• The human rights dilemma : an east-west encounter : Germany and China in 1996 /

      Sieren, Andreas.; Department of Sociology (Brock University, 1997-05-21)
      Conflicts over human rights in relations between East Asia and the West have increased since the end of the Cold War. Western governments express concern about human rights standards in East Asian countries. In the East, these expressions have been perceived as interference in internal affairs. Due to dramatic economic development, East Asian nations recently have gained in pride and self-confidence as global actors. Such development is observed with suspicion in the West. Concerned about the decline of global U.S. influence, some American scholars have re-invented the notion of "culture" to point at an alleged East Asian threat. Also East Asian statesmen use the cultural argument by claiming the existence of so-called 'Asian values', which they allege are the key to Eastern economic success. This thesis argues that issues of human rights in East-West relations are not only a consequence of well-intended concern by Western governments regarding the human rights and welfare of the citizens of East Asian nations, but are in fact dominated by and used as a pawn in interplay with more complicated questions of global power and economic relations between East and West. The thesis reviews the relevance of culture in East-West relations. In the West, particularly Samuel P. Huntington with his prediction of the Clash of Civilizations stands out. Singapore's Lee Kuan Yew has been very vocal on the Eastern side. Whereas the West tries to cope with its decrease of global influence, after hundreds of years under Western hegemonism, the East believes in an Asian way of development without interference form the West. Most of this dispute revolves around the issue of human rights. The West claims the universality of rights which in fact emphasizes political and civil rights. Western countries critizise poor human rights standards in East Asia. The East, in return, accuses the West of hypocritical policies that seek global dominance. East Asian governments assert that due to a different stage of development they have to stress first their rights to development in order to assure stability. In particular, China argues this way. The country's leadership, however, shows concern about human rights and has already improved its human rights record over the past years. This thesis analyses the dispute over human rights in a case study on Germany and China. Both countries have a mutual interest in trade relations which has conflicted with Germany's criticism of China's problematic human rights record. In 1996, the two countries clashed after the German parliament passed a resolution condemning China's treatment of Tibet. This caused a lot of damage to the Chinese-German relationship which in the course of the year went back to normality. In the light of these frictions a German human rights policy that focuses on unspectacular grass-roots support of China, for example in strengthening China's legal system, would be preferable. Such co-operation must be based on mutual respect.
    • Canada/U.S. border crossing: facilitation and constraint

      Nyarko, Cynthia.; Department of Sociology (Brock University, 2004-07-09)
      Abstract The aim of this research project is to draw on accounts of experiences ofborder crossing and regulation at the Canada/U.S. border at Niagara in order to illuminate the dynamics of differentiation and inequality at this site. The research is informed by claims that the world is turning into a global village due to transnational flows oftechnology, infonnation, capital and people. Much of the available literature on globalization shows that while the transfer of technology, information, and capital are enhanced, the transnational movement of people is both facilitated and constrained in complex and unequal ways. In this project, the workings of facilitation and constraint were explored through an analysis often interviews with people who had spent a substantial portion oftheir childhood (e.g. 5 years) in a Canadian border community. The interviewees were at the time ofthe research between the ages of 19 and 25. Because most ofthe respondents were 'white' Canadians of working to upper middle class status, my focus was to explore how 'whiteness' as privilege may translate into enhanced movement across borders and how 'white' people may internalize and enjoy this privilege but may often deny its reality. I was also interested in how inequality is perceived, understood, and legitimated by these relatively privileged people. My analysis ofthe ten accounts ofborder crossing and regulation suggests that differentially situated people experience border crossing differently. An important finding is that while relatively privileged border crossers perceived and often problernatized differential treatment based on external factors such as physical appearance, and especially race, most did not challenge such treatment but rather saw it as acceptable. These findings are located within newer literature that addresses the increasing securitization ofborders and migration in western societies.
    • Niagara alternative food projects : networks, discourses and nature /

