• Electrogenic proton/L-glutamate symport in isolated asparagus sprengeri mesophyll cell

      Liang, Xiaohua.; Department of Physics (Brock University, 1991-07-09)
      Medium' alkaliniiation occurred -lipon the addition of L-Glu to mechanically isolated Asparagus sprenger-i mesophyll cells suspended in 1 mM CaS04. Alkalinization resulted from the coupled entry of H+ and L-Glu anion into the cells. This H+ IL-Glu symport did not stimulate K+ efflux. K+ efflux has been observed during H~ lamino acid symport in other systems. The stimulation of K+ efflux by proton coupled symport is regarded as an indicator of a plasma membrane depolarizing electrogenic symport process. H+ IL-Glu symport in Asparagus sprengerimesophyl1 cells was investigated to determine whether or not the process was electrogenic. The rate of uptake of 0.25 11M 3H-MTPP+ ( Methyltriphenylphosphonium, methyl-3H ) is a probe for monitoring changes in the membrane potential. 3HMTPP+ uptake was reduced by K+ or CCCP, agents known to depolarize the membrane potential. Uptake of 3H-MTPP+ was also inhibited by L-Glu but not by D-Glu. Conversely, 10 mM external MTPP+ inhibited the uptake of 14C-U-LGlu. Simultaneous measurements of the rates of 14C-U-L-Glu uptake and L-Glu dependent H+ influx showed that the molar stoichiometry of H+ IL-Glu symport was 2 to 1. K+ or Na+ stimulated H+ efflux was completely inhibited by DCCD, DES, oligomycin and antimycin reagents which inhibit ATP driven H+ efflux. The H+ efflux \Vas also stimulate.d by the weak acids, butyric acid and acetic acid, which are known fo-aCidify the cytoplasm. This weak acid stimulated H+ efflux was also completely inhibited by oligomycin. It was calculated that net L-Glu dependent H+ influx increased by 100% in the presence of oligomycin and that despite net medium alkalinization H+ IL-Glu symport stimulates ATP dependent H+ efflux. 11 The data presented in this study indicate that H+ IL-Glu symport is electrogenic. The data also show that ATP dependent Ht efflux rather than K+ efflux is the- process compensating for thi~ electrogenic H+ IL-Glu symport.
    • Magnetic properties of the Biâ Srâ CaCuâ Oâ single crystal

      Abdussalam, Giamal F.; Department of Physics (Brock University, 1991-07-09)
      The Bi2Sr2CaCu20g single crystal with a superconducting transition temperature equal to 90 ± 2 K was prepared. The irreversibility line of the single crystal for a mgnetic field direction along the c-axis and T* in the ab-plane was determined. The reduced temperature (l - T ) is proportional to H 1.1 for fields below 004 T and proportional to HO.09 for fields above 0.4 T. The zero temperature upper critical field Hc2(0) and coherence length ~ (0) were determined from the magnetization meaurements to be H-lC2=35.9T , H//C2=31.2T, ~c(0)=35.0 A, and ~ab(0)=32.5A,and from the magnetoresistance measurements to be H-lc2 = 134.6T , H//C2=55.5T '~c(0)=38.1 A, and ~ab(0)=2404 A for both directions of the applied magnetic field. The results obtained for Hc2(0) and ~(O) are not reliable due to the rounding that the single crystal exhibits in the magnetization and magnetoresistance curves. The magnetization relaxation of the single crystal was investigated, and was found to be logarithmic in time, and the relaxation rate increases with temperature up to 50 -60 K, then decreases at higher temperatures.
    • Low frequency Raman scattering in amorphous materials: fused quartz, "pyrex" boro-silicate glass and soda-lime silicate glass

