Browsing M.Sc. Physics by Title
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Thermodynamic properties and DebyeWaller factor of fee materialsWe have calculated the equation of state and the various thermodynamic properties of monatomic fcc crystals by minimizing the Helmholtz free energy derived in the high temperature limit for the quasiharmonic theory, QH, and the lowestorder (cubic and quartic), 'A2, anharmonic terms of the perturbation theory, PT. The total energy in each case is obtained by adding the static energy. The calculation of the thermal properties was carried out for a nearestneighbour centralforce model of the fcc lattice by means of the appropriate thermodynamic relations. We have calculated the lattice constant, the thermal expansion, the coefficient of volume expansion, the specific heat at constant volume and at constant pressure, the isothermal and adiabatic bulk moduli, and the Griineisen parameter, for the raregas solids Kr and Xe, and gold. Morse potential and modified Morse potential were each used to represent the atomic interaction for the three fcc materials. For most of the calculated thermodynamic properties from the QH theory, the results for Kr and Xe with the modified Morse potential show an improvement over the results for the Morse potential when compared with the experimental data. However, the results of the 'A 2 equation of state with the modified Morse potential are in good agreement with experiment only in the case of the specific heat at constant volume and at constant pressure. For Au we have calculated the lattice contribution from the QH and 'A 2 PT and the electronic contribution to the thermal properties. The electronic contribution was taken into account by using the free electron model. The results of the thermodynamic properties calculated with the modified Morse potential were similar to those obtained with the Morse potential. U sing the minimized equation of state we also calculated the Mossbauer recoilless fraction for Kr and Xe and the DebyeWaller factor (DWF) for Pb, AI, eu, Ag, and Au. The Mossbauer recoilless fraction was obtained for the above two potentials and LennardJones potential. The LJ potential gives the best agreement with experiment for Kr. No experimental data exists for Xe. At low temperature the calculated DWF results for Pb, AI, and eu show a good agreement with experimental values, but at high temperature the experimental DWF results increase very rapidly. For Ag the computed values were below the expected results at all temperatures. The DWF results of the modified Morse potential for Pb, AI, eu and Ag were slightly better than those of the Morse potential. In the case of Au the calculated values were in poor agreement with experimental results. We have calculated the quasiharmonic phonon dispersion curves for Kr, Xe, eu, Ag, and Au. The calculated and experimental results of the frequencies agree quite well for all the materials except for Au where the longitudinal modes show serious discrepancies with the experimental results. In addition, the two lowestorder anharmonic contributions to the phonon frequency were derived using the Green's function method. The A 2 phonon dispersion curves have been calculated only for eu, and the results were similar to those of the QH dispersion curves. Finally, an expression for the Griineisen parameter "( has been derived from the anharmonic frequencies, and calculated for these materials. The "( results are comparable with those obtained from the thermodynamic definition.

Transient and Pulsed Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy on Type I Photosynthetic Reaction CentersTwo timeresolved EPR techniques, have been used to study the light induced electron transfer(ET) in Type I photosynthetic reaction centers(RCs). First, pulsed EPR was used to compare PsaAM688H and PsaBM668H mutants of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Synechosystis sp. PCC 6803.The outofphase echo modulation curves combined with other EPR and optical data show that the effect of the mutations is species dependent. Second, transient and pulsed EPR data are presented which show that PsaAA660N and PsaBA640N mutations in C. reinhardtii alter the relative quantum yield of ET in the A and Bbranches of PS I. Third, transient EPR studies on RCs from Heliobacillus mobilis that have been exposed to oxygen show partial inhibition of ET. In the RCs in which ET still occurs, the ET kinetics and EPR spectra show evidence of oxidation of some but not all of the, BChl g and BChl g' to Chl a.

Transmission measurements using a new farinfrared setupA system comprised of a MartinPuplett type polarizing interferometer and a Helium3 cryostat was developed to study the transmission of materials in the veryfarinfrared region of the spectrum. This region is of significant interest due to the lowenergy excitations which many materials exhibit. The experimental transmission spectrum contains information concerning the optical properties of the material. The setup of this system is described in detail along with the adaptations and improvements which have been made to the system to ensure the best results. Transmission experiments carried out with this new setup for two different varieties of materials: superconducting thin films of lead and biological proteins, are discussed. Several thin films of lead deposited on fused silica quartz substrates were studied. From the ratio of the transmission in the superconducting state to that in the normal state the superconducting energy gap was determined to be approximately 25 cm1 which corresponds to 2~/kBTc rv 5 in agreement with literature data. Furthermore, in agreement with theoretical predictions, the maximum in the transmission ratio was observed to increase as the film thickness was increased. These results provide verification of the system's ability to accurately measure the optical properties of thin lowTc superconducting films. Transmission measurements were carried out on double deionized water, and a variety of different concentrations by weight of the globular protein, Bovine Serum Albumin, in the sol, gel and crystalline forms. The results of the water study agree well with literature values and thus further illustrate the reproducibility of the system. The results of the protein experiments, although preliminary, indicate that as the concentration increases the samples become more transparent. Some weak structure in the frequency dependent absorption coefficient, which is more prominent in crystalline samples, may be due to low frequency vibrations of the protein molecules.

