Recent Submissions

  • Effects of Sensory Processing Patterns on Inhibitory Control as a Function of ADHD-traits and Trait Anxiety

    Hare, Carolynn; Department of Child and Youth Studies
    Anxiety and ADHD (traits) have been shown to co-occur in both clinical and non-clinical populations. In addition, both anxiety and ADHD are independently associated with atypical sensory processing. However, there has been no previous research investigating their combined effects on cognitive functions. It is important to identify the nature of their interactions, because often the impact of multiple challenges in affective, social, and cognitive domains can be different from the impact of each individual condition. The dimensional models of mental disorders regard psychopathologies as continuous, interdependent conditions with symptoms existing as traits along a continuum in the population, rather than discrete diagnostic categories. Following this framework, the overarching goal of this event-related potential study is to investigate how individual differences in sensory processing patterns (SPPs), ADHD-traits and trait anxiety influence inhibitory control in 77 (final sample 60, ages 18-26) female and male non-clinical emerging-adults. It was expected that the effect of the SPPs on inhibitory control would depend on the level of ADHD-traits which are moderated by the level of trait anxiety. Two SPPs, low registration (LR) and sensory sensitivity (SS), ADHD-traits (inattention, impulsivity, hyperactivity) and trait anxiety were measured using self-report questionnaires. Inhibitory control was operationalized as the maximum peak amplitude of N2, a neurophysiological response frequently associated with inhibition paradigms. In this study, N2 response was elicited during a 22-minute computerized distractor Continuous Performance Task (d-AX-CPT) with three inhibitory conditions (Go Distractor, NoGo Distractor, NoGo No Distractor). The research hypotheses were tested in moderated moderation models separately for LR and SS as focal predictors, N2 amplitude as the outcome, and ADHD-traits and trait anxiety as primary and secondary moderators, respectively. The results revealed that the levels of impulsivity, but not hyperactivity and inattention, and trait anxiety together moderated the effects of SPPs on N2 amplitude in Go Distractor and NoGo Distractor Conditions. In general, the findings of this study (1) highlight the importance of understanding the complex relationships among comorbid patterns that are frequently observed in diagnostic groups, (2) add new information to the existing literature on the relationship between SPPs, ADHD and anxiety using a dimensional framework.
  • Girl Bloggers: Posthumanism and Girls' Online Activism

    Sheppard, Lindsay C.; Department of Child and Youth Studies
    In this thesis, I explore the complexity of young women’s online activism through analysis of five blogs and online interviews with three of the bloggers. Informed by Karen Barad’s approach to posthumanism, I examine how specific material-discursive entanglements around girlhood, youth and activism co-constitute meanings and experiences of activism and activist subjectivities. Four themes and various subthemes emerged from my analysis. First, the blogging process is complex, involving various entangled materialities (e.g. art, wifi, laptops, notebooks), space, time and discourses around what makes a “good” blogger. Second, the format and content of the blogs, as well as the bloggers’ narratives, illustrate tensions and similarities between mobilizing an online gendered activist subjectivity and social media influencer (i.e. micro-celebrity) subjectivity within a broader neoliberal culture focused on entrepreneurship and individual success. The young women’s comments highlight the ways that neoliberal girl power narratives underpin expectations of activist bloggers. Third, young women engaged in activism on their blogs and on other connected social media accounts, where they represented activism through individualized approaches, and more rarely, as involving broader systemic critique. The young women conceptualized activism broadly, although their discussions of activist blogging and self-identification as activists were messy and contextual. The final theme considers how intersecting social positionings (e.g. gender, race, class, age, disability) shape access to and experiences with activist blogging. Overall, the aim of this project is to offer a rethinking of young women’s activism blogging that attends to the force of entangled material-discursive contexts.
  • Educational Professionals Awareness, Identification, and Support of Young Caregivers