      Elozi, Khaled.; Department of Physics (Brock University, 1991-07-09)
      Raman scattering in the region 20 to 100 cm -1 for fused quartz, "pyrex" boro-silicate glass, and soft soda-lime silicate glass was investigated. The Raman spectra for the fused quartz and the pyrex glass were obtained at room temperature using the 488 nm exciting line of a Coherent Radiation argon-ion laser at powers up to 550 mW. For the soft soda-lime glass the 514.5 nm exciting line at powers up to 660 mW was used because of a weak fluorescence which masked the Stokes Raman spectrum. In addition it is demonstrated that the low-frequency Raman coupling constant can be described by a model proposed by Martin and Brenig (MB). By fitting the predicted spectra based on the model with a Gaussian, Poisson, and Lorentzian forms of the correlation function, the structural correlation radius (SCR) was determined for each glass. It was found that to achieve the best possible fit· from each of the three correlation functions a value of the SCR between 0.80 and 0.90 nm was required for both quartz and pyrex glass but for the soft soda-lime silicate glass the required value of the SCR. was between 0.50 and 0.60 nm .. Our results support the claim of Malinovsky and Sokolov (1986) that the MB model based on a Poisson correlation function provides a universal fit to the experimental VH (vertical and horizontal polarizations) spectrum for any glass regardless of its chemical composition. The only deficiency of the MB model is its failure to fit the experimental depolarization spectra.
    • Pressure dependence of spin fluctuations in metallic glasses Zrâ â Niâ â ,Zrâ â (Nix/Feâ â â -x)â â and /Zrx/feâ â â -x

      Hamed, Fathalla A.; Department of Physics (Brock University, 1991-07-09)
      The superconducting transition temperature Tc of metallic glasses ZrxFelOO-x (x=80, 75), Zr75(NixFelOO-x)25 (x=75, 50, 25), and CU2SZr75 were measured under quasi-hydrostatic pressure up to 8 OPa (80kbar). The volume (pressure) dependence of the electron-phonon coupling parameters Aep for CU25Zr75 was calculated using the McMillan equatio11. Using this volume dependence of Aep and the modified McMillan equation which incorporates spin-fluctuations, the volume dependence of the spin fluctuation parameter, Asf, was determined in Zr75Ni25, ZrxFelOO-x , a11d Zr75(NixFelOO-x)25. It was found that with increasing pressure, spinfluctuations are suppressed at a faster rate in ZrxFe lOO-x and Zr75(NixFelOO-x)25, as Fe concentration is increased. The rate of suppression of spin-fluctuations with pressure was also found to be higher in Fe-Zr glasses than in Ni-Zr glasses of similar composition.
    • Thermodynamic properties and Debye-Waller factor of fee materials

      Elmiladi, Nouri Mokhtar.; Department of Physics (Brock University, 1991-07-09)
      We have calculated the equation of state and the various thermodynamic properties of monatomic fcc crystals by minimizing the Helmholtz free energy derived in the high temperature limit for the quasiharmonic theory, QH, and the lowest-order (cubic and quartic), 'A2, anharmonic terms of the perturbation theory, PT. The total energy in each case is obtained by adding the static energy. The calculation of the thermal properties was carried out for a nearest-neighbour central-force model of the fcc lattice by means of the appropriate thermodynamic relations. We have calculated the lattice constant, the thermal expansion, the coefficient of volume expansion, the specific heat at constant volume and at constant pressure, the isothermal and adiabatic bulk moduli, and the Griineisen parameter, for the rare-gas solids Kr and Xe, and gold. Morse potential and modified Morse potential were each used to represent the atomic interaction for the three fcc materials. For most of the calculated thermodynamic properties from the QH theory, the results for Kr and Xe with the modified Morse potential show an improvement over the results for the Morse potential when compared with the experimental data. However, the results of the 'A 2 equation of state with the modified Morse potential are in good agreement with experiment only in the case of the specific heat at constant volume and at constant pressure. For Au we have calculated the lattice contribution from the QH and 'A 2 PT and the electronic contribution to the thermal properties. The electronic contribution was taken into account by using the free electron model. The results of the thermodynamic properties calculated with the modified Morse potential were similar to those obtained with the Morse potential. U sing the minimized equation of state we also calculated the Mossbauer recoilless fraction for Kr and Xe and the Debye-Waller factor (DWF) for Pb, AI, eu, Ag, and Au. The Mossbauer recoilless fraction was obtained for the above two potentials and Lennard-Jones potential. The L-J potential gives the best agreement with experiment for Kr. No experimental data exists for Xe. At low temperature the calculated DWF results for Pb, AI, and eu show a good agreement with experimental values, but at high temperature the experimental DWF results increase very rapidly. For Ag the computed values were below the expected results at all temperatures. The DWF results of the modified Morse potential for Pb, AI, eu and Ag were slightly better than those of the Morse potential. In the case of Au the calculated values were in poor agreement with experimental results. We have calculated the quasiharmonic phonon dispersion curves for Kr, Xe, eu, Ag, and Au. The calculated and experimental results of the frequencies agree quite well for all the materials except for Au where the longitudinal modes show serious discrepancies with the experimental results. In addition, the two lowest-order anharmonic contributions to the phonon frequency were derived using the Green's function method. The A 2 phonon dispersion curves have been calculated only for eu, and the results were similar to those of the QH dispersion curves. Finally, an expression for the Griineisen parameter "( has been derived from the anharmonic frequencies, and calculated for these materials. The "( results are comparable with those obtained from the thermodynamic definition.
    • X-ray diffraction from Al powder using energy dispersive technique