Travelling Wave Solutions on a Nonzero Background for the Generalized Kortewegde Vries EquationIn presenting this thesis, we try to find all nonperiodic travelling waves of the generalized Kortewegde Vries (gKdV) equation u_t +\alpha u^p u_x +\beta u_{xxx}=0 using an energy analysis method. Since the power p in the gKdV equation is arbitrary, we consider positive integer values for $p$. We first check the method for two cases where p=1 and p=2 which are known as the KdV and the mKdV equations, respectively. Then, we look at the general case where p greater than or equal 3 is arbitrary. By applying the energy analysis method on the KdV and the mKdV equations, we will find an explicit form of solitary waves on a nonzero background. Afterwards, we reparametrize the derived solutions in terms of speed and the background size to interpret these solutions physically. We also look at some limiting cases in which heavytailed and kink waves arise in the mKdV equation. At last, we split up the gKdV equation into two cases of odd and even $p$ powers and apply a similar derivation. In each case, the implicit solutions are introduced and characterized by their features.

A treatment of atomic mean square displacement in higher order perturbation theoryA general derivation of the anharmonic coefficients for a periodic lattice invoking the special case of the central force interaction is presented. All of the contributions to mean square displacement (MSD) to order 14 perturbation theory are enumerated. A direct correspondance is found between the high temperature limit MSD and high temperature limit free energy contributions up to and including 0(14). This correspondance follows from the detailed derivation of some of the contributions to MSD. Numerical results are obtained for all the MSD contributions to 0(14) using the LennardJones potential for the lattice constants and temperatures for which the Monte Carlo results were calculated by Heiser, Shukla and Cowley. The Peierls approximation is also employed in order to simplify the numerical evaluation of the MSD contributions. The numerical results indicate the convergence of the perturbation expansion up to 75% of the melting temperature of the solid (TM) for the exact calculation; however, a better agreement with the Monte Carlo results is not obtained when the total of all 14 contributions is added to the 12 perturbation theory results. Using Peierls approximation the expansion converges up to 45% of TM• The MSD contributions arising in the Green's function method of Shukla and Hubschle are derived and enumerated up to and including 0(18). The total MSD from these selected contributions is in excellent agreement with their results at all temperatures. Theoretical values of the recoilless fraction for krypton are calculated from the MSD contributions for both the LennardJones and Aziz potentials. The agreement with experimental values is quite good.

Ultrasonic attenuation in layered superconductors /We study the ultrasonic attenuation in layered superconductors using the Green's function formalism. General expressions are derived analytically and then calculated numerically by taking the nearest and nextnearest interactions in a disordered layered superconductor with random hoppings. Our results show huge anisotropics of ultrasonic attenuation in the superconductors and the strong dependence of ultrasonic attenuation on the temperature and the direction of polarization of the sound wave.

Variational Monte Carlo estimation of the dissociation energy of CuH using correlated samplingA new approach to treating large Z systems by quantum Monte Carlo has been developed. It naturally leads to notion of the 'valence energy'. Possibilities of the new approach has been explored by optimizing the wave function for CuH and Cu and computing dissociation energy and dipole moment of CuH using variational Monte Carlo. The dissociation energy obtained is about 40% smaller than the experimental value; the method is comparable with SCF and simple pseudopotential calculations. The dipole moment differs from the best theoretical estimate by about 50% what is again comparable with other methods (Complete Active Space SCF and pseudopotential methods).

Xray diffraction from Al powder using energy dispersive techniqueUsing the energy dispersive x ...ray diffraction (EDXD) technique, the room temperature diffraction pattern of Al powder was obtained at diffraction angles ~ 30° and 50°. From the small angle diffraction pattern the average relative intensities (IR) of the (111), (200), and (220) lines were measured to be equal to 100, 62, and 32 respectively. From the large diffraction angle IR for the (220), (311+222), (400), (331+420), and (422) lines were measured to be 100,201,17,90, and 19.5 respectively. The diffraction pattern at those two angles were obtained at several higher temperatures to measure the change in the intensities of the Al lines. From the intensity changes the increase of the Debye Waller temperature factor, i.e ~B(T), with respect to the value at room temperature was determined to be 0.6+0.1 at 250°C, 1.10+0.15 at 350°C, 1.45+0.20 at 450°C, and 2.20±0.35 at 550°C.

Xray diffraction of a gramnegative bacterial membrane mimeticThis thesis applies xray diffraction to measure he membrane structure of lipopolysaccharides and to develop a better model of a LPS bacterial melilbrane that can be used for biophysical research on antibiotics that attack cell membranes. \iVe ha'e Inodified the Physics department xray machine for use 3.'3 a thin film diffractometer, and have lesigned a new temperature and relative humidity controlled sample cell.\Ve tested the sample eel: by measuring the onedimensional electron density profiles of bilayers of pope with 0%, 1%, 1G :VcJ, and 100% by weight lipopolysaccharide from Pse'udo'lTwna aeTuginosa. Background VVe now know that traditional p,ntibiotics ,I,re losing their effectiveness against everevolving bacteria. This is because traditional antibiotic: work against specific targets within the bacterial cell, and with genetic mutations over time, themtibiotic no longer works. One possible solution are antimicrobial peptides. These are short proteins that are part of the immune systems of many animals, and some of them attack bacteria directly at the membrane of the cell, causing the bacterium to rupture and die. Since the membranes of most bacteria share common structural features, and these featuret, are unlikely to evolve very much, these peptides should effectively kill many types of bacteria wi Lhout much evolved resistance. But why do these peptides kill bacterial cel: '3 , but not the cells of the host animal? For gramnegative bacteria, the most likely reason is that t Ileir outer membrane is made of lipopolysaccharides (LPS), which is very different from an animal :;ell membrane. Up to now, what we knovv about how these peptides work was likely done with r !10spholipid models of animal cell membranes, and not with the more complex lipopolysa,echaricies, If we want to make better pepticies, ones that we can use to fight all types of infection, we need a more accurate molecular picture of how they \vork. This will hopefully be one step forward to the ( esign of better treatments for bacterial infections.