• The Effects of Annealing URu2Si2 on the Resistivity and Meissner Effect

      Pan, Yang; Department of Physics (Brock University, 2012-09-18)
      The enigmatic heavy fermion URu2Si2, which is the subject of this thesis, has attracted intensive theoretical and experimental research since 1984 when it was firstly reported by Schlabitz et al. at a conference [1]. The previous bulk property measurements clearly showed that one second order phase transition occurs at the Hidden Order temperature THO ≈ 17.5 K and another second order phase transition, the superconducting transition, occurs at Tc ≈ 1 K. Though twenty eight years have passed, the mechanisms behind these two phase transitions are still not clear to researchers. Perfect crystals do not exist. Different kinds of crystal defects can have considerable effects on the crystalline properties. Some of these defects can be eliminated, and hence the crystalline quality improved, by annealing. Previous publications showed that some bulk properties of URu2Si2 exhibited significant differences between as-grown samples and annealed samples. The present study shows that the annealing of URu2Si2 has some considerable effects on the resistivity and the DC magnetization. The effects of annealing on the resistivity are characterized by examining how the Residual Resistivity Ratio (RRR), the fitting parameters to an expression for the temperature dependence of the resistivity, the temperatures of the local maximum and local minimum of the resistivity at the Hidden Order phase transition and the Hidden Order Transition Width ∆THO change after annealing. The plots of one key fitting parameter, the onset temperature of the Hidden Order transition and ∆THO vs RRR are compared with those of Matsuda et al. [2]. Different media used to mount samples have some impact on how effectively the samples are cooled because the media have different thermal conductivity. The DC magnetization around the superconducting transition is presented for one unannealed sample under fields of 25 Oe and 50 Oe and one annealed sample under fields of 0 Oe and 25 Oe. The DC field dependent magnetization of the annealed Sample1-1 shows a typical field dependence of a Type-II superconductor. The lower critical field Hc1 is relatively high, which may be due to flux pinning by the crystal defects.
    • Electrogenic proton/L-glutamate symport in isolated asparagus sprengeri mesophyll cell

      Liang, Xiaohua.; Department of Physics (Brock University, 1991-07-09)
      Medium' alkaliniiation occurred -lipon the addition of L-Glu to mechanically isolated Asparagus sprenger-i mesophyll cells suspended in 1 mM CaS04. Alkalinization resulted from the coupled entry of H+ and L-Glu anion into the cells. This H+ IL-Glu symport did not stimulate K+ efflux. K+ efflux has been observed during H~ lamino acid symport in other systems. The stimulation of K+ efflux by proton coupled symport is regarded as an indicator of a plasma membrane depolarizing electrogenic symport process. H+ IL-Glu symport in Asparagus sprengerimesophyl1 cells was investigated to determine whether or not the process was electrogenic. The rate of uptake of 0.25 11M 3H-MTPP+ ( Methyltriphenylphosphonium, methyl-3H ) is a probe for monitoring changes in the membrane potential. 3HMTPP+ uptake was reduced by K+ or CCCP, agents known to depolarize the membrane potential. Uptake of 3H-MTPP+ was also inhibited by L-Glu but not by D-Glu. Conversely, 10 mM external MTPP+ inhibited the uptake of 14C-U-LGlu. Simultaneous measurements of the rates of 14C-U-L-Glu uptake and L-Glu dependent H+ influx showed that the molar stoichiometry of H+ IL-Glu symport was 2 to 1. K+ or Na+ stimulated H+ efflux was completely inhibited by DCCD, DES, oligomycin and antimycin reagents which inhibit ATP driven H+ efflux. The H+ efflux \Vas also stimulate.d by the weak acids, butyric acid and acetic acid, which are known fo-aCidify the cytoplasm. This weak acid stimulated H+ efflux was also completely inhibited by oligomycin. It was calculated that net L-Glu dependent H+ influx increased by 100% in the presence of oligomycin and that despite net medium alkalinization H+ IL-Glu symport stimulates ATP dependent H+ efflux. 11 The data presented in this study indicate that H+ IL-Glu symport is electrogenic. The data also show that ATP dependent Ht efflux rather than K+ efflux is the- process compensating for thi~ electrogenic H+ IL-Glu symport.
    • Electronic and magnetic properties of LaV1-xO3 /