      Elyaseery, Ibrahim S.; Department of Physics (Brock University, 1991-07-09)
      Using the energy dispersive x ...ray diffraction (EDXD) technique, the room temperature diffraction pattern of Al powder was obtained at diffraction angles ~ 30° and 50°. From the small angle diffraction pattern the average relative intensities (IR) of the (111), (200), and (220) lines were measured to be equal to 100, 62, and 32 respectively. From the large diffraction angle IR for the (220), (311+222), (400), (331+420), and (422) lines were measured to be 100,201,17,90, and 19.5 respectively. The diffraction pattern at those two angles were obtained at several higher temperatures to measure the change in the intensities of the Al lines. From the intensity changes the increase of the Debye- Waller temperature factor, i.e ~B(T), with respect to the value at room temperature was determined to be 0.6+0.1 at 250°C, 1.10+0.15 at 350°C, 1.45+0.20 at 450°C, and 2.20±0.35 at 550°C.
    • Composition analysis of high-Tc superconducting thin films by quantitative x-ray fluorescence

      Elsahlli, Tareg.; Department of Physics (Brock University, 1992-07-09)
      A method is presented for determining the composition of thin films containing the elements Bi, Sr, Br, Cu, and Ca. Quantitative x-ray fluorescence (XRF) consisting of radioactive sources (secondary foil excitor 241Am-Mo source and 55Pe source), a Si(Li) detector, and a multichannel analyzer were employed. The XRF system was calibrated by using sol gel thin films of known element composition and also by sputtered thin films analyzed by the conventional Rutherford Back Scattering (RBS). The XRF system has been used to assist and optimize the sputter target composition required to produce high-Tc BiSrCaCuO films with the desired metal composition.
    • Optimization of the valence energy variance of the CuH molecule

      Belohorec, Peter.; Department of Physics (Brock University, 1992-07-09)
      We developed the concept of split-'t to deal with the large molecules (in terms of the number of electrons and nuclear charge Z). This naturally leads to partitioning the local energy into components due to each electron shell. The minimization of the variation of the valence shell local energy is used to optimize a simple two parameter CuH wave function. Molecular properties (spectroscopic constants and the dipole moment) are calculated for the optimized and nearly optimized wave functions using the Variational Quantum Monte Carlo method. Our best results are comparable to those from the single and double configuration interaction (SDCI) method.
    • The measured variation of the Debye-Waller factor of aluminum from 295K to 815K by using the energy dispersive x-ray diffraction technique

      Nguyen, Son-Ha.; Department of Physics (Brock University, 1992-07-09)
      The Energy Dispersive X-ray Diffraction System at Brock University has been used to measure the intensities of the diffraction lines of aluminum powder sample as a function of temperature. At first, intensity measurements at high temperature were not reproducible. After some modifications have been made, we were able to measure the intensities of the diffraction lines to 815K, with good accuracy and reproducibility. Therefore the changes of the Debye-Waller factor from room temperature up to 815K for aluminum were determined with precision. Our results are in good agreement with those previously published.
    • Specific heat of UPdâ Siâ

      Startseva, Tatiana.; Department of Physics (Brock University, 1994-07-09)
      The specific heat of single-crystal U Pd2 Si2 has been studied using both the step heating and continious heating methods for the temperature range 2 to 250 K. Successive phase transitions at Tl = 136I< and T2 = 108I< are reported, which are consistent with current publications. The transition at 40K, which was previously reported, has not been detected. Recent published elastic neutron scattering data, magnetic susceptibility and resistivity results suggest that U Pd2 Si2 may be a heavy fermion compound, however, the electronic specific heat coefficient I (= 18.97 ;~), obtained from the specific heat Cv measurements, is smaller than that of the conventional heavy fermion system. The Debye temperature of U Pd2Si2 is found to be 116.55K. The possibility is discussed that the maximum in CIT in the low-temperature range 2 to 4K corresponds to Schottky anomaly induced by localized magnetic impurities .
    • Variational Monte Carlo estimation of the dissociation energy of CuH using correlated sampling

