• The design of a reflectance spectrometer and its calibration using SrTiO3 /

      Klassen, J. Robert.; Department of Physics (Brock University, 2004-07-14)
      A new Ultra-High Vacuum (UHV) reflectance spectrometer was successfully designed, making use of a Janis Industries ST-400 sample cryostat, IR Labs bolometer, and Briiker IFS 66 v/S spectrometer. Two of the noteworthy features include an in situ gold evaporator and internal reference path, both of which allow for the experiment to progress with a completely undisturbed sample position. As tested, the system was designed to operate between 4.2 K and 325 K over a frequency range of 60 - 670 cm~^. This frequency range can easily be extended through the addition of appUcable detectors. Tests were performed on SrTiOa, a highly ionic incipient ferroelectric insulator with a well known reflectance. The presence and temperatmre dependence of the lowest frequency "soft" mode were measured, as was the presence of the other two infrared modes. During the structural phase transition from cubic to tetragonal perovskite, the splitting of the second phonon mode was also observed. All of the collected data indicate good agreement with previous measurements, with a minor discrepency between the actual and recorded sample temperatures.
    • Far infrared reflectance and optical properties of organic superconductor (TMTSF)2ClO4 /

      Ellison, Rodica.; Department of Physics (Brock University, 2001-05-21)
      Polarized reflectance measurements of the quasi I-D charge-transfer salt (TMTSFh CI04 were carried out using a Martin-Puplett-type polarizing interferometer and a 3He refrigerator cryostat, at several temperatures between 0.45 K and 26 K, in the far infrared, in the 10 to 70 cm- 1 frequency range. Bis-tetramethyl-tetraselena-fulvalene perchlorate crystals, grown electrochemically and supplied by K. Behnia, of dimensions 2 to 4 by 0.4 by 0.2 mm, were assembled on a flat surface to form a mosaic of 1.5 by 3 mm. The needle shaped crystals were positioned parallel to each other along their long axis, which is the stacking direction of the planar TMTSF cations, exposing the ab plane face (parallel to which the sheets of CI04 anions are positioned). Reflectance measurements were performed with radiation polarized along the stacking direction in the sample. Measurements were carried out following either a fast (15-20 K per minute) or slow (0.1 K per minute) cooling of the sample. Slow cooling permits the anions to order near 24 K, and the sample is expected to be superconducting below 1.2 K, while fast cooling yields an insulating state at low temperatures. Upon the slow cooling the reflectance shows dependence with temperature and exhibits the 28 cm- 1 feature reported previously [1]. Thermoreflectance for both the 'slow' and 'fast' cooling of the sample calculated relative to the 26 K reflectance data indicates that the reflectance is temperature dependent, for the slow cooling case only. A low frequency edge in the absolute reflectance is assigned an electronic origin given its strong temperature dependence in the relaxed state. We attribute the peak in the absolute reflectance near 30 cm-1 to a phonon coupled to the electronic background. Both the low frequency edge and the 30 cm-1 feature are noted te shift towards higher frequcncy, upon cntering the superconducting state, by an amount of the order of the expected superconducting energy gap. Kramers-Kronig analysis was carried out to determine the optical conductivity for the slowly cooled sample from the measured reflectance. In order to do so the low frequency data was extrapolated to zero frequency using a Hagen-Ru bens behaviour, and the high frequency data was extended with the data of Cao et al. [2], and Kikuchi et al. [3]. The real part of the optical conductivity exhibits an asymmetric peak at 35 cm-1, and its background at lower frequencies seems to be losing spectral weight with lowering of the temperature, leading us to presume that a narrow peak is forming at even lower frequencies.