      Department of Sociology (Brock University, 2004-07-14)
      This thesis undertakes an exploration of the nature of alternative food projects in Niagara. A review of various theoretical approaches to the study of food and agriculture, suggests that actor-network theory offers the most useful lens through which to understand these projects. In particular, actor-network theory facilitates non-dualistic theorisations of power and scale and a commitment to the inclusion of non-humans in the 'social' sciences. The research is based on 19 in-depth interviews with actors involved in various urban and rural projects including community supported agriculture, community gardens, chefs using local seasonal food, a winery that grows organically, the good food box, a value-added small business, and organic producers. The analysis consists of four themes. The first analytical section pays special attention to the prominence of agri-tourism in Niagara, and examines the ways in which the projects in the sample interact with agri-tourist networks. In the second section the discussion focuses on the discourses and practices of resistance among Niagara alternative food actors. The participants' interviews suggest there are more discourses of resistance toward agri-tourist than toward dominant food networks. The third section questions commodity chain theorisations of alternative food projects. In particular, this section shows how the inclusion of non-human actors in an analysis confounds conceptualisations of 'short' and 'local' chains. The final analytical section assesses relations of power in Niagara alternative food projects. Three important conclusions arise from this research. First, Niagara alternative food projects cannot be conceptualised as operating at the 'local' scale. Broadening the scope of analysis to include non-human actors, it becomes apparent that these projects actually draw on a variety of extra-local actors. They are at once local and global. Second, the projects in this sample are simultaneously part of alternative, dominant and agri-tourist networks. While Niagara alternative food projects do perform many of the roles characteristic of alternative food systems, they are also involved in practices of development, business, and class distinction. Thus, alternative food networks should not be understood as separate from and in direct opposition to dominant food networks. Despite the second conclusion, this research determines that Niagara alternative food projects have made significant strides in the reworking of power. The projects represented in this thesis do engage in resistant practices and are associated with increased levels ofjustice.
    • The effectiveness of explicit strategy instruction on the top level structure of a text

      Banks, Jean Marie. (0 St. Catharines, Ont. : Faculty of Education, Brock University; 1995., 2009-07-09)
      Two intermediate geography classes were used to study the effects of explicit strategy instruction on the top level structure of a text. One group of Grade 7 and 8 students participated in the explicit strategy training about the top level structure of a text, while the other group used a more traditional method of questioning and answering when reading and writing. Specifically, comparisons were made between students' reading abilities, writing abilities, metacognitive awareness, standardized reading test scores and in class performance scores to see whether changes occurred as a direct result of explicit strategy training. It was hypothesized that explicit strategy training would improve students' reading and writing abilities. At the end of the program, however, the data did not support this hypothesis. There were some significant main effects for time. The students in both groups showed improvement over time. The te~cher's journal indicated that by the end of the study the students in the experimental condition had not yet mastered the strategy. Concerns about the readiness level of the students also arose from the teacher's journal.
    • Making Queer Anti-capitalist Resistance Intelligible: Reading Queer Childhood in the Ruins of Neoliberalism

      Tanyildiz, Gökbörü Sarp; Department of Sociology (Brock University, 2013-07-11)
      In challenging normative social relations, queer cultural studies has shied away from deploying historical materialist theoretical tools. My research addresses this gap by drawing these two literatures into conversation. I do so by investigating how global economic relations provide an allegorical and material context for the regulation, representation and re-imagining of working-class queer childhood through anti- capitalist queer readings of three films: Kes, Billy Elliot, and Boys Village. I deploy this reading practice to investigate how these films represent heteronormative capitalism’s systematic extermination of the life possibilities of working class children, how children resist forces of normalisation by creating queer times and spaces, and how nostalgia engenders a spatio-temporal understanding of queerness through a radical utopianism. My analysis foregrounds visual cultural productions as sites for understanding how contemporary social worlds exclude queer working class children, who struggle to insert themselves into and thereby shift the grounds of normative social relations.
    • M(e)a(t)sculinity: Investigating Veg(etari)an Men's Understandings of Masculinity

      Romanin, Steve G.; Department of Sociology (Brock University, 2013-07-11)
      Using focus group methods, this project examines six men’s experiences of becoming vegetarian and the unique interaction between two identities commonly assumed to be in conflict: vegetarianism and masculinity. Included in this report is an overview of the contemporary debates in gender theory, with specific attention paid to men and masculinity. Seen through the lens of poststructural gender theory and the notion of multiple masculinities, this report demonstrates how vegetarian men challenge, negotiate and assert themselves as men both within the dominant culture and within their own vegetarian communities. This project bridges two existing bodies of work - poststructural gender theory and critical animal studies - to bring a more nuanced and better-articulated critique of gender to existing studies of the relationship between meat and masculinity and to offer this examination of meat consumption and gender performance as an illustration of the valuable applications of poststructural gender theory within critical animal studies.
    • The Myth of Labour-Management Partnerships and the Risk to Labour: A CAMI Automotive Study