      Dobos, Andrej.; Department of Physics (Brock University, 1994-07-09)
      A new approach to treating large Z systems by quantum Monte Carlo has been developed. It naturally leads to notion of the 'valence energy'. Possibilities of the new approach has been explored by optimizing the wave function for CuH and Cu and computing dissociation energy and dipole moment of CuH using variational Monte Carlo. The dissociation energy obtained is about 40% smaller than the experimental value; the method is comparable with SCF and simple pseudopotential calculations. The dipole moment differs from the best theoretical estimate by about 50% what is again comparable with other methods (Complete Active Space SCF and pseudopotential methods).
    • Magnetic and high pressure studies in the YPd5B3C3 system

      Murdoch, Jim.; Department of Physics (Brock University, 1995-07-09)
      The macroscopic properties of the superconducting phase in the multiphase compound YPd5B3 C.3 have been investigated. The onset of superconductivity was observed at 22.6 K, zero resistance at 21.2 K, the lower critical field Hel at 5 K was determined to be Hel (5) rv 310 Gauss and the compound was found to be an extreme type-II superconductor with the upper critical field in excess of 55000 Gauss at 15 K. From the upper and lower critical field values obtained, several important parameters of the superconducting state were determined at T = 15 K. The Ginzburg-Landau paramater was determined to be ~ > 9 corresponding to a coherence length ~ rv 80A and magnetic penetration depth of 800A. In addition measurements of the superconducting transition temperature Te(P) under purely hydrostatically applied pressure have been carried out. Te(P) of YPd5B3 C.3 decreases linearly with dTe/dP rv -8.814 X 10-5 J</bar. The discussion of Te(P) will focus on the influence pressure has on the phonon spectrum and the density of states near the Fermi level.
    • Phonon dispersion curves and atomic mean square displacement for several fcc and bcc materials

      Pinnegar, C. Robert.; Department of Physics (Brock University, 1995-07-09)
      The atomic mean square displacement (MSD) and the phonon dispersion curves (PDC's) of a number of face-centred cubic (fcc) and body-centred cubic (bcc) materials have been calclllated from the quasiharmonic (QH) theory, the lowest order (A2 ) perturbation theory (PT) and a recently proposed Green's function (GF) method by Shukla and Hiibschle. The latter method includes certain anharmonic effects to all orders of anharmonicity. In order to determine the effect of the range of the interatomic interaction upon the anharmonic contributions to the MSD we have carried out our calculations for a Lennard-Jones (L-J) solid in the nearest-neighbour (NN) and next-nearest neighbour (NNN) approximations. These results can be presented in dimensionless units but if the NN and NNN results are to be compared with each other they must be converted to that of a real solid. When this is done for Xe, the QH MSD for the NN and NNN approximations are found to differ from each other by about 2%. For the A2 and GF results this difference amounts to 8% and 7% respectively. For the NN case we have also compared our PT results, which have been calculated exactly, with PT results calculated using a frequency-shift approximation. We conclude that this frequency-shift approximation is a poor approximation. We have calculated the MSD of five alkali metals, five bcc transition metals and seven fcc transition metals. The model potentials we have used include the Morse, modified Morse, and Rydberg potentials. In general the results obtained from the Green's function method are in the best agreement with experiment. However, this improvement is mostly qualitative and the values of MSD calculated from the Green's function method are not in much better agreement with the experimental data than those calculated from the QH theory. We have calculated the phonon dispersion curves (PDC's) of Na and Cu, using the 4 parameter modified Morse potential. In the case of Na, our results for the PDC's are in poor agreement with experiment. In the case of eu, the agreement between the tlleory and experiment is much better and in addition the results for the PDC's calclliated from the GF method are in better agreement with experiment that those obtained from the QH theory.
    • Monte Carlo study of the XY-model on quasi-periodic lattices

