• Electronic and magnetic properties of LaV1-xO3 /

      Gharetape, Shahab Jamali.; Department of Physics (Brock University, 2008-06-15)
      A series of LaVi^xOs compounds (x=0.00, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08) were prepeired using the standard solid reaction. The samples were chareicterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), fourprobe resistivity, smd magnetic susceptibility studies. Powder X-ray diffraction analysis indicated the formation of a single-phase sample with a orthorhombic structure which was first found in GdFeOs (space group Pnma) . The Unit Cell program was used for calculating lattice peirameters from XFID data. The XRD spectnim could be indexed on a cubic lattice with Og = 2ap ~ (7.8578 to 7.9414 A). The lattice parameter was observed to increase as the Vanadium vacancy increased. Four-probe resistivity measurements exhibited semiconductor behavior for all sajnples from room temperature down to 19K. The resistivity of samples increased with increasing Vanadium vacancy. The resistivity of samples demonstrated activated conduction with an activation energy of approximately 0.2 eV. The activation energy increased with increasing lattice parameter. Field cool magnetic susceptibility measurements were performed with field of 500 G from 300 K to 5 K. These measurements indicated the presence of an antiferromagnetic transition at about 140 K. The data was fitted above Neel temperature to Ciurie-Weiss law yielding a negative parameignetic Curie temperature. This implies that antiferromagnetic ordering is present.
    • Properties of NaxCoO2 /

      Jalili, Helia.; Department of Physics (Brock University, 2005-06-29)
      Polycrysttdline samples of NaiCoOa were prepared using the "Rapid heat-up" method. One set of samples was annealed in flowing O2, while the other set in flowing Argon. X-Ray diffraction measurements indicated a stable phase of Nao.7Co02 mixed with C03O4 for all the samples even though they differed in concentration of Na. Argon annealed samples were insulators, whereas the ones annealed in O2 were metallic. Most of the measurements were performed on the sample Nao.7Co02, because it is the host compound for the superconductor sample Nao.35Co02-H20. Magnetization measurement showed that the magnetic moment decreased with increasing sodium concentration. This is due to the existence of C03O4 in samples with Na^ 0.7. As sodium concentration decreases, the magnetic moment increases due to the increasing concentration of C03O4 and its large magnetic moment. Magnetization measurements showed that the magnetic moment of Nao.7Co02 is field-dependent in low fields eind field-independent in fields higher than 100 G. Resistivity changes with temperature (dp/dT) increased with increasing Na concentration. Also resistivity measurements were performed under different hydrostatic pressures on Nao.7Co02. Two transitions were observed; one at a temperature Ti ~20 K and the other at T2 ^280 K, the transition at Ti has a magnetic origin and the one at T2 is a structiural transition. It was noticed that pressure aJfects resistivity of the sample. At higher pressures resistivity changes faster with temperature. Magnetoresistance measurement showed a small change in the resistivity, especially at lower temperatures. A novel layered superconductor Nao.35Co02H20 was prepared using de-intercalation of Na from the host compound Nao.7Co02. FVom the temperature dependence of the magnetization, the superconducting transition temperature and lower critictil field have been estimated as Tc=4.12 K and Hci=66 G, respectively.