      Gharetape, Shahab Jamali.; Department of Physics (Brock University, 2008-06-15)
      A series of LaVi^xOs compounds (x=0.00, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08) were prepeired using the standard solid reaction. The samples were chareicterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), fourprobe resistivity, smd magnetic susceptibility studies. Powder X-ray diffraction analysis indicated the formation of a single-phase sample with a orthorhombic structure which was first found in GdFeOs (space group Pnma) . The Unit Cell program was used for calculating lattice peirameters from XFID data. The XRD spectnim could be indexed on a cubic lattice with Og = 2ap ~ (7.8578 to 7.9414 A). The lattice parameter was observed to increase as the Vanadium vacancy increased. Four-probe resistivity measurements exhibited semiconductor behavior for all sajnples from room temperature down to 19K. The resistivity of samples increased with increasing Vanadium vacancy. The resistivity of samples demonstrated activated conduction with an activation energy of approximately 0.2 eV. The activation energy increased with increasing lattice parameter. Field cool magnetic susceptibility measurements were performed with field of 500 G from 300 K to 5 K. These measurements indicated the presence of an antiferromagnetic transition at about 140 K. The data was fitted above Neel temperature to Ciurie-Weiss law yielding a negative parameignetic Curie temperature. This implies that antiferromagnetic ordering is present.
    • Electronic and Magnetic Properties of MAX Phase (Cr1-xGdx)2AlC and Er3AlC Alloy

      Albandri, Huriyyah A; Department of Physics
      Bulk samples of (Cr1-xGdx)2AlC with X = 0, 0.0025, 0.01, 0.025, 0.05 and Er3AlC compound were synthesized using the arc melting technique. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, magnetic susceptibility, and four probe resistivity measurements to study their magnetic and electronic properties. Using Rietveld analysis for X-ray diffraction, it was determined that the parent compound Cr2AlC exhibits a side phase of Cr7C3. The substituted samples were found to have secondary phases of Cr7C3 and GdCr3.5Al8.5 which slightly increase on increasing substitution of Cr3+ by Gd3+. The change of the concentration of Gadolinium does not have any real effect on the lattice parameter of (Cr1-xGdx)2AlC. Er3AlC contains secondary phases of ErAl2 and ErC0.6. The MAX phase Cr2AlC and the Gadolinium substituted samples show complex magnetic behaviour. The magnetization measurements show that Cr2AlC has an unusual magnetic behavior above 70 K which does not obey the Curie-Weiss law. The sample with X = 0.0025 also does not obey the Curie-Weiss law at high temperature. The susceptibility data shows that samples with X = 0.01, 0.025, and 0.05 obey the Curie-Weiss law, and the magnitude of the effective magnetic moments decreases while increasing the value of X. The susceptibility data of Er3AlC obey the Curie-Weiss law; and the effective moment is 9.1 ± 0.005 𝛍B. The resistivity measurement of the parent sample Cr2AlC indicates metallic behavior. In the Gd-substituted samples, we observed a Kondo Effect from the resistivity data. The resistivity of Gd-substituted samples increases with increasing Gadolinium concentration. We also observed metallic behavior in the Er3AlC resistivity.
    • Electronic and Magnetic Properties of Pyrochlore (Eu(1-x)Dyx)2Ir2O7

      Amir, Zainab Mohamed; Department of Physics
      The pyrochlore (Eu(1-x)Dyx)2Ir2O7 for x = 0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, and 1.0 were prepared using solid-state reaction method. As the Dy concentration increases, the X-ray results indicate a systematic decrease of the cubic lattice parameter of (Eu(1-x)Dyx)2Ir2O7. We observed metal insulator transition in all compounds in addition two new anomalies at high temperatures in specifi c heat and resistivity results. The origin of these anoma- lies have not yet been identifi ed. The metal insulator transition temperature TMI of (Eu(1-x)Dyx)2Ir2O7 increases with the reduction in the lattice parameter. In the mag- netic susceptibility results, the effective magnetic moment increases with the increment of the Dy substitution for Eu ions. The magnetic fi eld dependence of resistivity was in- vestigated for all samples, negative and positive magnetoresistance effects are discussed.
    • Electronic, magnetic and thermal properties of Pb₂₋x AxCrO₅ (A = K or La)

