• Set-up and evaluation of a mid-infrared reflectometer and investigation of the optical properties of doped tin telluride

      Hawesa, Halima.; Department of Physics (Brock University, 1998-07-09)
      A system comprised of a Bomem interferometer and a LT3-110 Heli-Tran cryostat was set up to measure the reflectance of materials in the mid-infrared spectral region. Several tests were conducted to ensure the consistency and reliability of the system. Silicon and Chromium, two materials with well known optical properties were measured to test the accuracy of the system, and the results were found to be in good agreement with the literature. Reflectance measurements on pure SnTe and several Pb and Mn-doped alloys were carried out. These materials were chosen because they exhibit a strong plasma edge in the mid infrared region. The optical conductivity and several related optical parameters were calculated from the measured reflectance. Very low temperature measurements were carried out in the far-infrared on Sn9SMn2Te, and the results are indicative of a spin glass phase at 0.8 K. Resistivity measurements were made at room temperature. The resistivity values were found, as expected, to decrease with increasing carrier concentration and to increase with increasing manganese concentration.
    • Simultaneous extraction of order parameters and orientational distribution fuctions from 31[superscript]P NMR spectra of magnetically partially oriented phospholipid bilayers

      Paul, Launy C.; Department of Physics (Brock University, 1996-07-09)
      Order parameter profiles extracted from the NMR spectra of model membranes are a valuable source of information about their structure and molecular motions. To al1alyze powder spectra the de-Pake-ing (numerical deconvolution) ~echnique can be used, but it assumes a random (spherical) dist.ribution of orientations in the sample. Multilamellar vesicles are known to deform and orient in the strong magnetic fields of NMR magnets, producing non-spherical orientation distributions. A recently developed technique for simultaneously extracting the anisotropies of the system as well as the orientation distributions is applied to the analysis of partially magnetically oriented 31p NMR spectra of phospholipids. A mixture of synthetic lipids, POPE and POPG, is analyzed to measure distortion of multilamellar vesicles in a magnetic field. In the analysis three models describing the shape of the distorted vesicles are examined. Ellipsoids of rotation with a semiaxis ratio of about 1.14 are found to provide a good approximation of the shape of the distorted vesicles. This is in reasonable agreement with published experimental work. All three models yield clearly non-spherical orientational distributions, as well as a precise measure of the anisotropy of the chemical shift. Noise in the experimental data prevented the analysis from concluding which of the three models is the best approximation. A discretization scheme for finding stability in the algorithm is outlined
    • Specific heat of UPdâ Siâ

      Startseva, Tatiana.; Department of Physics (Brock University, 1994-07-09)
      The specific heat of single-crystal U Pd2 Si2 has been studied using both the step heating and continious heating methods for the temperature range 2 to 250 K. Successive phase transitions at Tl = 136I< and T2 = 108I< are reported, which are consistent with current publications. The transition at 40K, which was previously reported, has not been detected. Recent published elastic neutron scattering data, magnetic susceptibility and resistivity results suggest that U Pd2 Si2 may be a heavy fermion compound, however, the electronic specific heat coefficient I (= 18.97 ;~), obtained from the specific heat Cv measurements, is smaller than that of the conventional heavy fermion system. The Debye temperature of U Pd2Si2 is found to be 116.55K. The possibility is discussed that the maximum in CIT in the low-temperature range 2 to 4K corresponds to Schottky anomaly induced by localized magnetic impurities .
    • Study of colossal magnetoresistance and pressure effects in La2/3Ca1/3MnO2 thin films /

      Roch, Tomás.; Department of Physics (Brock University, 1998-05-21)
      The main purpose of this thesis is to study properties of La2/3Cai/3Mn03, both polycrystalline ceramics and thin films. This material has striking related electrical and magnetic properties. Thin films show colossal negative magnetoresistance (CMR) near transition from an insulating to a metallic state accompanied closely by transition from a paramagnetic to a ferromagnetic state. The double exchange mechanism (DE) and the Jahn-Teller deformations play an important role in CMR effect. Applied pressure has a very similar effect as does an applied magnetic field, except, at low temperatures (T<Tc) the field suppresses the resistivity more than pressure. In our study we performed x-ray diffraction analysis, resistivity and magnetization measurements, as well as measurements of resistivity under applied pressure. The origin of strong resistivity change at low temperatures can be explcdned by the intergranular spin-dependent scattering of DE electrons. Oxygen stoichiometry plays an important role in the magnitude and position of MR(T) maximum. The distortions of structure and Mn-O-Mn bonds in applied pressure axe discussed. The fabrication of La2/3Cai/3Mn03 thin films by pulsed laser deposition was successfully developed. The films grown on (100) SrTiOs substrate are c-axis oriented and exhibit negative magnetoresistance Ap/p(H) of over 400% at 245°C and 4200% at 90 K.
    • Study of heat capacity measurement methods for small samples

