• Abscisic acid implicated in differential plant responses of Phaseolus vulgaris during endophytic colonization by Metarhizium and pathogenic colonization by Fusarium

      Hu, Shasha; Bidochka, Michael J. (Nature Publishing Group, 2021)
      Metarhizium robertsii is an insect pathogen as well as an endophyte, and can antagonize the phytopathogen, Fusarium solani during bean colonization. However, plant immune responses to endophytic colonization by Metarhizium are largely unknown. We applied comprehensive plant hormone analysis, transcriptional expression and stomatal size analysis in order to examine plant immune responses to colonization by Metarhizium and/or Fusarium. The total amount of abscisic acid (ABA) and ABA metabolites decreased significantly in bean leaves by plant roots colonized by M. robertsii and increased significantly with F. solani compared to the un-inoculated control bean plant. Concomitantly, in comparison to the un-inoculated bean, root colonization by Metarhizium resulted in increased stomatal size in leaves and reduced stomatal size with Fusarium. Meanwhile, expression of plant immunity genes was repressed by Metarhizium and, alternately, triggered by Fusarium compared to the un-inoculated plant. Furthermore, exogenous application of ABA resulted in reduction of bean root colonization by Metarhizium but increased colonization by Fusarium compared to the control without ABA application. Our study suggested that ABA plays a central role in differential responses to endophytic colonization by Metarhizium and pathogenic colonization by Fusarium and, we also observed concomitant differences in stomatal size and expression of plant immunity genes.
    • Accessibility, quality and safety of a First Nation’s drinking water supply

      Bharadwaj, Lalita; Christensen, Lisa; Zagozewski, Rebecca; Waldner, Shannon (2015)

      Bharadwaj, Lalita (Canadian Water Network, 2016)
      Safe drinking water is a pressing health issue for First Nations reserves in Canada. The number of water-borne infections in First Nations communities is 26 times higher than the rest of the Canadian population. Approximately 30% of First Nation community water treatment plants are in a high-risk category, meaning their systems have deficiencies that pose a risk to the water quality. The use of private wells, truck-to-cistern delivery of water, and smaller distribution systems are not included in these statistics. The federal government has provided assessments, training programs and funding to help First Nations communities make their drinking water safe but their impacts have been limited to date. The Liard First Nation (LFN) is located near Watson Lake, a town in the Liard River Ecoregion of the Yukon Territory, Canada. It is located within the Mackenzie River drainage basin and a white-spruce subarctic boreal forest. There are two local governments—the town of Watson Lake and the LFN. The LFN is part of the Kaska Nation which governs the villages of Upper Liard, Albert Creek, 2 Mile, 2.5 Mile and Windid Lake. The citizens of LFN have a number of concerns about the quality of water in their community. These include the contamination of their water sources through garbage dumping, mining and fracking, industrial activity, human waste, and flooding. LFN citizens rely on groundwater sources for their drinking water; these sources include private wells or truck-haul to cisterns with water from the LFN water treatment facility.

      Bharadwaj, Lalita (Canadian Water Network, 2016)
      Safe drinking water has a major influence on health. Federal and provincial governments have provided programs and funding to help First Nations communities make drinking water safe, but First Nations communities still experience more water-related health problems than non-First Nations groups in Canada. Liard First Nation (LFN) is a community located in Watson Lake, Yukon Territory. LFN has an established public drinking water system with effective regulations, regular water sampling and certified operators for their drinking water treatment plant and water truck delivery. This project collected information on the Liard First Nation’s (LFN) access to and opinions about drinking water, as well as took steps to measure the drinking water safety and sustainability in Watson Lake, in order to help community leaders make decisions about drinking water supply, management and policy.
    • Accounting students and information competence: evidence from course syllabi and professional accounting association competency maps.

