• Calculation of nondifferential properties for atomic ground states /

      Langfelder, Peter.; Department of Physics (Brock University, 1997-05-21)
      A new method for sampling the exact (within the nodal error) ground state distribution and nondiflPerential properties of multielectron systems is developed and applied to firstrow atoms. Calculated properties are the distribution moments and the electronic density at the nucleus (the 6 operator). For this purpose, new simple trial functions are developed and optimized. First, using Hydrogen as a test case, we demonstrate the accuracy of our algorithm and its sensitivity to error in the trial function. Applications to first row atoms are then described. We obtain results which are more satisfactory than the ones obtained previously using Monte Carlo methods, despite the relative crudeness of our trial functions. Also, a comparison is made with results of highly accurate post-Hartree Fock calculations, thereby illuminating the nodal error in our estimates. Taking into account the CPU time spent, our results, particularly for the 8 operator, have a relatively large variance. Several ways of improving the eflSciency together with some extensions of the algorithm are suggested.
    • Calculation of the magnetic field penetration depth for high-Tc cuprate superconductors based on the Interlayer Pair Tunneling model /

      Castle, Melissa A.; Department of Physics (Brock University, 1999-05-21)
      In this work, the magnetic field penetration depth for high-Tc cuprate superconductors is calculated using a recent Interlayer Pair Tunneling (ILPT) model proposed by Chakravarty, Sudb0, Anderson, and Strong [1] to explain high temperature superconductivity. This model involves a "hopping" of Cooper pairs between layers of the unit cell which acts to amplify the pairing mechanism within the planes themselves. Recent work has shown that this model can account reasonably well for the isotope effect and the dependence of Tc on nonmagnetic in-plane impurities [2] , as well as the Knight shift curves [3] and the presence of a magnetic peak in the neutron scattering intensity [4]. In the latter case, Yin et al. emphasize that the pair tunneling must be the dominant pairing mechanism in the high-Tc cuprates in order to capture the features found in experiments. The goal of this work is to determine whether or not the ILPT model can account for the experimental observations of the magnetic field penetration depth in YBa2Cu307_a7. Calculations are performed in the weak and strong coupling limits, and the efi"ects of both small and large strengths of interlayer pair tunneling are investigated. Furthermore, as a follow up to the penetration depth calculations, both the neutron scattering intensity and the Knight shift are calculated within the ILPT formalism. The aim is to determine if the ILPT model can yield results consistent with experiments performed for these properties. The results for all three thermodynamic properties considered are not consistent with the notion that the interlayer pair tunneling must be the dominate pairing mechanism in these high-Tc cuprate superconductors. Instead, it is found that reasonable agreement with experiments is obtained for small strengths of pair tunneling, and that large pair tunneling yields results which do not resemble those of the experiments.
    • Calculation of the optical conductivity for the Anderson impurity model using the slave boson technique

      Arberg, Peter.; Department of Physics (Brock University, 1990-07-09)
      The optical conductivity of the Anderson impurity mode l has been calculated by emp l oying the slave boson technique and an expansion in powers of l i N, where N is the d egeneracy o f the f electron level . This method has been used to find the effective mass of the conduction electrons for temperatures above and below the Kondo tempera ture. For low temperatures, the mass enhancement is f ound to be large while a t high t emperatures, the mass enhancement is sma ll. The conductivity i s f ound to be Drude like with frequency dependent effective mass and scattering time for low independent effective mass and temperatures and scattering time f requency for high t emperatures. The behavior of both the effective mass and the conductivity is in qualitative agreement with experimental r esul t s .
    • Composition analysis of high-Tc superconducting thin films by quantitative x-ray fluorescence

      Elsahlli, Tareg.; Department of Physics (Brock University, 1992-07-09)
      A method is presented for determining the composition of thin films containing the elements Bi, Sr, Br, Cu, and Ca. Quantitative x-ray fluorescence (XRF) consisting of radioactive sources (secondary foil excitor 241Am-Mo source and 55Pe source), a Si(Li) detector, and a multichannel analyzer were employed. The XRF system was calibrated by using sol gel thin films of known element composition and also by sputtered thin films analyzed by the conventional Rutherford Back Scattering (RBS). The XRF system has been used to assist and optimize the sputter target composition required to produce high-Tc BiSrCaCuO films with the desired metal composition.
    • Confocal and two-photon microscopy : image enhancement /