      Rogge, Ronald B.; Department of Physics (Brock University, 1990-07-09)
      Methods of measuring specific heats of small samples were studied. Three automated methods were explored, two of which have shown promising results. The adiabatic continuous heating method, has provided smooth well behaved data but further work is presently underway to improve on the results obtained so far . The decay method has been success fully implemented demonstrating reasonable agreement with accepted data for a copper test sample.
    • Study on the properties of piezoelectric materials and manganese-based oxide perovskites /

      Hezareh, Talayeh.; Department of Physics (Brock University, 2005-06-29)
      Perovskite type piezoelectric and manganese oxide materials have gained a lot of attention in the field of device engineering. Lead zirconium titananium oxide (PbZri.iTiiOa or PZT) is a piezoelectric material widely used as sensors and actuators. Miniaturization of PZTbased devices will not only perfect many existing products, but also opens doors to new applications. Lanthanum manganese oxides Lai-iAiMnOa (A-divalent alkaline earth such as Sr, Ca or Ba) have been intensively studied for their colossal magnetoresistance (CMR) properties that make them applicable in memory cells, magnetic and pressure sensors. In this study, we fabricate PZT and LSMO(LCMO) heterostructures on SrTiOa substrates and investigate their temperature dependency of resistivity and magnetization as a function of the thickness of LSMO(LCMO) layer. The microstructure of the samples is analysed through TEM. In another set of samples, we study the effect of application of an electric field across the PZT layer that acts as an external pressure on the manganite layer. This verifies the correlation of lattice distortion with transport and magnetic properties of the CMR materials.
    • Surface effect ferromagnetism in pure and reduced strontium titanate

      DesRoches, Brandon J.; Department of Physics (Brock University, 2011-03-08)
      A room temperature ferromagnetic hysteresis is observed in single crystal strontium titanate substrates as purchased from several manufacturers. It was found that polishing all sides of the substrates removed this observed hysteresis, suggesting that the origin of the ferromagnetic behavior resides on the surface of the substrates. X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive x-ray spectra were measured however they were unable to detect any impurity phases. In similar semiconducting oxides it was previously suggested that ferromagnetism could originate in oxygen vacancies or from disorder within the single crystal. To this end substrates were annealed in both air and vacuum in a range of temperatures (600°C to 1100°G) to both create bulk oxygen vacancies and to heal surface damage. Annealing in vacuum was found to create a measureable number of oxygen vacancies however their creation could not be correlated to the ferromagnetic signal of the substrate. Annealing in air was found to effect the remnant moment of the substrate as well as the width of the x-ray diffraction peaks on the unpolished face, weakly suggesting a relation between surface based disorder and ferromagnetism. Argon ion bombardment was employed to create a layer of surface disorder in the polished crystal, however it was not found to induce ferromagnetism. It was found that acid etching was sufficient to remove the ferromagnetism from as purchased samples and similarly simulated handling with stainless steel tweezers was sufficient to re-create the ferromagnetism. It is suggested that the origin of this ferromagnetism in SrTi03 is surface contaminants (mainly iron).
    • Systematic studies of the effect of pressure on magnetic and electronic properties of La2/3Ca1/3MnO3 thin films with various thicknesses /