      Lowry, Linda Darlene (Special Libraries Association, 2009-06-15)
      As Brock University’s business liaison librarian, I have had some success integrating information literacy in the business administration curriculum. However, there have been very few requests for instruction in undergraduate accounting courses. Therefore, in the spirit of evidence-based librarianship, I conducted a syllabus study in order to gain insight into the library use and research expectations of accounting faculty for their undergraduate accounting students. Syllabi from 65 sections of 23 accounting courses were examined from the 2008/09 academic year. Each course section was assigned a level of library use based on a scale of 0 (no research required) to 4 (significant research required). Over 58% of all course sections required no research or library use and only 13% of course sections, mostly at the 400 level, actually required some amount of library use or research. These findings were compared to the expected professional competencies and proficiency levels as articulated by professional accounting association competency maps and an expectations gap was identified. As Brock University Library’s goal is to integrate information literacy into the curriculum, this evidence-based study will serve to open a dialogue with accounting faculty regarding information competence so that a course-integrated information literacy program may be planned and delivered in alignment with curricular and professional expectations.
    • The action of octopamine on muscles of Drosophila melanogaster larvae

      Ormerod, Kiel G; Hadden, Julia K; Lylah D, Deady; Joffre, Mercier; Jacob, Krans (2012-10)
      Octopamine (OA) and tyramine (TA) play important roles in homeostatic mechanisms, behavior, and modulation of neuromuscular junctions in arthropods. However, direct actions of these amines on muscle force production that are distinct from effects at the neuromuscular synapse have not been well studied. We utilize the technical benefits of the Drosophila larval preparation to distinguish the effects of OA and TA on the neuromuscular synapse from their effects on contractility of muscle cells. In contrast to the slight and often insignificant effects of TA, the action of OA was profound across all metrics assessed. We demonstrate that exogenous OA application decreases the input resistance of larval muscle fibers, increases the amplitude of excitatory junction potentials (EJPs), augments contraction force and duration, and at higher concentrations (10(-5) and 10(-4) M) affects muscle cells 12 and 13 more than muscle cells 6 and 7. Similarly, OA increases the force of synaptically driven contractions in a cell-specific manner. Moreover, such augmentation of contractile force persisted during direct muscle depolarization concurrent with synaptic block. OA elicited an even more profound effect on basal tonus. Application of 10(-5) M OA increased synaptically driven contractions by ≈ 1.1 mN but gave rise to a 28-mN increase in basal tonus in the absence of synaptic activation. Augmentation of basal tonus exceeded any physiological stimulation paradigm and can potentially be explained by changes in intramuscular protein mechanics. Thus we provide evidence for independent but complementary effects of OA on chemical synapses and muscle contractility.
    • Activity analysis of thermal imaging videos using a difference imaging approach

      Tattersall, Glenn J.; Danner, Raymond M.; Chaves, Jaime A.; Levesque, Danielle L. (Elsevier, 2020-05-18)
      Infrared thermal imaging is a passive imaging technique that captures the emitted radiation from an object to estimate surface temperature, often for inference of heat transfer. Infrared thermal imaging offers the potential to detect movement without the challenges of glare, shadows, or changes in lighting associated with visual digital imaging or active infrared imaging. In this paper, we employ a frame subtraction algorithm for extracting the pixel-by-pixel relative change in signal from a fixed focus video file, tailored for use with thermal imaging videos. By summing the absolute differences across an entire video, we are able to assign quantitative activity assessments to thermal imaging data for comparison with simultaneous recordings of metabolic rates. We tested the accuracy and limits of this approach by analyzing movement of a metronome and provide an example application of the approach to a study of Darwin's finches. In principle, this “Difference Imaging Thermography” (DIT) would allow for activity data to be standardized to energetic measurements and could be applied to any radiometric imaging system.
    • Acute exercise and brain BACE1 protein content: a time course study