      Kefayati, Sarah.; Department of Physics (Brock University, 2008-06-15)
      Confocal and two-photon microcopy have become essential tools in biological research and today many investigations are not possible without their help. The valuable advantage that these two techniques offer is the ability of optical sectioning. Optical sectioning makes it possible to obtain 3D visuahzation of the structiu-es, and hence, valuable information of the structural relationships, the geometrical, and the morphological aspects of the specimen. The achievable lateral and axial resolutions by confocal and two-photon microscopy, similar to other optical imaging systems, are both defined by the diffraction theorem. Any aberration and imperfection present during the imaging results in broadening of the calculated theoretical resolution, blurring, geometrical distortions in the acquired images that interfere with the analysis of the structures, and lower the collected fluorescence from the specimen. The aberrations may have different causes and they can be classified by their sources such as specimen-induced aberrations, optics-induced aberrations, illumination aberrations, and misalignment aberrations. This thesis presents an investigation and study of image enhancement. The goal of this thesis was approached in two different directions. Initially, we investigated the sources of the imperfections. We propose methods to eliminate or minimize aberrations introduced during the image acquisition by optimizing the acquisition conditions. The impact on the resolution as a result of using a coverslip the thickness of which is mismatched with the one that the objective lens is designed for was shown and a novel technique was introduced in order to define the proper value on the correction collar of the lens. The amoimt of spherical aberration with regard to t he numerical aperture of the objective lens was investigated and it was shown that, based on the purpose of our imaging tasks, different numerical apertures must be used. The deformed beam cross section of the single-photon excitation source was corrected and the enhancement of the resolution and image quaUty was shown. Furthermore, the dependency of the scattered light on the excitation wavelength was shown empirically. In the second part, we continued the study of the image enhancement process by deconvolution techniques. Although deconvolution algorithms are used widely to improve the quality of the images, how well a deconvolution algorithm responds highly depends on the point spread function (PSF) of the imaging system applied to the algorithm and the level of its accuracy. We investigated approaches that can be done in order to obtain more precise PSF. Novel methods to improve the pattern of the PSF and reduce the noise are proposed. Furthermore, multiple soiu'ces to extract the PSFs of the imaging system are introduced and the empirical deconvolution results by using each of these PSFs are compared together. The results confirm that a greater improvement attained by applying the in situ PSF during the deconvolution process.
    • Coriolis effects in symmetric top spectra /

      Cimprich, Lloyd Lee John.; Department of Physics (Brock University, 1974-06-09)
      The "x-y Coriolis Coupling Theory" as presented by Dilauro and Mills (1966) is reformulated and extended to the determination of Raman intensities. Theoretical Raman and Infrared spectra are computed in order to understand the effects due to this coupling in both types of spectra. Both the Infrared and Raman spectra obtained indicate very real effects due to Coriolis coupling. In some of the cases chosen the computed spectra are grossly different from the normal spectra where coupling is absent. Such large effects can greatly impede the interpretation of experimental results. Theoretical spectra therefore aids in the interpretation of experimental results, as is clearly demonstrated in the results of this work.
    • A critical analysis of the 2H NMR data in chlorhexidine-containing model membranes

      Talo, Hoda; Department of Physics
      Deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to study the in uence of chlorhexidine on the internal molecular motions of phospholipid model membranes. Mixtures of dimyristoylphosphocholine (DMPC) and chlorhexidine (CHX) were investigated at several DMPC:CHX molar ratios (1:0,10:1,3:1). Extensive numerical analysis of previously acquired data identi ed the di erences in the temperature-dependence of the order parameters characterizing the rapid molecular motions (on the NMR scale) in both the fatty acid chains of DMPC and in the saturated methylene bridge of CHX. The results are consistent with the known localization of CHX in the membrane determined by neutron scattering [1] and con rmed by molecular dynamics simulations reported earlier [2]. The NMR results indicate that chlorhexidine undergoes di erent motions than those of the bulk lipids in the membrane. The study used a Tikhonov-regularization-based numerical deconvolution technique (dePakeing) that allowed simultaneous determination of the order parameter and of the orientational distribution of domains in the powder sample, partially oriented by the external magnetic eld. Both appeared to suggest an anomalous result in a narrow temperature region for the 3:1 sample, perhaps the existence of a new re-entrant phase, but this conclusion could not be made from the limited data available, and requires a further investigation.
    • Crystal Growth and Characterization of Li0.9Mo6O17