      Jacob, Sarkis Y.; Department of Physics (Brock University, 1999-05-21)
      Interest in mixed-valent perovskite manganese oxides of La\-xAxMnO^ (v4-divalent alkaline earth Ca, Sr or Ba), whose unusual properties were discovered nearly a half century ago, has recently been revived. The discovery of the colossal magnetoresistance and pressure effects introduced new questions concerning the complex interplay between lattice structure, magnetism and transport in doped perovskite manganites. In this study, we report our experimental investigations of pressure and magnetic field dependencies of La-i/sCai/sMnOs (LCMO) epitaxial films with various thickness on SrTiO$ substrate. An analysis of film thickness dependency of the resistivity of LCMO epitaxial films under pressure and magnetic field has been performed by taking into account substrate contributions. This verifies the correlation of lattice distortion with magnetic and transport properties. Strong dependencies of Mn — O — Mn bond bending and Mn — O bond stretching with pressure as well as Mn spin alignment with magnetic field, and the lattice distortion induced by the substrate are discussed.
    • Thermodynamic properties and Debye-Waller factor of fee materials

      Elmiladi, Nouri Mokhtar.; Department of Physics (Brock University, 1991-07-09)
      We have calculated the equation of state and the various thermodynamic properties of monatomic fcc crystals by minimizing the Helmholtz free energy derived in the high temperature limit for the quasiharmonic theory, QH, and the lowest-order (cubic and quartic), 'A2, anharmonic terms of the perturbation theory, PT. The total energy in each case is obtained by adding the static energy. The calculation of the thermal properties was carried out for a nearest-neighbour central-force model of the fcc lattice by means of the appropriate thermodynamic relations. We have calculated the lattice constant, the thermal expansion, the coefficient of volume expansion, the specific heat at constant volume and at constant pressure, the isothermal and adiabatic bulk moduli, and the Griineisen parameter, for the rare-gas solids Kr and Xe, and gold. Morse potential and modified Morse potential were each used to represent the atomic interaction for the three fcc materials. For most of the calculated thermodynamic properties from the QH theory, the results for Kr and Xe with the modified Morse potential show an improvement over the results for the Morse potential when compared with the experimental data. However, the results of the 'A 2 equation of state with the modified Morse potential are in good agreement with experiment only in the case of the specific heat at constant volume and at constant pressure. For Au we have calculated the lattice contribution from the QH and 'A 2 PT and the electronic contribution to the thermal properties. The electronic contribution was taken into account by using the free electron model. The results of the thermodynamic properties calculated with the modified Morse potential were similar to those obtained with the Morse potential. U sing the minimized equation of state we also calculated the Mossbauer recoilless fraction for Kr and Xe and the Debye-Waller factor (DWF) for Pb, AI, eu, Ag, and Au. The Mossbauer recoilless fraction was obtained for the above two potentials and Lennard-Jones potential. The L-J potential gives the best agreement with experiment for Kr. No experimental data exists for Xe. At low temperature the calculated DWF results for Pb, AI, and eu show a good agreement with experimental values, but at high temperature the experimental DWF results increase very rapidly. For Ag the computed values were below the expected results at all temperatures. The DWF results of the modified Morse potential for Pb, AI, eu and Ag were slightly better than those of the Morse potential. In the case of Au the calculated values were in poor agreement with experimental results. We have calculated the quasiharmonic phonon dispersion curves for Kr, Xe, eu, Ag, and Au. The calculated and experimental results of the frequencies agree quite well for all the materials except for Au where the longitudinal modes show serious discrepancies with the experimental results. In addition, the two lowest-order anharmonic contributions to the phonon frequency were derived using the Green's function method. The A 2 phonon dispersion curves have been calculated only for eu, and the results were similar to those of the QH dispersion curves. Finally, an expression for the Griineisen parameter "( has been derived from the anharmonic frequencies, and calculated for these materials. The "( results are comparable with those obtained from the thermodynamic definition.
    • Transient and Pulsed Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy on Type I Photosynthetic Reaction Centers

      Siavashi, Reza; Department of Physics (Brock University, 2014-09-05)
      Two time-resolved EPR techniques, have been used to study the light induced electron transfer(ET) in Type I photosynthetic reaction centers(RCs). First, pulsed EPR was used to compare PsaA-M688H and PsaB-M668H mutants of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Synechosystis sp. PCC 6803.The out-of-phase echo modulation curves combined with other EPR and optical data show that the effect of the mutations is species dependent. Second, transient and pulsed EPR data are presented which show that PsaA-A660N and PsaB-A640N mutations in C. reinhardtii alter the relative quantum yield of ET in the A- and B-branches of PS I. Third, transient EPR studies on RCs from Heliobacillus mobilis that have been exposed to oxygen show partial inhibition of ET. In the RCs in which ET still occurs, the ET kinetics and EPR spectra show evidence of oxidation of some but not all of the, BChl g and BChl g' to Chl a.
    • Transmission measurements using a new far-infrared set-up

