• Rosemary Extract as a Potential Anti-Hyperglycemic Agent: Current Evidence and Future Perspectives

      Naimi, Madina; Vlavcheski, Filip; Shamshoum, Hesham; Tsiani, Evangelia (MDPI, 2017-09-01)
      Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), a disease on the rise and with huge economic burden to health care systems around the globe, results from defects in insulin action (termed insulin resistance) combined with impaired insulin secretion. Current methods of prevention and treatments for insulin resistance and T2DM are lacking in number and efficacy and, therefore, there is a need for new preventative measures and targeted therapies. In recent years, chemicals found in plants/herbs have attracted attention for their use as functional foods or nutraceuticals for preventing and treating insulin resistance and T2DM. Rosemary is an evergreen shrub indigenous to the Mediterranean region and South America, which contains various polyphenols. Rosemary extract and its polyphenolic constituents have been reported to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and anti-hyperglycemic properties. The current review summarizes the existing in vitro and in vivo studies examining the anti-diabetic effects of rosemary extract and its polyphenolic components and highlights the known mechanism of action.
    • Rosmarinic Acid, a Rosemary Extract Polyphenol, Increases Skeletal Muscle Cell Glucose Uptake and Activates AMPK

      Vlavcheski, Filip; Naimi, Madina; Murphy, Brennan; Hudlicky, Tomas; Tsiani, Evangelia (MDPI, 2017-10-07)
      Skeletal muscle is a major insulin-target tissue and plays an important role in glucose homeostasis. Impaired insulin action in muscles leads to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. 5′ AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) is an energy sensor, its activation increases glucose uptake in skeletal muscle and AMPK activators have been viewed as a targeted approach in combating insulin resistance. We previously reported AMPK activation and increased muscle glucose uptake by rosemary extract (RE). In the present study, we examined the effects and the mechanism of action of rosmarinic acid (RA), a major RE constituent, in L6 rat muscle cells. RA (5.0 μM) increased glucose uptake (186 ± 4.17% of control, p < 0.001) to levels comparable to maximum insulin (204 ± 10.73% of control, p < 0.001) and metformin (202 ± 14.37% of control, p < 0.001). Akt phosphorylation was not affected by RA, while AMPK phosphorylation was increased. The RAstimulated glucose uptake was inhibited by the AMPK inhibitor compound C and was not affected by wortmannin, an inhibitor of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K). The current study shows an effect of RA to increase muscle glucose uptake and AMPK phosphorylation. RA deserves further study as it shows potential to be used as an agent to regulate glucose homeostasis.