      Reid, R. William.; Department of Physics (Brock University, 1996-07-09)
      Monte Carlo Simulations were carried out using a nearest neighbour ferromagnetic XYmodel, on both 2-D and 3-D quasi-periodic lattices. In the case of 2-D, both the unfrustrated and frustrated XV-model were studied. For the unfrustrated 2-D XV-model, we have examined the magnetization, specific heat, linear susceptibility, helicity modulus and the derivative of the helicity modulus with respect to inverse temperature. The behaviour of all these quatities point to a Kosterlitz-Thouless transition occuring in temperature range Te == (1.0 -1.05) JlkB and with critical exponents that are consistent with previous results (obtained for crystalline lattices) . However, in the frustrated case, analysis of the spin glass susceptibility and EdwardsAnderson order parameter, in addition to the magnetization, specific heat and linear susceptibility, support a spin glass transition. In the case where the 'thin' rhombus is fully frustrated, a freezing transition occurs at Tf == 0.137 JlkB , which contradicts previous work suggesting the critical dimension of spin glasses to be de > 2 . In the 3-D systems, examination of the magnetization, specific heat and linear susceptibility reveal a conventional second order phase transition. Through a cumulant analysis and finite size scaling, a critical temperature of Te == (2.292 ± 0.003) JI kB and critical exponents of 0:' == 0.03 ± 0.03, f3 == 0.30 ± 0.01 and I == 1.31 ± 0.02 have been obtained.
    • Simultaneous extraction of order parameters and orientational distribution fuctions from 31[superscript]P NMR spectra of magnetically partially oriented phospholipid bilayers

      Paul, Launy C.; Department of Physics (Brock University, 1996-07-09)
      Order parameter profiles extracted from the NMR spectra of model membranes are a valuable source of information about their structure and molecular motions. To al1alyze powder spectra the de-Pake-ing (numerical deconvolution) ~echnique can be used, but it assumes a random (spherical) dist.ribution of orientations in the sample. Multilamellar vesicles are known to deform and orient in the strong magnetic fields of NMR magnets, producing non-spherical orientation distributions. A recently developed technique for simultaneously extracting the anisotropies of the system as well as the orientation distributions is applied to the analysis of partially magnetically oriented 31p NMR spectra of phospholipids. A mixture of synthetic lipids, POPE and POPG, is analyzed to measure distortion of multilamellar vesicles in a magnetic field. In the analysis three models describing the shape of the distorted vesicles are examined. Ellipsoids of rotation with a semiaxis ratio of about 1.14 are found to provide a good approximation of the shape of the distorted vesicles. This is in reasonable agreement with published experimental work. All three models yield clearly non-spherical orientational distributions, as well as a precise measure of the anisotropy of the chemical shift. Noise in the experimental data prevented the analysis from concluding which of the three models is the best approximation. A discretization scheme for finding stability in the algorithm is outlined
    • Transmission measurements using a new far-infrared set-up

      Baskin, Katarin Alinta; Department of Physics (Brock University, 1996-07-09)
      A system comprised of a Martin-Puplett type polarizing interferometer and a Helium-3 cryostat was developed to study the transmission of materials in the very-far-infrared region of the spectrum. This region is of significant interest due to the low-energy excitations which many materials exhibit. The experimental transmission spectrum contains information concerning the optical properties of the material. The set-up of this system is described in detail along with the adaptations and improvements which have been made to the system to ensure the best results. Transmission experiments carried out with this new set-up for two different varieties of materials: superconducting thin films of lead and biological proteins, are discussed. Several thin films of lead deposited on fused silica quartz substrates were studied. From the ratio of the transmission in the superconducting state to that in the normal state the superconducting energy gap was determined to be approximately 25 cm-1 which corresponds to 2~/kBTc rv 5 in agreement with literature data. Furthermore, in agreement with theoretical predictions, the maximum in the transmission ratio was observed to increase as the film thickness was increased. These results provide verification of the system's ability to accurately measure the optical properties of thin low-Tc superconducting films. Transmission measurements were carried out on double deionized water, and a variety of different concentrations by weight of the globular protein, Bovine Serum Albumin, in the sol, gel and crystalline forms. The results of the water study agree well with literature values and thus further illustrate the reproducibility of the system. The results of the protein experiments, although preliminary, indicate that as the concentration increases the samples become more transparent. Some weak structure in the frequency dependent absorption coefficient, which is more prominent in crystalline samples, may be due to low frequency vibrations of the protein molecules.
    • Calculation of nondifferential properties for atomic ground states /