      Yang, Alex J.; Hayward, Grant C.; MacPherson, Rebecca E. K. (American Physiological Society, 2019-04-08)
      Obesity and insulin resistance are risk factors in the development of neurodegenerative disorders. Previous work suggests that one acute bout of exercise may have beneficial neuro-protective effects in obese mice. The rate limiting enzyme in the production of amyloid-beta peptides, BACE1, was reduced in the prefrontal cortex 2 h post-exercise, however if these effects remain over time is unknown. We aimed to determine how long exercise–induced alterations persist in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus following a single exercise bout. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed either a low (LFD, 10% kcals from lard) or a high fat diet (HFD, 60% kcals from lard) for 7 weeks. HFD mice then underwent an acute bout of treadmill running (15 m/min, 5% incline, 120 min) followed by 2-, 8-, or 24-h of recovery. The HFD increased body mass (LFD 27.8 1.05 vs. HFD 41.7 0.60 g; P < 0.05) and glucose intolerance (AUC LFD 63.27 4.5 vs. HFD 128.9 4.6; P < 0.05). Prefrontal cortex BACE1 content was reduced 2- and 8-h post-exercise compared to sedentary HFD mice, however BACE1 protein content at 24 h was not different. Hippocampal BACE1 content was reduced 8- and 24-h post-exercise. Compared to the LFD, the HFD had higher prefrontal cortex phosphorylation of p38, JNK, and AMPK, indicative of increased neuronal stress. Post–exercise prefrontal cortex p38 and JNK phosphorylation were no different between the HFD or LFD groups, while ERK phosphorylation was significantly reduced by 24 h. The HFD increased JNK phosphorylation in the hippocampus. These results demonstrate the direct and potent effects of exercise on reducing BACE1 prefrontal cortex and hippocampal content. However the reduction in prefrontal cortex BACE1 content is short lived.
    • Adult education and academic libraries

      Bordonaro, Karen (EmeraldInsight, 2018)
      Abstract Purpose – The purpose of this review is to offer practicing academic librarians an overview of adult education theories as a way to more deeply understand and further foster adult learning in academic libraries. Design/methodology approach – This article is a literature review. Findings – This review introduces academic librarians to a range of specific adult education learning theories, it offers examples of academic library users engaging in these types of adult learning, it considers how academic libraries can further foster adult learning, and it identifies major characteristics of adult learners. Originality/value – This literature review offers a summative overview of adult education in a way that has not appeared in the library literature to date, along with explicit connections between adult education theories and academic library practices.
    • Adult learning theories and autoethnography: Informing the practice of information literacy

      Bordonaro, Karen (Sage, 2020-03)
      The learning theories of self-directed learning and lifelong learning can inform the practice of information literacy in higher education for adult learners. These theories lend themselves to the use of autoethnography, a research methodology that relies on the exploration of lived experiences through reflexivity informed by theory. In conducting an autoethnography on information literacy, its practice appears as both a singular and a collective activity. Multiple ramifications for practice come from this exploration. These ramifications include considerations of choices, barriers, conducive learning environments, informal learning opportunities, and the need for reflection for adult learners. Applying the learning theories of self-directed learning and lifelong learning to the practice of information literacy offers librarians new and useful perspectives on its practice with adult learners.
    • Against limits: A post-structural theorizing of resistance in leisure

      Sharpe, Erin K (Palgrave Macmillan, 2017)
      In its recognition of oppositional behavior as informed and political, resistance offers us a way to explore the interconnections between leisure and politics in meaningful ways. However, for the concept to have utility for theorizing theses interconnections, it needs to be located within broader theorizations of power. Drawing on the work of Foucault, this chapter offers a post-structural theorizing of power and resistance. In contrast to modernist binary conceptualizations of power and resistance, Foucault conceptualized power as circulating through a culture or a system and exercised at innumerable points and times. To Foucault, resistance was power exercised in the attempt to destabilize the limits of the present order. The chapter applies Foucault’s perspective of resistance as “against limits” to leisure, and argues that we can think of leisure as resistance when it expands the possibilities for what we can do and who we might imagine ourselves to be.
    • Aging Faces and Aging Perceivers: Young and Older Adults are Less Sensitive to Deviations from Normality in Older than in Young Adult Faces