      Billyard, Doug; Department of Sociology (Brock University, 2013-08-30)
      The purpose of this study is to examine and explore the level of risk that CAMI workers confront under their existing labour-management partnership arrangement. Risk is explored using two distinct categories, distributive and political. Distributive risk is expressed as tangibly substantive, reflecting the real terms and conditions of employment, and the changing social relations of production on the floor. The second type of risk is political and is concerned with the effects that labour-management partnerships have on the displacement of unions as legitimate agents of/for workers within the workplace. Data was collected using three methods; content analysis, cross-sectional survey and focus group interviews. The study revealed that CAMI workers are exposed to both distributive and political risk under their current LMP arrangement.
    • “You Know What I Mean?”- Language and Cultural Retention in Luso-Canadian Mothers in the Greater Toronto Area

      Vieira, Sara Isabel; Department of Sociology (Brock University, 2014-01-27)
      The Portuguese community is one of the largest diasporic groups in the Greater Toronto Area and the choice of retention and transmission of language and culture to Luso-Canadians is crucial to the development and sustainability of the community. The overall objective of this study is to learn about the factors that influence Luso-Canadian mothers’ inclination to teach Portuguese language and cultural retention to their children. To explore this topic I employed a qualitative research design that included in-depth interviews conducted in 2012 with six Luso-Canadian mothers. Three central arguments emerged from the findings. First, Luso-Canadian mothers interviewed posses a pronounced desire for their children to succeed academically, and to provide opportunities that their children that they did not have. Second, five of the mothers attempt to achieve this mothering objective partly by disconnecting from their Portuguese roots, and by disassociating their children from the Portuguese language and culture. Third, the disconnection they experience and enact is influenced by the divisions evident in the Portuguese community in the GTA that divides regions and hierarchically ranks dialects, and groups. I conclude that the children in these households inevitably bear the prospects of maintaining a vibrant Portuguese community in the GTA and I propose that actions by the community in ranking dialects influence mothers’ decisions about transmitting language and culture to their children.
    • The Political Economy of St. Catharines' Illicit Taxi Trade

      Galano, David; Department of Sociology (Brock University, 2014-01-27)
      The global restructuring of production has led to increasingly precarious working conditions around the world. Post-industrial work is characterized by poor working conditions, low wages, a lack of social protection and political representation and little job security. Unregulated forms of work that are defined as “irregular” or “illegal”, or in some cases “criminal,” are connected to sweeping transformations within the broader regulated (formal) economy. The connection between the formal and informal sectors can more accurately be described as co-optation and, as a subordinate integration of the informal to the formal. The city of St. Catharines within Niagara, along with much of Ontario’s industrial heartland, has been hard hit by deindustrialization. The rise of this illegal service is thus viewed against the backdrop of heavy economic restructuring, as opportunities for work in the manufacturing sector have become sparse. In addition, this research also explores the paradoxical co-optation of the growing illicit taxi economy and consequences for racialized and foreign credentialed labour in the taxi industry. The overall objective of this research is to explore the illicit cab industry as not only inseparable from the formal economy, but dialectically, how it is as an integrated and productive element of the public and private transportation industry. Furthermore the research examines what this co-optation means in the context of a labour market that is split by race.
    • Canadianness is Wilderness? Violent Love Relationships with ‘Wild’ Bodies

      Marynowycz, Amanda; Department of Sociology (Brock University, 2014-02-21)
      This thesis reveals contradictions that Canadians experience with groups attached to western construction of wilderness namely Indigenous people and wildlife. My study analyzes how the discourse of Canadian wilderness identity is played out in Algonquin Provincial Park and Bruce Peninsula National Park in comparison to non-nature/urban spaces (Greater Toronto Area). My investigation employs a critical discourse analysis and participant observation. I undertake three main tasks: 1) I describe how violent love is a dominant discourse at the Parks, 2) I examine evidence of animals and Indigenous people being produced relationally in the Parks, and 3) I analyze how relationships are spatially organized. My research reveals that the Parks conceal practices of violence that are central to the intersections of speciesism and colonialism. I demonstrate how violent love operates across a continuum that is influenced by spatial belonging and distance. This research is a contribution to the production of non-speciesist knowledge.
    • Animals without Borders: Farmed Animal Resistance in New York