      Xiao, Peng; Department of Physics (Brock University, 2012-12-10)
      Purple bronze Li0.9Mo6O17 has attracted researchers for its low dimensionality and corresponding properties. Although it has been studied for nearly two decades, there are still some unsolved puzzles with this unique material. Single crystals of Li0.9Mo6O17 were grown using the temperature gradient flux technique in this research. The crystal growth was optimized by experimenting different conditions and good quality crystals were obtained. X-ray diffraction results have confirmed the right phase of the crystals. Resistivity measurements and magnetic susceptibility measurements were carried out, and anomalous electronic behaviors were found. All of the samples showed the metal-insulator transition near 20K, followed by behavior that differs from sample to sample: either superconducting, metallic or insulating behavior was observed below 2K. Li0.9Mo6O17 was considered as a quasi-one-dimensional crystal and also a superconducting crystal, which implies a dimensional crossover may occur at the metal-insulator transition. A two-band scenario of the Luttinger liquid model was used to fit the resistivity data and excellent results were achieved, suggesting that the Luttinger theory is a very good candidate for the explanation of the anomalous behavior of Li0.9Mo6O17. In addition, the susceptibility measurements showed Curie paramagnetism and some temperature independent paramagnetism at low temperature. The absence of any anomalous magnetic feature near 20K where the resistivity upturn takes place, suggests that a charge density wave mechanism, which has been proposed by some researchers, is not responsible for the unique properties of Li0.9Mo6O17.
    • Crystal growth, characterization and point contact spectroscopy on CuxTiSe₂

      Potalivo, Michael; Department of Physics (Brock University, 2011-05-17)
      Various s e t s of single c rys t a l s and poly c rys t a l s of Cux TiSe2 were grown. X- r ay diffraction and ene rgy dispersive spe c t ros copy r e sul t s verified tha t the c rys t a l s were the cor r e c t compos i t ion and c rys t a l s t ruc tur e . Re s i s t ivi ty me a sur ement s and magne t i c sus c ept ibi l i ty me a sur ement s de t e rmined the supe r conduc t ing t r ans i t ion t empe r a tur e s for the c rys t a l s . The c rys t a l s in each growth had various supe r conduc t ing t r ans i t ion t empe r a tur e s . Also, the me a sur ement s indi c a t ed tha t the c rys t a l s were inhomogeneous. Point cont a c t spe c t ros copy expe r iment s were employed on various single c rys t a l s . Inspe c t ion of the da t a indi c a t ed tha t the ma t e r i a l ha s a single ene rgy gap . A progr am was bui l t ut i l i z ing the Levenbe rg-Ma rqua rdt me thod and theory on point cont a c t spe c t ros copy to de t e rmine the supe r conduc t ing ene rgy gap. Plot s of the supe r conduc t ing ene rgy gap a t various t empe r a tur e s were in di s agr e ement wi th wha t was expe c t ed for a convent iona l supe r conduc tor .
    • Crystal growth, Raman scattering and optical properties of the superconductor Cd2Re2O7(16O, 18O)/