      Indovski, Biljana; Department of Physics (Brock University, 2011-10-13)
      Lead chromium oxide is a photoconductive dielectric material tha t has great potential of being used as a room temperature photodetector. In this research, we made ceramic pellets of this compound as well as potassium doped compound Pb2-xKxCr05, where x=O, 0.05, 0.125. We also investigate the properties of the lanthanum doped sample whose chemical formula is Pb1.85Lao.15Cr05' The electronic, magnetic and thermal properties of these materials have been studied. Magnetization measurements of the Pb2Cr05 sample indicate a transition at about 310 K, while for the lanthanum doped sample the transition temperature is at about 295 K indicating a paramagnetic behavior. However, the potassium doped samples are showing the transition from paramagnetic state to diamagnetic state at different temperatures for different amounts of potassium atoms present in the sample. We have studied resistivity as a function of temperature in different gas environments from 300 K to 900 K. The resistivity measurement of the parent sample indicates a conducting to insulating transition at about 300 K and upon increasing the temperature further, above 450 K the sample becomes an ionic conductor. As temperature increases a decrease in resistance is observed in the lanthanum/potassium doped samples. Using Differential Scanning Calorimetry experiment an endothermic peak is observed for the Pb2Cr05 and lanthanum/potassium doped samples at about 285 K.
    • Elucidation of a mechanism of cell lysis by chorhexidine : a biophysical approach

      Komljenovic, Ivana; Department of Physics (2012-04-03)
      Chlorhexidine is an effective antiseptic used widely in disinfecting products (hand soap), oral products (mouthwash), and is known to have potential applications in the textile industry. Chlorhexidine has been studied extensively through a biological and biochemical lens, showing evidence that it attacks the semipermeable membrane in bacterial cells. Although extremely lethal to bacterial cells, the present understanding of the exact mode of action of chlorhexidine is incomplete. A biophysical approach has been taken to investigate the potential location of chlorhexidine in the lipid bilayer. Deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance was used to characterize the molecular arrangement of mixed phospholipid/drug formulations. Powder spectra were analyzed using the de-Pake-ing technique, a method capable of extracting both the orientation distribution and the anisotropy distribution functions simultaneously. The results from samples of protonated phospholipids mixed with deuterium-labelled chlorhexidine are compared to those from samples of deuterated phospholipids and protonated chlorhexidine to determine its location in the lipid bilayer. A series of neutron scattering experiments were also conducted to study the biophysical interaction of chlorhexidine with a model phospholipid membrane of DMPC, a common saturated lipid found in bacterial cell membranes. The results found the hexamethylene linker to be located at the depth of the glycerol/phosphate region of the lipid bilayer. As drug concentration was increased in samples, a dramatic decrease in bilayer thickness was observed. Differential scanning calorimetry experiments have revealed a depression of the DMPC bilayer gel-to-lamellar phase transition temperature with an increasing drug concentration. The enthalpy of the transition remained the same for all drug concentrations, indicating a strictly drug/headgroup interaction, thus supporting the proposed location of chlorhexidine. In combination, these results lead to the hypothesis that the drug is folded approximately in half on its hexamethylene linker, with the hydrophobic linker at the depth of the glycerol/phosphate region of the lipid bilayer and the hydrophilic chlorophenyl groups located at the lipid headgroup. This arrangement seems to suggest that the drug molecule acts as a wedge to disrupt the bilayer. In vivo, this should make the cell membrane leaky, which is in agreement with a wide range of bacteriological observations.
    • Exact property estimation from diffusion Monte Carlo with minimal stochastic reconfiguration /

