and atrophy via muscle unloading. On Earth, muscle unloading leads to a disproportionate loss in muscle force and size with the loss in muscle force occurring at a faster rate. Although the exact mechanisms are unknown, a role for Ca2+ dysregulation has been suggested. The sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA) pump actively brings cytosolic Ca2+ into the SR, eliciting muscle relaxation and maintaining low intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i). SERCA dysfunction contributes to elevations in [Ca2+]i, leading to cellular damage, and may contribute to the muscle weakness and atrophy observed with spaceflight. Here, we investigated SERCA function, SERCA regulatory protein content, and reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (RONS) protein adduction in murine skeletal muscle after 35–37 days of spaceflight. In male and female soleus muscles, spaceflight led to drastic impairments in Ca2+ uptake despite significant increases in SERCA1a protein content. We attribute this impairment to an increase in RONS production and elevated total protein tyrosine (T) nitration and cysteine (S) nitrosylation. Contrarily, in the tibialis anterior (TA), we observed an enhancement in Ca2+ uptake, which we attribute to a shift towards a faster muscle fiber type (i.e., increased myosin heavy chain IIb and SERCA1a) without elevated total protein T-nitration and S-nitrosylation. Thus, spaceflight affects SERCA function differently between the soleus and TA.
    • Chemoenzymatic Approach to Tetrodotoxin: Synthesis of Fukuyama’s, Alonso’s, and Sato’s Advanced Intermediates

      Baidilov, Daler; Rycek, Lukas; Trant, John F.; Froese, Jordan; Murphy, Brennan; Hudlicky, Tomas (Wiley, 2018-05-11)
      The advanced intermediates in the syntheses of tetrodotoxin reported by Fukuyama, Alonso, and Sato were prepared. The key steps in the synthesis of the title compounds involved the toluene dioxygenase–mediated dihydroxylation of either iodobenzene or benzyl acetate. The resulting diene diols were transformed to Fukuyama’s intermediate in six steps, to Alonso’s intermediate in nine steps and to Sato’s intermediate in ten steps, respectively.
    • Chemoenzymatic Synthesis of the Antifungal Compound(–)-Pestynol by a Convergent, Sonogashira Construction of the Central Yne-Diene

      Borra, Suresh; Kumar, Manoj; McNulty, James; Baidilov, Daler; Hudlicky, Tomas (Wiley, 2018-10-19)
      A total synthesis of the fungal-derived natural prod-uct pestynol is reported via a convergent chemoenzymatic ap-proach from the readily available precursors geranyl bromide,ethyl acetoacetate, trimethylsilylacetylene, and bromobenzene. Synthetic (–)-pestynol proved to be identical in all respects to thenatural material, allowing confirmation of the structure includ-ing absolute stereochemistry.