      Baskin, Katarin Alinta; Department of Physics (Brock University, 1996-07-09)
      A system comprised of a Martin-Puplett type polarizing interferometer and a Helium-3 cryostat was developed to study the transmission of materials in the very-far-infrared region of the spectrum. This region is of significant interest due to the low-energy excitations which many materials exhibit. The experimental transmission spectrum contains information concerning the optical properties of the material. The set-up of this system is described in detail along with the adaptations and improvements which have been made to the system to ensure the best results. Transmission experiments carried out with this new set-up for two different varieties of materials: superconducting thin films of lead and biological proteins, are discussed. Several thin films of lead deposited on fused silica quartz substrates were studied. From the ratio of the transmission in the superconducting state to that in the normal state the superconducting energy gap was determined to be approximately 25 cm-1 which corresponds to 2~/kBTc rv 5 in agreement with literature data. Furthermore, in agreement with theoretical predictions, the maximum in the transmission ratio was observed to increase as the film thickness was increased. These results provide verification of the system's ability to accurately measure the optical properties of thin low-Tc superconducting films. Transmission measurements were carried out on double deionized water, and a variety of different concentrations by weight of the globular protein, Bovine Serum Albumin, in the sol, gel and crystalline forms. The results of the water study agree well with literature values and thus further illustrate the reproducibility of the system. The results of the protein experiments, although preliminary, indicate that as the concentration increases the samples become more transparent. Some weak structure in the frequency dependent absorption coefficient, which is more prominent in crystalline samples, may be due to low frequency vibrations of the protein molecules.
    • Travelling Wave Solutions on a Non-zero Background for the Generalized Korteweg-de Vries Equation

      Nayeri, HamidReza; Department of Physics
      In presenting this thesis, we try to find all non-periodic travelling waves of the generalized Korteweg-de Vries (gKdV) equation u_t +\alpha u^p u_x +\beta u_{xxx}=0 using an energy analysis method. Since the power p in the gKdV equation is arbitrary, we consider positive integer values for $p$. We first check the method for two cases where p=1 and p=2 which are known as the KdV and the mKdV equations, respectively. Then, we look at the general case where p greater than or equal 3 is arbitrary. By applying the energy analysis method on the KdV and the mKdV equations, we will find an explicit form of solitary waves on a non-zero background. Afterwards, we reparametrize the derived solutions in terms of speed and the background size to interpret these solutions physically. We also look at some limiting cases in which heavy-tailed and kink waves arise in the mKdV equation. At last, we split up the gKdV equation into two cases of odd and even $p$ powers and apply a similar derivation. In each case, the implicit solutions are introduced and characterized by their features.
    • A treatment of atomic mean square displacement in higher order perturbation theory

      Martin, Jeffrey Howard.; Department of Physics (Brock University, 1990-07-09)
      A general derivation of the anharmonic coefficients for a periodic lattice invoking the special case of the central force interaction is presented. All of the contributions to mean square displacement (MSD) to order 14 perturbation theory are enumerated. A direct correspondance is found between the high temperature limit MSD and high temperature limit free energy contributions up to and including 0(14). This correspondance follows from the detailed derivation of some of the contributions to MSD. Numerical results are obtained for all the MSD contributions to 0(14) using the Lennard-Jones potential for the lattice constants and temperatures for which the Monte Carlo results were calculated by Heiser, Shukla and Cowley. The Peierls approximation is also employed in order to simplify the numerical evaluation of the MSD contributions. The numerical results indicate the convergence of the perturbation expansion up to 75% of the melting temperature of the solid (TM) for the exact calculation; however, a better agreement with the Monte Carlo results is not obtained when the total of all 14 contributions is added to the 12 perturbation theory results. Using Peierls approximation the expansion converges up to 45% of TM• The MSD contributions arising in the Green's function method of Shukla and Hubschle are derived and enumerated up to and including 0(18). The total MSD from these selected contributions is in excellent agreement with their results at all temperatures. Theoretical values of the recoilless fraction for krypton are calculated from the MSD contributions for both the Lennard-Jones and Aziz potentials. The agreement with experimental values is quite good.
    • Ultrasonic attenuation in layered superconductors /