      Bosá, Ivana.; Department of Earth Sciences (Brock University, 2004-07-14)
      Our objective is to develop a diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC) algorithm to estimate the exact expectation values, ($o|^|^o), of multiplicative operators, such as polarizabilities and high-order hyperpolarizabilities, for isolated atoms and molecules. The existing forward-walking pure diffusion Monte Carlo (FW-PDMC) algorithm which attempts this has a serious bias. On the other hand, the DMC algorithm with minimal stochastic reconfiguration provides unbiased estimates of the energies, but the expectation values ($o|^|^) are contaminated by ^, an user specified, approximate wave function, when A does not commute with the Hamiltonian. We modified the latter algorithm to obtain the exact expectation values for these operators, while at the same time eliminating the bias. To compare the efficiency of FW-PDMC and the modified DMC algorithms we calculated simple properties of the H atom, such as various functions of coordinates and polarizabilities. Using three non-exact wave functions, one of moderate quality and the others very crude, in each case the results are within statistical error of the exact values.
    • An experimental investigation of dechanneling in copper single crystals

      Tulonen, Paul V. G.; Department of Physics (Brock University, 1984-07-09)
      This investigation comprises a comparison of experimental and theoretical dechanneling of MeV protons in copper single crystals. Dechanneling results when an ion's transverse energy increases to the value where the ion can undergo small impact parameter collisions with individual atoms. Depth dependent dechanneling rates were determined as functions of lattice temperature, ion beam energy and crystal axis orientation. Ion beam energies were IMeV and 2MeV,temperatures ranged from 35 K to 280 K and the experiment was carried out along both the (lOa) and <110) axes. Experimental data took the form of aligned and random Rutherford backscattered energy spectra. Dechanneling rates were extracted from these spectra using a single scattering theory that took explicit account of the different stopping powers experienced by channeled and dechanneled ions and also included a correction factor to take into account multiple scattering effects along the ion's trajectory. The assumption of statistical equilibrium and small angle scattering of the channeled ions allows a description of dechanneling in terms of the solution of a diffusion like equation which contains a so called diffusion function. The diffusion function is shown to be related to the increase in average transverse energy. Theoretical treatments of increase in average transverse energy due to collisions of projectiles with channel electrons and thermal perturbations in the lattice potential are reviewed. Using the diffusion equation and the electron density in the channel centre as a fitting parameter dechanneling rates are extracted. Excellent agreement between theory and experiment has been demonstrated. Electron densities determined in the fitting procedure appear to be realistic. The surface parameters show themselves to be good indicators of the quality of the crystal.
    • Extracting Ramachandran torsional angle distributions from 2D NMR data using Tikhonov regularization /

      Keyvanloo Shahrestanaky, Amirmohamad.; Department of Physics (Brock University, 2004-06-29)
      Solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is a powerful technique for studying structural and dynamical properties of disordered and partially ordered materials, such as glasses, polymers, liquid crystals, and biological materials. In particular, twodimensional( 2D) NMR methods such as ^^C-^^C correlation spectroscopy under the magicangle- spinning (MAS) conditions have been used to measure structural constraints on the secondary structure of proteins and polypeptides. Amyloid fibrils implicated in a broad class of diseases such as Alzheimer's are known to contain a particular repeating structural motif, called a /5-sheet. However, the details of such structures are poorly understood, primarily because the structural constraints extracted from the 2D NMR data in the form of the so-called Ramachandran (backbone torsion) angle distributions, g{^,'4)), are strongly model-dependent. Inverse theory methods are used to extract Ramachandran angle distributions from a set of 2D MAS and constant-time double-quantum-filtered dipolar recoupling (CTDQFD) data. This is a vastly underdetermined problem, and the stability of the inverse mapping is problematic. Tikhonov regularization is a well-known method of improving the stability of the inverse; in this work it is extended to use a new regularization functional based on the Laplacian rather than on the norm of the function itself. In this way, one makes use of the inherently two-dimensional nature of the underlying Ramachandran maps. In addition, a modification of the existing numerical procedure is performed, as appropriate for an underdetermined inverse problem. Stability of the algorithm with respect to the signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio is examined using a simulated data set. The results show excellent convergence to the true angle distribution function g{(j),ii) for the S/N ratio above 100.
    • Far infared reflectance along the C-axis of the charge stripe superconductor La1.875Ba0.125CuO4.