      Langfelder, Peter.; Department of Physics (Brock University, 1997-05-21)
      A new method for sampling the exact (within the nodal error) ground state distribution and nondiflPerential properties of multielectron systems is developed and applied to firstrow atoms. Calculated properties are the distribution moments and the electronic density at the nucleus (the 6 operator). For this purpose, new simple trial functions are developed and optimized. First, using Hydrogen as a test case, we demonstrate the accuracy of our algorithm and its sensitivity to error in the trial function. Applications to first row atoms are then described. We obtain results which are more satisfactory than the ones obtained previously using Monte Carlo methods, despite the relative crudeness of our trial functions. Also, a comparison is made with results of highly accurate post-Hartree Fock calculations, thereby illuminating the nodal error in our estimates. Taking into account the CPU time spent, our results, particularly for the 8 operator, have a relatively large variance. Several ways of improving the eflSciency together with some extensions of the algorithm are suggested.
    • Pulsed laser deposition of YBa2Cu3O7-[delta]/PrBa2Cu3O7-[delta] /

      Recker, Stephanie J.; Department of Physics (Brock University, 1998-05-21)
      The process of depositing thin films by the use of pulsed laser deposition (PLD) has become a more widely used technique for the growth of substances in a thin film form. Pulsed laser deposition allows for the stoichiometric film growth of the target which is of great significance in the deposition of High Temperature Superconducting materials. We will describe a system designed using an excimer laser and vaccum chamber in which thin films and superlattices of YBa2Cuj07_i, PrBa2Cu307_i, and YBajCujOr-j/ PrBajCusOr-^ were deposited on SrTiOs. Results of resistivity measurements using the four probe technique will be shown.
    • Study of colossal magnetoresistance and pressure effects in La2/3Ca1/3MnO2 thin films /

      Roch, Tomás.; Department of Physics (Brock University, 1998-05-21)
      The main purpose of this thesis is to study properties of La2/3Cai/3Mn03, both polycrystalline ceramics and thin films. This material has striking related electrical and magnetic properties. Thin films show colossal negative magnetoresistance (CMR) near transition from an insulating to a metallic state accompanied closely by transition from a paramagnetic to a ferromagnetic state. The double exchange mechanism (DE) and the Jahn-Teller deformations play an important role in CMR effect. Applied pressure has a very similar effect as does an applied magnetic field, except, at low temperatures (T<Tc) the field suppresses the resistivity more than pressure. In our study we performed x-ray diffraction analysis, resistivity and magnetization measurements, as well as measurements of resistivity under applied pressure. The origin of strong resistivity change at low temperatures can be explcdned by the intergranular spin-dependent scattering of DE electrons. Oxygen stoichiometry plays an important role in the magnitude and position of MR(T) maximum. The distortions of structure and Mn-O-Mn bonds in applied pressure axe discussed. The fabrication of La2/3Cai/3Mn03 thin films by pulsed laser deposition was successfully developed. The films grown on (100) SrTiOs substrate are c-axis oriented and exhibit negative magnetoresistance Ap/p(H) of over 400% at 245°C and 4200% at 90 K.
    • Set-up and evaluation of a mid-infrared reflectometer and investigation of the optical properties of doped tin telluride

      Hawesa, Halima.; Department of Physics (Brock University, 1998-07-09)
      A system comprised of a Bomem interferometer and a LT3-110 Heli-Tran cryostat was set up to measure the reflectance of materials in the mid-infrared spectral region. Several tests were conducted to ensure the consistency and reliability of the system. Silicon and Chromium, two materials with well known optical properties were measured to test the accuracy of the system, and the results were found to be in good agreement with the literature. Reflectance measurements on pure SnTe and several Pb and Mn-doped alloys were carried out. These materials were chosen because they exhibit a strong plasma edge in the mid infrared region. The optical conductivity and several related optical parameters were calculated from the measured reflectance. Very low temperature measurements were carried out in the far-infrared on Sn9SMn2Te, and the results are indicative of a spin glass phase at 0.8 K. Resistivity measurements were made at room temperature. The resistivity values were found, as expected, to decrease with increasing carrier concentration and to increase with increasing manganese concentration.