      Colling, Sarat; Department of Sociology (Brock University, 2014-02-21)
      While billions of farmed animals are immobilized within agribusiness, every year some of these animals manage to break free. This thesis examines the stories of those who flee slaughterhouses and the public response to these individuals. My objective is to understand how animals resist and the role that their stories play in disrupting the ways that humans, particularly as consumers, are distanced from the violence of animal enterprises. Included are six vignettes that allow for an in-depth case study of those who have escaped within New York State. Located in the interdisciplinary field of critical animal studies, my inquiry draws upon new animal geographies, transnational feminisms, and critical discourse analysis. This contribution provides discussion of farmed animal resistance in particular and compares experiences and representations of their resistance from both the “view from below,” which is learned through the animals’ caretakers, and a “view from above,” which is gleaned from their representations in corporate-driven mainstream media.
    • A Mind of its Own: The Lived Experience of Adult Students who are ADHD

      Engel, Kenton; Department of Sociology (Brock University, 2014-04-29)
      Despite the growing trend towards recognizing that attention deficit hyperactive disorder occurs beyond childhood, the experience of adult students who are ADHD remains little researched or understood. Given the losses in efficiency and productivity in academic performance from adult ADHD, researching ADHD’s experiential aspects is significant for both educators and students in its potential to develop better strategies for accommodating those with the disorder. This study used hermeneutic phenomenology and existential psychology to describe the lived experience of adult students who are ADHD. Five adult students participated in the study, which involved two in-depth conversations with guiding questions such as: What is it like to be ADHD?; and What led to your perception that you have ADHD? Conversations were transcribed and thematic statements developed, using the life-world existentials of lived space, lived time, lived relationships and lived corporeality to deepen considerations of meaning.
    • "Everyone Loves Marineland!" (?): Entertainment Animal Advocacy, Praxis, and Resisting Corporate Repression

      Smith, Elizabeth; Department of Sociology (Brock University, 2014-10-30)
      Following allegations and graphic evidence of animal cruelty and neglect documented by ex-employee whistleblowers of Marineland Canada to the Toronto Star newspaper in late 2012, the ethics surrounding animal captivity have been increasingly contested in regional public discourse. Animal advocates in the Niagara region and beyond have been compelled to demand change at the infamous local captive animal park— whether it be welfare-oriented reform, or radical animal liberation. With this as a backdrop, this research explores the ideologies, experiences, and strategic tactics of anti-Marineland animal advocates; the sociopolitical issues surrounding the largely unexamined but serious issue of imprisoned animals as entertainers; and the ensuing governmental and corporatist attempts to squash dissent of anti-Marineland critics. Situated within a Critical Animal Studies theoretical paradigm as well as a flourishing global anti-captivity critique inspired by the film Blackfish, this project employs semi-structured interviews and participant observation methodologies to analyze advocates' views on captivity under capitalism and the effectiveness of their praxes. Finally, this research illuminates the nuances of the conventionally-upheld dualistic theoretical debate of animal welfare versus animal rights within zoo and aquaria entertainment contexts through an exploratory examination of advocates' complex ideological views.
    • Social Organization on the Web: How Sex workers Rights Organizations Engage in Activism and Advocacy Work Online

      Ioannoni, Kelsey; Department of Sociology (Brock University, 2014-11-06)
      The purpose of this study was to examine how sex workers rights organizations use their websites as a site of activist and advocacy work and ask (i) how do various organizations conceptualize sex work on their websites, and to what extent do they incorporate an intersectional feminist perspective? (ii) what communication strategies are used by the four organizations to target audiences in the viewing public? (iii) what audiences do the four websites target? (iv) how do the four organizations discuss successes and challenges on their websites? (v) in what ways do sex worker right organizations use websites to further their goals? The websites of Maggie’s, POWER, and Stella attempt to embrace an intersectional feminist perspective of sex work, while PACE does not. The four organizations strategically use their websites to target audiences with diverse needs, specifically through advocacy efforts in educating the general public about the legitimacy of sexual labour. Additionally, to increase the use of the websites by sex workers, using social media platforms, such as Facebook and Twitter augment the untapped potential for creating action, mobilization, interaction, and dialogue on the websites.
    • Killing in the name of …?: Conscientious Objection in the age of the “Global War on Terror”