      Dempsie, Brad; Department of Physics (Brock University, 2011-03-08)
      Reflectance measurements along the c-axis of La1.875 Bao.125CU04 at temperatures above(6K) and below(O.5K) the bulk superconducting transition temperature(3K) were performed using a Bruker rapid scan spectrometer and a Martin-Puplett polarizing spectrometer. It was found that when polarized light reflected from a sample the Bruker rapid scan spectrometer has a low frequency cutoff of lOcm-1 while the Martin-Puplett polarizing spectrometer has a low frequency cutoff of 6cm-1 A superconducting pla ma edge was absent in all measurements taken. It was concluded that if a superconducting plasma edge exists in La1.875Bao.125CU04 it is below 6cm-1.
    • Far infrared optical properties of V and Cr doped Sb2Te3 /

      Madubuonu, Anthony.; Department of Physics (Brock University, 2009-06-15)
      The far infrared reflectance of Sb2Te3 , Sbi.97Vo.o3Te3 and Sbi.94Cr .o6Te3 was measured near normal incidence at different temperatures (between 45K and 300K). The direct current resistivities of the above samples were also measured between the temperatures of 4K and 300K. Also Kramers Kronig (KK) analyses were performed on the reflectance spectra to obtain the optical conductivities. In the doped samples, it was observed that a phonon at 62cm-1 softens to about 55cm-1 on decreasing the temperature from 295K to 45K. Also, it was observed that the plasma frequency of the doped samples is independent of doping. The scattering rate for the vanadium doped sample was seen to be greater than that for the chromium doped sample despite the fact that vanadium impurity density is less than that of chromium. The Drude-Lorentz model fits to the KK optical conductivity show that the samples used in this work are conventional metals. Definitive measurements of the temperature dependence of the scattering rate across the ferromagnetic transition await equipment changes allowing measurements at low temperature using the mercury cadmium telluride (MCT) detector.
    • Far infrared reflectance and optical properties of organic superconductor (TMTSF)2ClO4 /

      Ellison, Rodica.; Department of Physics (Brock University, 2001-05-21)
      Polarized reflectance measurements of the quasi I-D charge-transfer salt (TMTSFh CI04 were carried out using a Martin-Puplett-type polarizing interferometer and a 3He refrigerator cryostat, at several temperatures between 0.45 K and 26 K, in the far infrared, in the 10 to 70 cm- 1 frequency range. Bis-tetramethyl-tetraselena-fulvalene perchlorate crystals, grown electrochemically and supplied by K. Behnia, of dimensions 2 to 4 by 0.4 by 0.2 mm, were assembled on a flat surface to form a mosaic of 1.5 by 3 mm. The needle shaped crystals were positioned parallel to each other along their long axis, which is the stacking direction of the planar TMTSF cations, exposing the ab plane face (parallel to which the sheets of CI04 anions are positioned). Reflectance measurements were performed with radiation polarized along the stacking direction in the sample. Measurements were carried out following either a fast (15-20 K per minute) or slow (0.1 K per minute) cooling of the sample. Slow cooling permits the anions to order near 24 K, and the sample is expected to be superconducting below 1.2 K, while fast cooling yields an insulating state at low temperatures. Upon the slow cooling the reflectance shows dependence with temperature and exhibits the 28 cm- 1 feature reported previously [1]. Thermoreflectance for both the 'slow' and 'fast' cooling of the sample calculated relative to the 26 K reflectance data indicates that the reflectance is temperature dependent, for the slow cooling case only. A low frequency edge in the absolute reflectance is assigned an electronic origin given its strong temperature dependence in the relaxed state. We attribute the peak in the absolute reflectance near 30 cm-1 to a phonon coupled to the electronic background. Both the low frequency edge and the 30 cm-1 feature are noted te shift towards higher frequcncy, upon cntering the superconducting state, by an amount of the order of the expected superconducting energy gap. Kramers-Kronig analysis was carried out to determine the optical conductivity for the slowly cooled sample from the measured reflectance. In order to do so the low frequency data was extrapolated to zero frequency using a Hagen-Ru bens behaviour, and the high frequency data was extended with the data of Cao et al. [2], and Kikuchi et al. [3]. The real part of the optical conductivity exhibits an asymmetric peak at 35 cm-1, and its background at lower frequencies seems to be losing spectral weight with lowering of the temperature, leading us to presume that a narrow peak is forming at even lower frequencies.
    • Far infrared spectroscopy of heavy fermion superconductor CeCoIn5