    Mansell, Nicole; Department of Child and Youth Studies
    “Young carer” (YC) is a term used to describe youth under the age of 25 who take on caregiving roles to support a family member with a disability, illness, addiction, or language barrier (Aldridge & Becker, 1993; Charles et al., 2012; Stamatopoulos, 2015). Although the Ontario Ministry of Education mandates that educators ensure student success (Ontario Ministry of Education, 2014), the YC role continues to negatively influence attendance and curriculum engagement at school (Lakman et al., 2017). To ensure that YCs receive the support they need to be successful in school, an educator’s role must be considered. Therefore, this study’s research questions were, “In what ways are educators aware of young caregiving?” and “What role to educators perceive they have in identifying and supporting YCs?”. Through an applied research design, 8 teachers and 3 principals were individually interviewed for 90-minutes each. Inter-rater reliable thematic analysis resulted in three main themes of awareness, identification, and support. Although not all educators were aware of the YC term, all educators were aware of the caregiving role among children and youth. Consistent with OME mandate, educators reported that student success was important. Although educators felt they had a role in identifying and supporting YCs to ensure success, the majority did not perceive it was mandated. This finding was inconsistent with previous YC research that suggested YCs did not feel supported in school (Lakman et al., 2017). Therefore, the present findings encourage teacher training to ensure YCs receive the support they need. Key Words: Young Carer, Education, Awareness, Identification, Support
  • A Less Simple View of Reading: The Role of Inhibition and Working Memory in the Decoding-Comprehension Relationship

    McClure, Jane; Department of Child and Youth Studies
    The present study examines the influencing effect of executive functions, specifically inhibition and working memory, on the relationship between decoding and reading comprehension. The current research suggests that the decoding-comprehension relationship is likely more complex than past theoretical models have postulated. Recently, the idea that non-linguistic cognitive skills may be responsible for this relationship has gained traction. As a part of the NHLP, a longitudinal cohort study conducted in New Haven, Connecticut, 256 students were asked to complete reading and executive function measures, as the children progressed through grade 1 and 2. These measures included tasks independently designed to assess decoding, working memory, inhibition and vocabulary, as well as two separate measures of reading comprehension. Results showed that inhibition acted as a significant mediator in both the decoding-comprehension and vocabulary-comprehension relationships. The results also showed that working memory acted as a significant moderator of the direct effect in the decoding-comprehension relationship, but did not moderate the vocabulary-comprehension relationship. These findings support the idea that decoding and language alone are not solely responsible for reading comprehension performance, and that other non-linguistic factors must be taken into consideration. Better understanding the decoding-comprehension relationship has important implications for teaching practice, and early identification and intervention required for exceptional learners.
  • Dance with a B-E-A-T: Recreational Dance with Behaviour Analysis and Therapy for Children and Youth with Exceptionalities

    Staite, Nicole; Department of Child and Youth Studies
    While there is much research highlighting the positive benefits of recreational dance for typically developing individuals, there is considerably less research pertaining to individuals with unique needs, abilities and diagnoses (Burkhardt & Brennan, 2012). Evidently, there is a need for recreational dance programs that blend the proper interventions, supports and adaptations uniquely in order to support and include participants with varying abilities and challenges. The purpose of this research study was to pilot Dance with a B-E-A-T (Dance with Behavioral Analysis and Therapy), a recreational dance program with behavioral principles and therapeutic components for children and youth (7 to 12 years of age) with various exceptionalities such as neurodevelopmental disorders and/or anxiety disorders. This 8-week dance intervention program resulted in varying yet promising results across three primary domains for its three participants which were: (a) gross motor dance skills, (b) gross motor balance skills, (c) parent and child self-efficacy. Significant results showed improvements in gross motor skills across all three clients; with regards to self-efficacy however, results revealed significant changes in one out of three clients and two out of three of the client’s guardians. Further, consumer satisfaction results concluded a high level of satisfaction and program effectiveness across all three families. These findings are discussed in terms of the lack of previous research conducted within the field and the importance of therefore propelling such research in order to reach more youth with exceptionalities through alternative, enjoyable and empowering forms of therapeutic approaches.
  • Comparative Review of Mental Health Policies and Standards of Professional Practice in Ontario and Iran: Emphasis on a Cultural Framework