      Hajialamdari, Mojtaba.; Department of Physics (Brock University, 2008-06-15)
      Using the Physical Vapor Transport method, single crystals of Cd2Re207 have been grown, and crystals of dimensions up to 8x6x2 mm have been achieved. X-ray diffraction from a single crystal of Cd2Re207 has showed the crystal growth in the (111) plane. Powder X-ray diffraction measurements were performed on ^^O and ^^O samples, however no difference was observed. Assigning the space group Fd3m to Cd2Re207 at room temperature and using structure factor analysis, the powder X-ray diffraction pattern of the sample was explained through systematic reflection absences. The temperatiure dependence of the resistivity measurement of ^^O has revealed two structural phase transitions at 120 and 200 K, and the superconducting transition at 1.0 K. Using Factor Group Analysis on three different structiures of Cd2Re207, the number of IR and Raman active phonon modes close to the Brillouin zone centre have been determined and the results have been compared to the temperature-dependence of the Raman shifts of ^^O and ^*0 samples. After scaling (via removing Bose-Einstein and Rayleigh scattering factors from the scattered light) all spectra, each spectrum was fitted with a number of Lorentzian peaks. The temperature-dependence of the FWHM and Raman shift of mode Eg, shows the effects of the two structurjil phase transitions above Tc. The absolute reflectance of Cd2Re207 - '^O single crystals in the far-infrared spectral region (7-700 cm~^) has been measured in the superconducting state (0.5 K), right above the superconducting state (1.5 K), and in the normal state (4.2 K). Thermal reflectance of the sample at 0.5 K and 1.5 K indicates a strong absorption feature close to 10 cm~^ in the superconducting state with a reference temperature of 4.2 K. By means of Kramers-Kronig analysis, the absolute reflectance was used to calculate the optical conductivity and dielectric function. The real part of optical conductivity shows five distinct active phonon modes at 44, 200, 300, 375, and 575 cm~' at all temperatures including a Drude-like behavior at low frequencies. The imaginary part of the calculated dielectric function indicates a mode softening of the mode 44 cm~' below Tc.
    • Crystallinity, Magnetic and Electrical Properties of Bi doped LaVO3

      Sepiedeh, Pirasteh; Department of Physics (Brock University, 2012-05-17)
      We report the results of crystal structure, magnetization and resistivity measurements of Bi doped LaVO3. X-ray diffraction (XRD) shows that if doping Bi in the La site is less than ten percent, the crystal structure of La1-xBixVO3 remains unchanged and its symmetry is orthorhombic. However, for higher Bi doping (>10%) composite compounds are found where the XRD patterns are characterized by two phases: LaVO3+V2O3. Energy-dispersive analysis of the x-ray spectroscopy (EDAX) results are used to find a proper atomic percentage of all samples. The temperature dependence of the mass magnetization of pure and single phase doped samples have transition temperatures from paramagnetic to antiferromagnetic region at TN=140 K. This measurement for bi-phasic samples indicates two transition temperatures, at TN=140 K (LaVO3) and TN=170 K (V2O3). The temperature dependence of resistivity reveals semiconducting behavior for all samples. Activation energy values for pure and doped samples are extracted by fitting resistivity versus temperature data in the framework of thermal activation process.
    • Dechanneling of 2 Mev Heâ ½ in gold

      Wright, David Roderick.; Department of Physics (Brock University, 1978-07-09)
      Thick gold single crystals of high quality were prepared for Rutherford Backscattering Dechanneling studies by electropolishing and annealing. The variation.; with temperature of the Random Fraction versus Depth spectrtnn for 2 MeV He+ on < 110> gold was extracted from measured Aligned and Random (Energy) Spectra. The measured dechanneling rate showed a sixfold increase in going from 4loK to 293°K and is in reasonable agreement with calculations made using the Steady Increase in Transverse Energy (SITE) approximation.
    • Deformations of Maxwell gauge field theory

      Frank, James; Department of Physics
      Deformations of Maxwell gauge theory are studied in 2+1 dimensions. Unlike in previous work in the literature, no Lagrangian structure is assumed for possible deformations, and instead the requirement of gauge invariance of the deformed field equations under the deformed gauge symmetry is used. The results yield a new nonlinear generalization of Maxwell gauge theory. A non-abelian extension of this theory is also obtained.
    • The design of a reflectance spectrometer and its calibration using SrTiO3 /