      Ocadlík, Stanislav.; Department of Physics (Brock University, 2004-07-09)
      The optical response to far infrared radiation has been measured on a mosaic of heavy fermion CeColnssingle crystals. The superconducting transition temperature of the crystals has been determined by van der Pauw resistivity and ac-susceptibility measurements as Tc = 2.3 K. The optical measurements were taken above and below the transition temperature using a 3He cryostat and step and integrate Martin-Puplett type polarizing interferometer. The absolute reflectance of the heavy fermion CeColns in the superconducting state in range (0, 100)cm-1 was calculated from the measured thermal reflectance, using the normal state data of Singley et al and a low frequency extrapolation for a metallic material in the Hagen-Rubens regime. By means of Kramers-Kronig analysis the absolute reflectance was used to calculate the optical conductivity of the sample. The real part of the calculated complex conductivity 0-(w) ofCeColns indicates a possible opening of an energy gap close to 50 em-I.
    • Far infrared spectroscopy of heavy fermion superconductor CeCoIn5 /

      Ocadlík, Stanislav.; Department of Physics (Brock University, 2004-07-14)
      The optical response to far infrared radiation has been measured on a mosaic of heavy fermion CeCoIns single crystals. The superconducting transition temperature of the crystals has been determined by van der Pauw resistivity and ac-susceptibility measurements as Tc = 2.3 K. The optical measurements were taken above and below the transition temperature using a ^He cryostat and step and integrate Martin-Puplett type polarizing interferometer. The absolute reflectance of the heavy fermion CeCoIns in the superconducting state in range (0, 100)cm~^ was calculated from the measured thermal reflectance, using the normal state data of Singley et al and a low frequency extrapolation for a metallic material in the Hagen-Rubens regime. By means of Kramers-Kronig analysis the absolute reflectance was used to calculate the optical conductivity of the sample. The real part of the calculated complex conductivity a{u)) of CeCoIns indicates a possible opening of an energy gap close to 50 cm~^.
    • Far-infrared optical properties of the heavy fermion superconductor UB[E13]

      Brown, Adán.; Department of Physics (Brock University, 2001-07-09)
      Temperature dependent resistivity, p, magnetic susceptibility, X, and far-infrared reflectance measurements were made on the low Tc superconductor UBe13. Two variants of UBe13 have been proposed, named 'L'- (for low Tc ) and 'H'-type (for high Tc ). Low temperature resistivity measurements confirmed that our sample was of H-type and that the transition temperature was at 0.9 K. This was further confirmed with the observation of this transition in the AC-susceptibility. Low temperature reflectance measurements showed a decrease in the reflectivity as the temperature is lowered from 300 to 10 K, which is in qualitative agreement with the increasing resistivity in this temperature range as temperature is lowered. No dramatic change in the reflectivity was observed between 10 and 0.75 K. A further decrease of the reflectance was observed for the temperature of 0.5 K. The calculated optical conductivity shows a broad minimum near 80 cm-1 below 45 K. Above 45 K the conductivity is relatively featureless. As the temperature is lowered, the optical conductivity decreases. The frequency dependent scattering rate was found to be flat for temperatures between 300 and 45 K. The development of a peak, at around 70 cm-1 was found for temperatures of 45 K and below. This peak has been associated with the energy at which the transition to a coherent state occurs from single impurity scattering in other heavy fermion systems. The frequency dependent mass enhancement coefficient was found to increase at low frequencies as the frequency decreases. Its' magnitude as frequency approaches zero also increased as the temperature decreased.
    • The finite bandwidth model for spin fluctuations in Pd

