• Current Evidence of the Role of the Myokine Irisin in Cancer

      Tsiani, Evangelia (MDPI, 2021-05-27)
      Regular exercise/physical activity is beneficial for the health of an individual and lowers the risk of getting different diseases, including cancer. How exactly exercise results in these health benefits is not known. Recent studies suggest that the molecule irisin released by muscles into the blood stream after exercise may be responsible for these effects. This review summarizes all the available in vitro/cell culture, animal and human studies that have investigated the relationship between cancer and irisin with the aim to shed light and understand the possible role of irisin in cancer. The majority of the in vitro studies indicate anticancer properties of irisin, but more animal and human studies are required to better understand the exact role of irisin in cancer.
    • Role of the Myokine Irisin on Bone Homeostasis: Review of the Current Evidence

      Kornel, Amanda; Den Hartogh, Danja J.; Klentrou, Panagiota; Tsiani, Evangelia (MDPI AG, 2021-08-24)
      Bone is a highly dynamic tissue that is constantly adapting to micro-changes to facilitate movement. When the balance between bone building and resorption shifts more towards bone resorption, the result is reduced bone density and mineralization, as seen in osteoporosis or osteopenia. Current treatment strategies aimed to improve bone homeostasis and turnover are lacking in efficacy, resulting in the search for new preventative and nutraceutical treatment options. The myokine irisin, since its discovery in 2012, has been shown to play an important role in many tissues including muscle, adipose, and bone. Evidence indicate that irisin is associated with increased bone formation and decreased bone resorption, leading to reduced risk of osteoporosis in post-menopausal women. In addition, low serum irisin levels have been found in individuals with osteoporosis and osteopenia. Irisin targets key signaling proteins, promoting osteoblastogenesis and reducing osteoclastogenesis. The present review summarizes the existing evidence regarding the effects of irisin on bone homeostasis.