    Mirnasab Ghazani, Mir Mahmoud; Department of Child and Youth Studies
    Mental health systems require well-defined government regulations, acts and policies as well as ethical codes created by professional organizations and standards of practice established by regulatory bodies. Cross-cultural review studies can help to identify similarities, differences and cultural variations in the policies and standards of regulatory bodies that exist in different jurisdictions. With an emphasis on cultural framework, this review aimed to compare the policies and standards of professional conduct established by the College of Psychologists of Ontario (CPO) and the College of Registered Psychotherapists of Ontario (CRPO) with those developed by the Psychology and Counseling Organization of Iran (PCOI). Data were collected from governmental documents, the organizational websites (CPO, CRPO and PCOI), and other relevant resources. The American Psychological Association’s Ethics Code (2017), the Canadian Code of Ethics for Psychologists (2017), documents from the Ontario Psychological Association (OPA) and the State Welfare Organization of Iran were also included in the analysis as complementary data where relevant. Results revealed that the standard of controlled acts (psychotherapy and communicating a diagnosis) and a quality assurance program for current members have not been included in the PCOI. Additionally, some standards (e.g., communicating client care, record-keeping and documentation) may have been detailed in the PCOI Code of Ethics. Some standards (e.g., referral and unnecessary treatment) may have been explained more thoroughly in the CPO’s document about Standards of Professional Conduct (2017). However, although not explicitly mentioned, CPO members follow related acts and regulations for these standards. Providing pro-bono may have been incorporated in the CRPO’s standards. In this review, cultural variations in administrating the standards under professional conduct and client-therapist relationships, as well as the standards of competency and clinical supervision were interpreted in detail. This research may help policy makers and field practitioners to improve the quality of mental health services. Implications for future studies are discussed.
  • Adapting to Parental Investment Uncertainty? The Role of Personality and Puberty

    Schiralli, Katerina; Department of Child and Youth Studies
    Early childhood experiences of parental investment uncertainty appear to influence later dating and sexuality in girls. Research has suggested that this relationship is mediated by the timing of pubertal development. This thesis investigated whether personality traits also mediated this relationship. A path model was tested with paths from indices of early parental investment uncertainty to dating and sexuality through pubertal development and personality. Results suggested that pubertal development did not mediate the relationship between early experiences of parental investment. However, there was some evidence that personality, specifically the trait Honesty-Humility, was associated with early experiences of parental investment uncertainty and dating and sexuality in girls.
  • A Qualitative Exploration of the Connections Among Quality of Relationships with Parent(s), Self-Compassion, and Academic Motivation in Young Adults

    Goldsworthy, Samara; Department of Child and Youth Studies
    Multiple studies have demonstrated a link between the quality of parent-child relationships and children’s capacity for self-compassion. In turn, children’s self-compassion has been linked to motivation for achieving academic success. However, research has not explored the connections among the quality of parent-child relationships, young people’s capacity for self-compassion, and young people’s academic motivation. This qualitative research study fills an important gap in the literature by holistically exploring the self-perceived connections among these three constructs among university students. This study included nine undergraduate students attending Brock University (across several disciplines and years). Participants completed a demographic section along with a self-compassion survey and a semi-structured interview. Findings suggest some participants perceived a connection between positive relationships with parents and high self-compassion and academic motivation when their parents extended compassion to them in difficult situations. Interestingly, some who did not perceive their parents as compassionate and supportive still reported having high self-compassion and being very motivated to achieve academic success. Findings can inform clinical practices that support young adults and university students as they strive to navigate the transition to university life and excel academically.
  • Thinking (and Thinking…) About Perfection: A Test of the Perfectionism Cognitions Theory