      Short, Lindsey A.; Mondloch, Catherine J. (Sage, 2013)
      Past studies examining the other-age effect, the phenomenon in which own-age faces are recognized more accurately than other-age faces, are limited in number and report inconsistent results. Here we examine whether the perceptual system is preferentially tuned to differences among young adult faces. In experiment 1 young (18-25 years) and older adult (63-87 years) participants were shown young and older face pairs in which one member of each pair was undistorted and the other had compressed or expanded features. Participants indicated which member of each pair was more normal and which was more expanded. Both age groups were more accurate when tested with young compared with older faces -- but only when judging normality. In experiment 2 we tested a separate group of young adults on the same two tasks but with upright and inverted face pairs to examine the differential pattern of results between the normality and discrimination tasks. Inversion impaired performance on the normality task but not the discrimination task and eliminated the young adult advantage in the normality task. Collectively, these results suggest that the face processing system is optimized for young adult faces and that abundant experience with older faces later in life does not reverse this perceptual tuning. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

      Harris, Leila; Simms, Rosie (Canadian Water Network, 2016)

      Harris, Leila; Simms, Rosie (Canadian Water Network, 2016)
      The goal of this research was to better understand the complex interactions between First Nations and colonial water governance in the province of British Columbia. In particular, we wanted to understand how colonial water governance frameworks have impacted different First Nations; the barriers and opportunities for First Nations in the existing colonial water governance system; and the potential implications of a shift towards collaborative watershed governance. This focus is particularly relevant in light of recent legal and governance changes in BC, with replacement of the century-old Water Act with the new Water Sustainability Act (WSA), and a growing emphasis on pursuing collaborative watershed governance approaches. Further, the Supreme Court of Canada has clearly established that disregarding Aboriginal rights is no longer acceptable; First Nations thus need to have a meaningful role in water governance moving forward. As the legal landscape of rights and title continues to evolve, so too do the requirements and impetus for colonial governments to engage meaningfully with First Nations in water governance and management.
    • Analyse des coûts évités dans les services d’eau par l’atténuation des risques de feux de forêt

      Emelko, Monica (2015)
      Les bassins versants forestiers sont gravement menacés par les feux de forêt dans l’ouest du Canada. La majeure partie de l’eau de surface utilisée par la population de l’Alberta provient du versant est des montagnes Rocheuses, dans le sud-ouest de la province. L’augmentation récente de l’ampleur et de la gravité des incendies de forêt, conjuguée à la demande en eau, se traduisent par un besoin pressant d’évaluer les risques que présentent ces incendies pour l’eau potable traitée et distribuée en aval. Les travaux réalisés dans le cadre de ce projet permettront de mieux coordonner la gestion des terres et les activités des services publics afin d’assurer la protection et le traitement appropriés de l’eau potable en Alberta, et éventuellement dans d’autres zones sujettes aux incendies de forêt, comme la Colombie- Britannique.
    • Analyse économique de la protection de l’eau de source

      Adamowicz, Vic (2016)
      L’évaluation des services écosystémiques, résultant de stratégies de gestion telles que la protection de l’eau de source (gestion de l’écosystème) comme solution de rechange aux investissements dans les infrastructures (capitaux, coûts d’exploitation), suscite un intérêt considérable dans le monde entier. Cependant, il existe relativement peu d’enquêtes détaillées portant sur ces systèmes. Ce projet propose un cadre conceptuel et jette les bases de l’analyse empirique des avantages économiques et des coûts liés à la protection de l’eau de source. Des partenaires du projet souhaitent connaître la mesure dans laquelle l’aménagement du paysage est susceptible de réduire les coûts de traitement de l’eau ou les risques d’interruption de l’approvisionnement en eau, ainsi que les interactions entre la gestion des services écosystémiques et les exigences relatives à l’investissement de capitaux dans le traitement de l’eau. Ce projet contribue à éclairer ce processus en évaluant les coûts et les avantages des services écosystémiques associés à la qualité et à la quantité de l’eau
    • An analysis of aquatic invasive species management in the Niagara region of Ontario, Canada: establishment of a database to improve knowledge sharing