      Klassen, J. Robert.; Department of Physics (Brock University, 2004-07-14)
      A new Ultra-High Vacuum (UHV) reflectance spectrometer was successfully designed, making use of a Janis Industries ST-400 sample cryostat, IR Labs bolometer, and Briiker IFS 66 v/S spectrometer. Two of the noteworthy features include an in situ gold evaporator and internal reference path, both of which allow for the experiment to progress with a completely undisturbed sample position. As tested, the system was designed to operate between 4.2 K and 325 K over a frequency range of 60 - 670 cm~^. This frequency range can easily be extended through the addition of appUcable detectors. Tests were performed on SrTiOa, a highly ionic incipient ferroelectric insulator with a well known reflectance. The presence and temperatmre dependence of the lowest frequency "soft" mode were measured, as was the presence of the other two infrared modes. During the structural phase transition from cubic to tetragonal perovskite, the splitting of the second phonon mode was also observed. All of the collected data indicate good agreement with previous measurements, with a minor discrepency between the actual and recorded sample temperatures.
    • Design of Resistivity Instrumentation for a He3 Cryostat and its Application to the Charge Density Wave Superconductor CuxTiSe2

      Iwachow, Jason; Department of Physics (Brock University, 2014-03-13)
      Fermi patches in quasi-two dimensional charge density waves (CDW) have not described the connection to superconductivity (SC) according to theory adequately at this point in time. The connection between CDW and SC in the quasi-two dimensional material CuxTiSe2 is an interesting one which might reveal mechanisms in unconventional superconductors. A previous Brock graduate student grew crystals of CuxTiSe2. The precise doping of the samples was not known. In order to determine the doping parameter x in CuxTiSe2, a sensitive resistivity measurement system was necessary. A new resistivity measurement system was designed and implemented utilizing an Infrared Labs HDL-10 He3 cryostat. By comparing with data from the literature, doping of two samples was investigated using the new measurement system and a Quantum Design Magnetic Property Measurement System (MPMS). Methods for determining the doping revealed that the old resistivity system would not be able to determine the CDW transition temperature of highly doped samples or doping for elongated samples due to electronic noise. Doping in one sample was found to be between x=0.06 and x=0.065. Values of doping in the second sample had a discrepancy but could be explained by incorrect sample orientation.
    • Developing a numerical inverse-theory-based extraction of orientation-dependent relaxation rates from partially- relaxed spectra

      Ghamari, Mohammad Sedigh; Department of Physics (Brock University, 2010-03-09)
      Second-rank tensor interactions, such as quadrupolar interactions between the spin- 1 deuterium nuclei and the electric field gradients created by chemical bonds, are affected by rapid random molecular motions that modulate the orientation of the molecule with respect to the external magnetic field. In biological and model membrane systems, where a distribution of dynamically averaged anisotropies (quadrupolar splittings, chemical shift anisotropies, etc.) is present and where, in addition, various parts of the sample may undergo a partial magnetic alignment, the numerical analysis of the resulting Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectra is a mathematically ill-posed problem. However, numerical methods (de-Pakeing, Tikhonov regularization) exist that allow for a simultaneous determination of both the anisotropy and orientational distributions. An additional complication arises when relaxation is taken into account. This work presents a method of obtaining the orientation dependence of the relaxation rates that can be used for the analysis of the molecular motions on a broad range of time scales. An arbitrary set of exponential decay rates is described by a three-term truncated Legendre polynomial expansion in the orientation dependence, as appropriate for a second-rank tensor interaction, and a linear approximation to the individual decay rates is made. Thus a severe numerical instability caused by the presence of noise in the experimental data is avoided. At the same time, enough flexibility in the inversion algorithm is retained to achieve a meaningful mapping from raw experimental data to a set of intermediate, model-free
    • Diffusion Monte Carlo study of electronic properties for H and Be atoms /