    Janssen, William F.; Department of Child and Youth Studies
    The current body of work examined the link between perfectionism cognitions and depressive symptoms and, importantly, tested a central mechanism by which rumination acts as an intervening pathway in this relationship. These relationships form the underlying framework of the Perfectionism Cognitions Theory (Flett et al., 2016), which, to date, had not been empirically tested. The current body of work consisted of two separate studies. Study 1 used a community sample of adults (N = 175, 53.3% men, Mage = 28.3 years old). Results of structural equation modeling in Study 1 offered support for the Perfectionism Cognitions Theory. It was found that rumination represented an indirect pathway explaining the relationship between perfectionism cognitions and depressive symptoms. Study 2 used a sample of emerging adult students (N = 53, 84.9% women, Mage = 19.9 years old) to test the Perfectionism Cognitions Theory. Study 2 also closely examined the link between perfectionism cognitions and cognitive flexibility, a behavioural index of rumination that was measured by performance on a set-shifting task. Results of a test of indirect effects in Study 2 replicated the findings of Study 1 by supporting the Perfectionism Cognitions Theory and showing evidence that rumination represents a mechanism by which perfectionism cognitions are related to poorer well-being. Results of regression analysis did not show a link between perfectionism cognitions and set-shifting, but perfectionism cognitions were related to self-reported cognitive flexibility. Together, the findings support Flett et al.’s (2016) Perfectionism Cognition Theory and have important implications for research and practice.
  • Perfectly Alone (and Anxious): A Test of the Perfectionism Social Disconnection Model in Adolescents

    Murphy, Emily; Department of Child and Youth Studies
    Perfectionism contributes to psychopathology in youth. Yet, little research has examined the pathways that may explicate why perfectionism is a risk factor for poorer outcomes, particularly among youth. Consequently, in this program of research I examined associations between trait dimensions of perfectionism (i.e., perfectionistic strivings and concerns) and anxiety within the framework of the Perfectionism Social Disconnection Model (PSDM). In Study 1, I tested whether perfectionistic strivings and concerns (as measured by the Almost Perfect Scale-Revised; Slaney et al., 2001) were related to adolescent-reported and mother-reported anxiety via social disconnection in a high-risk sample of adolescents. Social disconnection was assessed as a latent variable comprised of three indicators: relational victimization, school connectedness, and parental acceptance. Overall, results indicated that perfectionistic concerns were related to higher levels of adolescent-reported anxiety and that social disconnection emerged as an explanatory pathway linking higher levels of perfectionistic concerns to higher levels of adolescent-reported anxiety. In Study 2, I tested whether perfectionistic strivings and concerns (as measured by the Child and Adolescent Perfectionism Scale; Flett et al., 2001) were related to adolescent-reported anxiety in a community sample of adolescents via social disconnection. For Study 2, I used a more comprehensive latent variable for social disconnection that was comprised of four indicators: relational victimization, school connectedness, parental acceptance, and subjective loneliness. Replicating the findings from Study 1, social disconnection again emerged as an explanatory pathway linking higher levels of perfectionistic concerns to higher levels of adolescent-reported anxiety. These findings support the PSDM in youth, raise important questions about the link between perfectionism and social functioning, and have implications for prevention and intervention development.
  • Parenting Challenges and Adaptive Strategies: A Qualitative Analysis of Asian Indian Immigrant Families in Canada

    Sodhi, Maninder; Department of Child and Youth Studies
    This study examined parenting challenges among Asian Indian immigrant families who migrated from a multicultural society to Canada and how they adapted to their new multicultural environment. I interviewed 19 Indian immigrant parents who have lived in Canada for more than 3 years, asking them to share their parenting challenges and the adaptive strategies they had used to integrate into the Canadian cultural environment. Being with a community of other Indian immigrants and/or members of the extended family played facilitated smoother transitions toward their new cultural environment. Traditional food served as an important bridge to their Indian traditions just as Canadian food served as a bridge to new cultural experiences. At the structural level, all the participants suggested that Canadian schools in the Niagara region should implement a more multicultural perspective. Participants highlighted the importance of family support, community support, and a willingness to accept new lifestyles and career choices.
  • Literacy Intervention for Struggling Readers: Knowledge Mobilization in our Communities