      Nater, Anson; Department of Sociology
      Within the last few centuries, the global community has seen an unprecedented amount of warfare that has spanned borders, lasted decades, and created countless environmental crises. The scale of human carnage from wars between 1900 and 1990 alone tell a tale that is well beyond comprehension; the legacy of war and war making in the modern age has become vastly uneven, as the proliferation of advanced, industrial technologies has sparked new and/or exacerbated existing conflicts over dwindling natural resources. Moreover, the competitive potential of new industrial nations has challenged the control and share of world trade, finance, and global resource deposits. It should come as no surprise then that the international community has witnessed such an unprecedented growth of imperial activity. Characterized by Joseph Schumpeter (1962) as 'creative destruction' - literally meaning to destroy what is to regenerate economic growth - modern capitalism, through the technique of militarism, is reshaping the very meaning of existence against the backdrop of a “Global War on Terror.” Amidst the ongoing debates and allegations concerning the illegal invasion and occupation of Afghanistan and Iraq by a U.S.-led coalition, a select number of U.S. soldiers decided they no longer want to participate in what is often referred to as an immoral war. With this as a backdrop, this research explores the experiences of U.S. conscientious objectors who had enlisted following the attacks of September 1, 2001; how these individuals came to develop their philosophies of objection; and, the sociopolitical issues surrounding objectionism. Situated within an anti-capitalist theoretical framework, this project employs semi-structured interviews to recount the life histories of four U.S. conscientious objectors. Finally, this research explicates the narratives within broader discussions of militarism in the modern age.
    • Intersectionality, Radicalism, Identity, and Community: An Ethnographic Case Study of Animal Activist Organizing in Canada

      Boyacioglu, Mehmet Emin; Department of Sociology
      This thesis is an ethnographic case study of an animal activist organization (ACT) through an intersectional feminist theoretical lens. Qualitative data regarding ACT’s demographic constitution, internal organizational dynamics, activist strategies, ethical and political principles, and relations to other animal activists in the region have been collected through participant observations, in-depth interviews with activists, and a content analysis of social media. Data gathered and analyzed through the Grounded Theory methodology demonstrate that, despite its progressive politics in terms of gender, racialization, and class, ACT reproduced some oppressive dynamics of these, such as a normative, gendered division of labour. Contrary to ACT’s principle of non-hierarchy, a co-founder became its leader due to his possession of traits valued in activist circles dominated by a white, middle-class, and masculine culture; and his politics informed by a particular radical activist subculture was adopted by ACT. Many were not allowed to join ACT for not embodying the expected activist criteria, which were exclusionary in the sense of being formulated through a white, middle-class culture. Ideological and tactical disagreements between ACT and other activists led to aggressive conflicts because of some ACT organizers’ intolerance to any aberration from the rigid understanding of ethics they upheld. As individual and organizational identities outweighed solidarity in this activist setting, the erosion of trust further severed the community. Many activists who endorse ACT’s principles of intersectionality, anti-oppression, and community-building attribute their disbandment to the failure of applying these in activist praxis, and envision a better future for animal advocacy through a flatter organizing, healthier communication, a less rigid understanding of ethics, and more respect and consideration afforded to the people in and out of the activist community.
    • Marx at 200 – Inquiries into the Measurement of Profitability and its Determinants: The US Economy, 1950-2016

      Watterton, Josh; Department of Sociology
      Since the 1950s, various Marxist political economists have confirmed the empirical actuality of the ‘law of the tendency of the rate of profit to fall’. While the present thesis contributes to the burgeoning body of empirical literature that has substantiated Marx’s law, it differs from many of them in the underlying theoretic-methodological specifications guiding how the data provided in the national accounts should be translated for purposes of empirical research. Informed by a theoretical, methodological and empirical survey of the relevant literature, the thesis engages in a value-theoretical re-specification of Marx’s fundamental value-ratios for purposes of ‘testing’ Marx’s most crucial historical forecasts in relation to the concrete post-war evolution of the global epicentre of “advanced” capitalism: the US economy. It suggests some innovative methods of measuring ‘systemically necessary unproductive labour’, the ‘composition of output’ and economic growth alongside Marx’s fundamental value-ratios: namely, the rate of surplus value, the organic composition of capital and the average rate of profit. It also proposes a unique normalizing procedure for distinguishing between components of financial profit resting on surplus-value production from ‘fictitious’ components deriving from relations of credit/debt. This ‘normalization procedure’ permits a more realistic assessment of the amount of actual surplus-value transferred to finance, and therewith a more accurate calculation of the average rate of profit for the social capital as a whole in the “era of fictitious capital.” In sum, the empirical results disclose a long-term tendency for a rising composition of capital to exert a downward pressure on the average rate of profit – a tendency that has been offset in the neoliberal era to some extent by a rising rate of surplus-value (exploitation) and by a proliferation of fictitious capital imputed in the national accounts. Accordingly, this study confirms the empirical actuality of Marx’s most crucial historical forecasts – most notably, his law of the tendency of the rate of profit to fall – while also revealing the systemic roots of the deepening malaise of the US economy and of world capitalism as a whole.
    • Sketching the Identity Negotiations of Male Athletes and their Coaches: A Case Study of a CIS Men’s Basketball Team