      Ran, Wenqi.; Department of Physics (Brock University, 2006-06-04)
      We study the ultrasonic attenuation in layered superconductors using the Green's function formalism. General expressions are derived analytically and then calculated numerically by taking the nearest and next-nearest interactions in a disordered layered superconductor with random hoppings. Our results show huge anisotropics of ultrasonic attenuation in the superconductors and the strong dependence of ultrasonic attenuation on the temperature and the direction of polarization of the sound wave.
    • Variational Monte Carlo estimation of the dissociation energy of CuH using correlated sampling

      Dobos, Andrej.; Department of Physics (Brock University, 1994-07-09)
      A new approach to treating large Z systems by quantum Monte Carlo has been developed. It naturally leads to notion of the 'valence energy'. Possibilities of the new approach has been explored by optimizing the wave function for CuH and Cu and computing dissociation energy and dipole moment of CuH using variational Monte Carlo. The dissociation energy obtained is about 40% smaller than the experimental value; the method is comparable with SCF and simple pseudopotential calculations. The dipole moment differs from the best theoretical estimate by about 50% what is again comparable with other methods (Complete Active Space SCF and pseudopotential methods).
    • X-ray diffraction from Al powder using energy dispersive technique

      Elyaseery, Ibrahim S.; Department of Physics (Brock University, 1991-07-09)
      Using the energy dispersive x ...ray diffraction (EDXD) technique, the room temperature diffraction pattern of Al powder was obtained at diffraction angles ~ 30° and 50°. From the small angle diffraction pattern the average relative intensities (IR) of the (111), (200), and (220) lines were measured to be equal to 100, 62, and 32 respectively. From the large diffraction angle IR for the (220), (311+222), (400), (331+420), and (422) lines were measured to be 100,201,17,90, and 19.5 respectively. The diffraction pattern at those two angles were obtained at several higher temperatures to measure the change in the intensities of the Al lines. From the intensity changes the increase of the Debye- Waller temperature factor, i.e ~B(T), with respect to the value at room temperature was determined to be 0.6+0.1 at 250°C, 1.10+0.15 at 350°C, 1.45+0.20 at 450°C, and 2.20±0.35 at 550°C.
    • X-ray diffraction of a gram-negative bacterial membrane mimetic

      Razavi, Panteha.; Department of Physics (Brock University, 2009-01-28)
      This thesis applies x-ray diffraction to measure he membrane structure of lipopolysaccharides and to develop a better model of a LPS bacterial melilbrane that can be used for biophysical research on antibiotics that attack cell membranes. \iVe ha'e Inodified the Physics department x-ray machine for use 3.'3 a thin film diffractometer, and have lesigned a new temperature and relative humidity controlled sample cell.\Ve tested the sample eel: by measuring the one-dimensional electron density profiles of bilayers of pope with 0%, 1%, 1G :VcJ, and 100% by weight lipo-polysaccharide from Pse'udo'lTwna aeTuginosa. Background VVe now know that traditional p,ntibiotics ,I,re losing their effectiveness against ever-evolving bacteria. This is because traditional antibiotic: work against specific targets within the bacterial cell, and with genetic mutations over time, themtibiotic no longer works. One possible solution are antimicrobial peptides. These are short proteins that are part of the immune systems of many animals, and some of them attack bacteria directly at the membrane of the cell, causing the bacterium to rupture and die. Since the membranes of most bacteria share common structural features, and these featuret, are unlikely to evolve very much, these peptides should effectively kill many types of bacteria wi Lhout much evolved resistance. But why do these peptides kill bacterial cel: '3 , but not the cells of the host animal? For gramnegative bacteria, the most likely reason is that t Ileir outer membrane is made of lipopolysaccharides (LPS), which is very different from an animal :;ell membrane. Up to now, what we knovv about how these peptides work was likely done with r !10spholipid models of animal cell membranes, and not with the more complex lipopolysa,echaricies, If we want to make better pepticies, ones that we can use to fight all types of infection, we need a more accurate molecular picture of how they \vork. This will hopefully be one step forward to the ( esign of better treatments for bacterial infections.