    Johnston, Tara; Department of Child and Youth Studies
    This study explored the efficacy of a literacy program as it was offered in partnership between Brock University and the Learning Disabilities Association of Niagara Region. Specifically, this study examined sixteen 5 to 12-year-old children with reading disabilities who participated in a 5-week Spring Reading Program that was associated with an upper year undergraduate course in Child and Youth Studies. In this course, university students worked with children from the local community. The study collected quantitative and qualitative data from children, parents and Brock students. The study also examined the concept of knowledge mobilization by exploring the relationship between a course at Brock and the Learning Disabilities Association of Niagara. This partnership was considered a strong example of knowledge mobilization as defined by Brock’s strategic mandate. A mixed methodological approach was utilized in this thesis that included quantitative academic achievement measures and qualitative interviews with student tutors, children and caregivers whose children participated in the program. The focus of the qualitative interviews was to determine the overall experience of the Spring Reading Program and how it encompassed the principles of effective knowledge mobilization. Results of the study indicated that the Spring Reading Program was successful in improving literacy scores in participating children but also successful in improving motivation and self-efficacy in children. In addition to this, the partnership was seen as a successful example of effective knowledge mobilization. Such findings hold important implications for policy and practice surrounding models of schooling and programming that support children’s learning.
  • Turning the Page for Spot: Exploring the Potential of Therapy Dogs to Support Reading Motivation and Positive Reading Behaviours Among Young Children

    Rousseau, Camille Xinmei; Department of Child and Youth Studies
    Animal-assisted literacy programs are growing in popularity as research continues to reveal their benefits for promoting children’s reading skills and positive reading behaviours. Struggling readers may benefit the most from canine-assisted literacy programs as these programs may increase children’s motivation to read, which in turn might be associated with improvements in children’s reading performance. However, little is known about how the context of canine-assisted literacy programs can help increase children’s motivation and persistence to read. The purpose of this proof of concept study was to assess the feasibility of engaging children with therapy dogs to help increase children’s reading motivation and persistence. We collected observational and self-report data from several sources (child participants, parents and researchers). Results of multivariate repeated-measures ANOVA with two levels (i.e. two-factor repeated measures design) revealed significant differences in reading motivation and reading persistence as a function of the presence or absence of a therapy dog when children were asked to read a challenging passage. Specifically, the children reported that they were more interested in reading and felt more competent reading a challenging passage when reading in the presence (versus absence) of a therapy dog. Additionally, the children individually spent more time reading in the presence (versus absence) of the therapy dog. The findings from this research will inform the development of animal-assisted literacy programs regarding the potential of canine-assisted reading programs to support children’s reading motivation and persistence.
  • Young Men’s Experiences and Views of Sex Education in Bangladesh: A Foucauldian Discourse Analysis

    Khan, Tauhid Hossain; Department of Child and Youth Studies
    This study has sought to shed light on the dearth of research on sex education in Bangladesh bringing forward young men’s experiences, views, narratives, recollections, and perceptions around sex education. Using social constructionism and poststructuralism, this study addresses the research questions: How did Bangladeshi young men receive sex education during adolescence? How did they interpret their experiences? How did their narratives reproduce and/or disrupt dominant discourses related to sex education, including discourses around sexuality, teenagerhood, masculinity, and manhood? Based on the qualitative data collected from nine in-depth Skype interviews with young men in Bangladesh, nine themes emerged. These themes illustrate - how participants received sex education with the help of peers, pornography, the Internet, media, parents, schools, and religion. This study also reveals that what they learned about sex and sexuality from these sources was often gendered (e.g., reproduced hegemonic masculinity), sexist (e.g., undermined the need for girls’ consent), and naturalized the idea of sex and sexuality as dangerous (e.g., through a focus on sexually infected disease prevention). This study identified dominant discourses around sex education, which are intertwined with social institutions, such as the school; it also illustrates instances which reproduced and disrupted these dominant discourses. Some participants embraced dominant discourses while others disrupted them, and some contradicted themselves. Participants also proposed mixed ways of improving sex education in Bangladesh, especially through designing sex education curriculum. The study draws the attention of the parents, curriculum designers, teachers, policymakers, service providers to young people, and scholars from the Global South to consider these innovations as food for thought to ensure young people’s right to sex education
  • Caregiver Stress: An Exploration of Stressors and Coping Strategies Among Young Carers