      Yu, Li.; Department of Physics (Brock University, 2006-06-04)
      We examined three different algorithms used in diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC) to study their precisions and accuracies in predicting properties of isolated atoms, which are H atom ground state, Be atom ground state and H atom first excited state. All three algorithms — basic DMC, minimal stochastic reconfiguration DMC, and pure DMC, each with future-walking, are successfully impletmented in ground state energy and simple moments calculations with satisfactory results. Pure diffusion Monte Carlo with future-walking algorithm is proven to be the simplest approach with the least variance. Polarizabilities for Be atom ground state and H atom first excited state are not satisfactorily estimated in the infinitesimal differentiation approach. Likewise, an approach using the finite field approximation with an unperturbed wavefunction for the latter system also fails. However, accurate estimations for the a-polarizabilities are obtained by using wavefunctions that come from the time-independent perturbation theory. This suggests the flaw in our approach to polarizability estimation for these difficult cases rests with our having assumed the trial function is unaffected by infinitesimal perturbations in the Hamiltonian.
    • The diffusion of Co⠶溩 Zrâ â Tiâ â alloy /|nS. Kumar. -- 260 St Catharines [Ont.] : Dept. of Physics, Brock University,

      Kumar, S.; Department of Physics (Brock University, 1973-07-09)
      The diffusion of Co60 in the body centered cubic beta phase of a ZrSOTi SO alloy has been studied at 900°, 1200°, and 1440°C. The results confirm earlier unpublished data obtained by Kidson17 • The temperature dependence of the diffusion coefficient is unusual and suggests that at least two and possibly three mechanisms may be operative Annealing of the specimen in the high B.C.C. region prior to the deposition of the tracer results in a large reduction in the diffusion coefficient. The possible significance of this effect is discussed in terms of rapid transport along dislocation network.
    • Effect of rattling Phonons on Superconductivity of KOs_2O_6

      Tajik, Samin; Department of Physics
      We model the electron coupling to anharmonic (rattling) mode in β-pyrochlore superconductor KOs2O6 by a sharply peaked electron-phonon coupling function α2F(Ω) centered at the mode energy. The strong-coupling Eliashberg equations are solved for the transition temperature Tc and the gap function ∆(ω,T) for a series of temperatures 0 < T < Tc. From these solutions, we obtain the temperature dependence of the gap edge ∆(T), the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation rate and the microwave conductivity for several values of the electron-phonon coupling parameter λ. The results are compared with the available experimental results 0 for KOs2O6
    • Effect of the position of the double-bond in monounsaturated phospholipids on the dynamics of model membranes

      Zaraiskaya, Tatiana.; Department of Physics (Brock University, 1999-07-09)
      Therllloelynalllics of lllodel 11lel1ll)rane systeills containing 1110nollnsaturatecl I)lloSI)holil) ids is strongly infllienced l)y the I)osition of the C==C dOlll)le })ond in tIle acyl chain. The telllI)eratllres of both chain-nlelting (TM) and La -+ HI! (TH) I)hase traIlsitions are lowered by IIp to 20°C when C==C is Inoved froln positions 6 or 11 to I)osition 9 in an 18-carl)on chain. This work is an attellll)t to ellicidate the uIlderlying Illoleclilar Illechanisllls reSI)Onsi])le for tllese draillatic tllerillodynaillic changes. Mixtllres of di-18: 1 l)hoSI)hatidylethanolanline with C==C at l)ositioIlS 6, 9, 11 were llsed, witll a sI1lall aI1lOlint of I)erdellterated tetradecanol, known to })e a gooel rel)Orter of the cllain Illoleclilar order. SI)ectral second 11I0I1lents were llsed to Illonitor tIle La -+ HII I)hase transition, which was fOllnd to ])e ])road (2-6°C), with a slight llysteresis on heatiIlg/cooling. The orientational order I)rofiles were nleasllred 1lSiIlg 2H Illiclear Illagnetic resonance and changes in these order I)rofiles between La aIld HII I)hases silow l)oth a local increase in order in the vicinity of the C==C bonds and an o\Terall decrease ill the average orientational order of the chain as a whole. These Sll])tle changes recluire })oth high-fidelity SI)ectrosCol)y and a careflll data analysis that takes into aCCOllnt the effects due to l)artiall1lagnetically-indllced orientational ordering of the l)ilayers. In tIle COIltext of SOllle recently rel)Orted cross-relaxation 11leaSlirenlents in Silllilar l)llOSI)llolil)iels, 0111' reslilts sllggest that large-anll)litllde conforlllational changes in the interior of tIle I110del 111eI11])ranes I)lay a 1110re significant role than I)reviollsly thOllght.