      Soucie, Stephen; Department of Sociology
      More than simply passive members of a hard masculine cult, male athletes and their coaches take up complex and contradictory identities within the larger athletic structures in which they operate. In this study, I explore the relations of power shaping identity and subjectivity for male athletes and their coaches. Interviews were conducted with eight key informants, six student-athletes and two coaches, of a Canadian Interuniversity Sport (CIS) men’s basketball team and focused on sketching their experiences, perceptions, and performances of masculinities in the sport arena. The detailed stories shared by the two coaches led me to focus two analysis chapters on their narratives. My third analysis chapter broadens to include the narratives told by the larger group of participants. Drawing on the work of Foucault and feminist post-structuralist analysis, I problematize the ethical subjectivities of coaches and players and consider the implications of these findings for both critical sport researchers and anti-violence activists.
    • Precarious Work and Communities: The Impact of Neoliberalism on Working Class Politics

      Maich, Grace; Department of Sociology
      Precarious work, which refers to work that is poorly paid, lacks benefits, and where workers have relatively little political power, has been on the rise in North America in the last few decades. If precarious workers are isolated and unengaged, they will not be able to represent their political needs. The goal of this research is to clarify the relationship between precarious work and levels of community engagement and social support. Using feminist political economy and hegemony perspectives, this project engages with the question of whether precarious work has a direct impact on community engagement and social support and how demographic variables moderate this relationship. A quantitative analysis of 2014 telephone survey data done by the Poverty and Employment Precarity in Southern Ontario project demonstrates the effect of precarious work. Results show that precarious work has a large significant negative effect on social support but an inconsistent impact on community engagement. I conclude that more information is needed about participation in extra-parliamentary activities to fully understand whether precarious workers suffer from lack of political representation. However, precarious workers are clearly more isolated than other workers and this may contribute to continued intergenerational precarity.
    • Social Problems and Moral Panic: Primary, Secondary, and Oppositional Definers in the Social Construction of Canada's Opioid Crisis in Select Corporate Print Media

      Kenny, Julia; Department of Sociology
      This thesis seeks to explore the viability of a composite model of social problems using Canada’s current “opioid crisis” as a case study. Drawing on and modifying Joel Best’s (2017) and Herbert Blumer’s (1971) social problems models, I develop a four-stage composite model that aims to explain how primary, secondary, and oppositional definers construct competing claims over the discovery of a variously labeled opioid crisis. Relying on a materialist theoretical formulation of social constructionism and a critical assessment of the news media as both source and interlocutor for primary, secondary, and oppositional definers, I contend that in the making of the opioid crisis primary and elite secondary definers have a resource advantage in laying claims of expertise and “definitional dominance” over the construction of social problems. As an epistemological inquiry into the making of social problems, this study relies on the print news media as the locus for the articulation of competing claims in the construction of social problems. Respecting the social construction of the latest drug scare, I use the Toronto Star and the Globe and Mail as my primary data sources. This study uses a range of theoretical perspectives—symbolic interactionism, labelling theory, and a Marxian perspective on conflict and inequality—to operationalize processes of representation at each stage of my composite model of social problems. Since the composite model seeks to make sense of “text and talk” in the making and experience of reality, this study employs critical discourse analysis (CDA) to analyze how primary, secondary, and oppositional definers engage in exclusionary and usurpationary closure while in the process of mobilizing and resisting discourses, narratives, and constructions of folk devils, as these relate to meanings of a perceived opioid crisis in Canada.