    Sexton, Cayleigh; Department of Child and Youth Studies
    Young carers (YCs) are children and youth who take on extra responsibilities within their home due to a family member having a physical disability, chronic illness, mental health issues, addiction issues, or parental absence (Aldridge & Becker, 1993; Charles, Stainton, & Marshall, 2008; Stamatopoulos, 2015). YCs may experience increased stress levels and negative psychosocial outcomes due to their caregiving role (Charles et al., 2008; Collins & Bayless, 2013; Frank, Tatum, & Tucker, 1999; Lakman & Chalmers, 2018; Sahoo & Suar, 2010). Objective: This study sought to identify key stressors and coping strategies used by YCs and to determine if coping can moderate the relation between stress and negative outcomes. Methods: A sample of 58 YCs completed self-report questionnaires on stress, coping, self-esteem, depressive symptoms, anxiety, and loneliness. Results: YCs most frequently cited stressors related to recognition of their YC role within and outside of their family. Other stressors included school impacts and social impacts. YCs most frequently used disengagement coping strategies (e.g., wishful thinking or social withdrawal) and less frequently used engagement coping strategies (e.g., problem solving or seeking social support). The results revealed coping did not moderate the relation between stress and the examined negative outcomes within this sample. Implications: The results suggest the need for recognition and validation for YCs and the development of coping skill development programs so that YCs can learn how to cope using more proactive ways such as problem solving and seeking social support.
  • Experiences of Parents Advocating for the “Complicated Child”: A Phenomenologically Oriented Descriptive Exploration

    Janzen, Michelle; Department of Child and Youth Studies
    This paper is a phenomenologically oriented descriptive study that analyzed the experiences of parents advocating for a complex child within the special education sector. More specifically the research examined parental experiences during the Individual Education Plan (IEP) and during the Individual Placement and Review Committee (IPRC) process. The research analyzed two data sets to answer two main questions: 1) What are the experiences of mothers advocating for a child with multiple diagnoses within the special education structure? 2) What strategies have mothers developed during these advocacy experiences to successful and/or unsuccessful outcomes? The research examined six schoolboard websites in Southern and Central Ontario, ostensibly committed to the inclusion of children requiring accommodations into regular classroom programming and to the engagement of the parents of these children in the development of the Individualized Education Plans (IEP) that make this inclusion possible. Strategies for analyzing these unobtrusive data sets were manifest and latent content analysis. These findings of my manifest content analysis include a) average of 10.6 clicks to find rights based information, b) average of 61.6 tabs and links to navigate through. Latent analysis revealed a) absence of recognizable representative image, b) difficulties for persons whose first language was not English, c) a challenging array of mixed signals, ambiguous messages and obstacles that misdirect and prevent access to information that parents desperately need to participate in the IEP process. The second data set included semi-structured interviews with four mothers, as well as the author’s own experiences, in which parents were asked three subsets of questions; how has their child’s experience of disability impacted their education, what have their experiences been during IEP/IPRC meetings, and how have parents perceived their interactions with educational staff. Through phenomenologically oriented transcript analysis, four major themes were found: abjection/separation, good daughter/bad daughter attributions, dismissal of parental knowledge and concern, and manufacturing. The research indicates that equal access to education for children experiencing disability is, in fact, not equal to their neurotypical peers, and only when a parent is knowledgeable in the IEP/IPRC process, and has figured out how to hold power within the school system, can a child with complex needs obtain reasonable access to accommodations and /or modifications and receive equal access to educational opportunities.
  • The Sex Chronicles: Young Women’s Recollections of Learning About Sex