      Brown, Lyn; Vasseur, Liette (Regional Euro-Asian Biological Invasions Centre (REABIC), 2020)
      The UN Convention on Biological Diversity has declared invasive species a global threat and requested increased data sharing to prevent further impact. Existing worldwide and local databases mainly focus on distribution, abundance, identification, and impacts of invasive species, but very few record management activities. In the Niagara region of Ontario, Canada, no database focuses specifically on invasive species management. The goal of this study was to document current aquatic and riparian invasive species management activities in the Niagara region and develop a database that would become a tool to facilitate collaboration at the regional level. The objectives were to (1) inventory current invasive species detection and control activities in the Niagara region; (2) examine perceived efficacy of control techniques; and (3) develop a database integrated with a GIS mapping component. Seventy-one organizations involved in riparian/aquatic invasive species management in the Niagara region were contacted and 16 in-depth interviews were conducted. In 2017–2018, 35 separate control efforts were reported, involving 10 riparian invasive species and two aquatic invasive species, mostly concentrated along the Niagara River. Collaboration efforts were minimal, occurring for only six specific projects. Recommendations include develop a regional invasive species plan; increase control efforts along the Welland Canal and Lake Erie shoreline; adopt a wider variety of control techniques; and increase collaboration, information-sharing and resource-sharing among organizations. Overall, the newly developed database provides a baseline for the current state of aquatic and riparian invasive species management activities in the region. It can also help bridge the gap between invasive species science and decision-making by forming a tool to identify resource-sharing opportunities, management efficacy, priority areas, areas of improvement, and future resource needs. The database will enrich the global invasive species information network by providing Niagara-specific information. The database could also act as a model for tracking management activities of other invasive species and in other regions of North America.
    • Analysis of Avoided Water Utility Costs from Wildfire Risk Mitigation

      Emelko, Monica; Price, James; Dupont, Diane; Renzetti, Steven; Adamowicz, Vic (2015)
    • Analysis of Avoided Water Utility Costs from Wildfire Risk Mitigation

      Emelko, Monica (2015)
      Forested watersheds are severely threatened by wildfire in western Canada. The eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains in southwestern Alberta produce the majority of surface water supplies supporting Alberta’s population, and recent increases in magnitude and severity of wildfires along with provincial water demand result in a pressing need to evaluate wildfire risk to downstream drinking water supply and treatment. Work from this project will better enable the coordination of land management and utility operations to ensure appropriate protection and treatment of drinking water in Alberta and potentially other wildfire-prone areas such as British Columbia.
    • Anticancer Effects of Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) Extract and Rosemary Extract Polyphenols

      Moore, Jessy; Yousef, Michael; Tsiani, Evangelia (Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2016)
      Cancer cells display enhanced growth rates and a resistance to apoptosis. The ability of cancer cells to evade homeostasis and proliferate uncontrollably while avoiding programmed cell death/apoptosis is acquired through mutations to key signaling molecules, which regulate pathways involved in cell proliferation and survival. Compounds of plant origin, including food components, have attracted scientific attention for use as agents for cancer prevention and treatment. The exploration into natural products offers great opportunity to evaluate new anticancer agents as well as understand novel and potentially relevant mechanisms of action. Rosemary extract has been reported to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic and anticancer properties. Rosemary extract contains many polyphenols with carnosic acid and rosmarinic acid found in highest concentrations. The present review summarizes the existing in vitro and in vivo studies focusing on the anticancer effects of rosemary extract and the rosemary extract polyphenols carnosic acid and rosmarinic acid, and their effects on key signaling molecules.