• Infrared Spectroscopy of (Nb+In) Co-Doped Rutile

      Yee, Susan; Department of Physics
      This work studied rutile TiO2 in pure form and co-doped with In (e􀀀 acceptor) and Nb (e􀀀 donor) at 5% and 10% to explore the effect of co-doping on the infrared active (IR) modes and the complex dielectric response function between 50 and 8000 cm􀀀1 (1.5 - 240 THz, 0.00620 - 0.993 eV). Ceramic pellets of pure, 5% and 10% co-doped TiO2 were prepared using a standard technique. Infrared reflectance (IR) measurements were taken and these data are supplemented with data from the literature to extend the range of frequencies beyond infrared. The dielectric function was determined two ways: (i) by fits of the reflectance to the factorized model of the dielectric function and (ii) by Kramers- Kronig analysis. Co-doping rutile appears to decrease the permittivity at frequencies just below the mode that softens. It is possible that this is due to an increase in porosity resulting from codoping. It appears that the increase in permittivity recently observed elsewhere [1] is not caused by doping induced changes to the phonon modes. The overall effect of co-doping is to make the sample less reflective. The spectrum is composed of three wide, high-reflectance bands. For all levels of co-doping the first band is a mode that softens. The amount of doping does not affect the frequency of the mode that softens. The second and third bands are hard modes. Co-doping appears to introduce four new, impurity, phonon modes that increase in oscillator strength with increasing co-doping level. These modes are centered near w 136, 447, 654 and 793 cm􀀀1 which are close to four, previously observed, Raman active modes in rutile. It is possible that the co-doping process causes the Raman modes to develop a dipole moment and become weakly IR active.