    Ecclestone, Katrien; Department of Child and Youth Studies
    There is a pervasive social fear surrounding girls’ sexuality. In 2015, Ontario public schools mandated a new version of sex education. There was, and still is, public outcry by many parents over the new curriculum. The concern? We should be protecting children from, and not exposing them to, sexual content. This criticism of the new curriculum highlights the powerful fear around children and sex, and has, in turn, limited the education girls receive about sexual knowledge and pleasure. My research explores how girls in Ontario learn about sex and how this knowledge has influenced their sexual narratives by asking the following questions: When young women at an Ontario University reflect on how and what they learned about sex, what do they recall? How do young women at an Ontario University feel that their learned knowledge about sex has shaped their understanding of their sexual identify, sex lives, sexual desires, and abstinence? My findings highlight that there is a gap between what girls and young women are learning and what they are experiencing. Overall, my thesis advocates for a meaningful and appropriate sex education that provides students – and girls, in particular – with the knowledge they need to make healthy sexual choices. I hope to inspire educators and policy makers to consider the positive implications of a well rounded and practical sex education.
  • Transnational Labour Migration: Experiences of Mid-to-Highly Skilled African Migrant Workers in Doha, Qatar

    Imerion, Eneze; Department of Child and Youth Studies
    This study sought to augment the dearth of research on African labour migration to the GCC and Qatar. The study focuses on younger mid-to-highly skilled Africans (from Cameroon, Egypt, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, South Africa, and Zimbabwe) currently working in Qatar. Attention was given to how racialized positioning intersected with other variables such as nationality, gender and class to shape migrant worker experiences. The study also considered those who migrated to Qatar as organization-sponsored workers and those on so-called free visas. Based on data gathered from 12 Skype and WhatsApp interviews, findings revealed how the sponsorship system gives employers power over employees, often preventing workers from switching jobs—particularly in the case of organization-sponsored workers—and in the case of those on free visas, creating vulnerability to visa racketeering. The study identified further modalities of exploitation such as salary delay and job insecurity, that added to the challenges of remitting money to family members in countries of origin. A majority of participants expressed the desire to eventually leave Qatar and migrate once again to Western countries where they imagined there would be better opportunities for professional growth, children’s education and naturalization.
  • Addressing the Summer Learning Gap Among Children with Reading Difficulties

    Grice, Melanie; Department of Child and Youth Studies
    This study explored literacy change and development in children with reading difficulties over the summer months. More specifically, a summer literacy program called S.L.A.M., offered by the Learning Disabilities Association of the Niagara Region, was examined. A multi-lens approach was used to examine the efficacy of the summer literacy program, and the contextual factors associated with its success and the children’s overall success in the program. Fifteen children, ages 6-10, were administered a series of reading-based measures, while facilitators involved with the program’s implementation were interviewed in focus groups, and a daily field journal was maintained by the program Head Facilitator. Results of the study indicated that literacy intervention during the summer months can help to alleviate the summer learning loss and support further literacy development in vulnerable readers. Such findings hold important implications for policy and practice surrounding models of schooling and programming that support children’s learning yearlong.
  • Identifying Antisocial Youth Through Broad and Specific Measures of Personality

    Mularczyk, Kimberly; Department of Child and Youth Studies
    Although antisocial and psychopathic traits have been linked to predatory and violent types of juvenile offending, much of what is known about these traits stems from adult-centered research. Identifying antisocial youth with reliable tools early in development could improve the prognosis of interventions. With a community sample of adolescents (N = 396, Mage = 14.64, SD = 1.52, ngirls = 230, 58%, nboys = 164, 42%), the HEXACO-PIR accounted for 57% of the variance in the APSD-YV. Lower ratings of Honesty- Humility, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness were associated with higher ratings of psychopathy, F(18, 956.49) = 18.347, p < .001, Wilk’s λ = .432. The HEXACO-PI-R was associated with a range of antisocial outcomes, including lower intensity antisocial beliefs and attitudes, however, the APSD-YV had stronger associations with higher intensity antisocial behaviours. Findings suggest that the assessment of youth antisociality may benefit from the inclusion of both broad and specific measures of personality.

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