      Longo, Janice P.; Department of Physics (Brock University, 1988-07-09)
      The frequency dependence of the electron-spin fluctuation spectrum, P(Q), is calculated in the finite bandwidth model. We find that for Pd, which has a nearly full d-band, the magnitude, the range, and the peak frequency of P(Q) are greatly reduced from those in the standard spin fluctuation theory. The electron self-energy due to spin fluctuations is calculated within the finite bandwidth model. Vertex corrections are examined, and we find that Migdal's theorem is valid for spin fluctuations in the nearly full band. The conductance of a normal metal-insulator-normal metal tunnel junction is examined when spin fluctuations are present in one electrode. We find that for the nearly full band, the momentum independent self-energy due to spin fluctuations enters the expression for the tunneling conductance with approximately the same weight as the self-energy due to phonons. The effect of spin fluctuations on the tunneling conductance is slight within the finite bandwidth model for Pd. The effect of spin fluctuations on the tunneling conductance of a metal with a less full d-band than Pd may be more pronounced. However, in this case the tunneling conductance is not simply proportional to the self-energy.
    • Generalization of the BTK Theory to the Case of Finite Quasiparticle Lifetimes

      Rohanizadegan, Yousef; Department of Physics (Brock University, 2013-01-24)
      A generalization to the BTK theory is developed based on the fact that the quasiparticle lifetime is finite as a result of the damping caused by the interactions. For this purpose, appropriate self-energy expressions and wave functions are inserted into the strong coupling version of the Bogoliubov equations and subsequently, the coherence factors are computed. By applying the suitable boundary conditions to the case of a normal-superconducting interface, the probability current densities for the Andreev reflection, the normal reflection, the transmission without branch crossing and the transmission with branch crossing are determined. Accordingly the electric current and the differential conductance curves are calculated numerically for Nb, Pb, and Pb0.9Bi0.1 alloy. The generalization of the BTK theory by including the phenomenological damping parameter is critically examined. The observed differences between our approach and the phenomenological approach are investigated by the numerical analysis.
    • High Temperature Method Of Measuring Electrical And Magnetic Properties Of Europium Doped Nickel Oxide

      Torabi, S. Parisa; Department of Physics
      The measurement of the magnetic moment of materials as a function of temperature in modern AC or DC magnetometers normally has a limited high temperature range up to 400 K. To overcome this problem one needs to design ovens which can handle high temperatures. The highest Curie temperature observed in materials is in pure Co which is about 1400 K. However, most materials and compounds show Tc below 800 K. My thesis research topic is to study the substitution of Ni ions by rare earth ions in NiO. The NiO is a semiconductor which exhibits antiferromagnetism below 520 K, which makes it suitable for applications; to name a few, rechargeable batteries, and p-type transport conducting lms. In this study, Ni ions were substituted by 2, 5, and 8 percent of Eu ions. The effect of substitution on the semiconducting properties of Ni1-xEuxO was studied as function of temperature from room temperature to 1000 K. To study the magnetic properties and the effect of Eu substitution on the Neel temperature of Ni1-xEuxO we adapted two ovens for high temperature measurements of AC susceptibility by using the ac modulation technique implementing a lock-in ampli er and the DC susceptibility using the SQUID magnetometer. To check the reliability of these two ovens we also examined the ferromagnetic transition temperatures of Bismuth Ferrite samples as function of Co substitutions for Fe.
    • Histogram filtering as a tool in variational Monte Carlo optimization

      Å najdr, Martin.; Department of Physics (Brock University, 1999-07-09)
      Optimization of wave functions in quantum Monte Carlo is a difficult task because the statistical uncertainty inherent to the technique makes the absolute determination of the global minimum difficult. To optimize these wave functions we generate a large number of possible minima using many independently generated Monte Carlo ensembles and perform a conjugate gradient optimization. Then we construct histograms of the resulting nominally optimal parameter sets and "filter" them to identify which parameter sets "go together" to generate a local minimum. We follow with correlated-sampling verification runs to find the global minimum. We illustrate this technique for variance and variational energy optimization for a variety of wave functions for small systellls. For such optimized wave functions we calculate the variational energy and variance as well as various non-differential properties. The optimizations are either on par with or superior to determinations in the literature. Furthermore, we show that this technique is sufficiently robust that for molecules one may determine the optimal geometry at tIle same time as one optimizes the variational energy.