• Crystal growth, Raman scattering and optical properties of the superconductor Cd2Re2O7(16O, 18O)/

      Hajialamdari, Mojtaba.; Department of Physics (Brock University, 2008-06-15)
      Using the Physical Vapor Transport method, single crystals of Cd2Re207 have been grown, and crystals of dimensions up to 8x6x2 mm have been achieved. X-ray diffraction from a single crystal of Cd2Re207 has showed the crystal growth in the (111) plane. Powder X-ray diffraction measurements were performed on ^^O and ^^O samples, however no difference was observed. Assigning the space group Fd3m to Cd2Re207 at room temperature and using structure factor analysis, the powder X-ray diffraction pattern of the sample was explained through systematic reflection absences. The temperatiure dependence of the resistivity measurement of ^^O has revealed two structural phase transitions at 120 and 200 K, and the superconducting transition at 1.0 K. Using Factor Group Analysis on three different structiures of Cd2Re207, the number of IR and Raman active phonon modes close to the Brillouin zone centre have been determined and the results have been compared to the temperature-dependence of the Raman shifts of ^^O and ^*0 samples. After scaling (via removing Bose-Einstein and Rayleigh scattering factors from the scattered light) all spectra, each spectrum was fitted with a number of Lorentzian peaks. The temperature-dependence of the FWHM and Raman shift of mode Eg, shows the effects of the two structurjil phase transitions above Tc. The absolute reflectance of Cd2Re207 - '^O single crystals in the far-infrared spectral region (7-700 cm~^) has been measured in the superconducting state (0.5 K), right above the superconducting state (1.5 K), and in the normal state (4.2 K). Thermal reflectance of the sample at 0.5 K and 1.5 K indicates a strong absorption feature close to 10 cm~^ in the superconducting state with a reference temperature of 4.2 K. By means of Kramers-Kronig analysis, the absolute reflectance was used to calculate the optical conductivity and dielectric function. The real part of optical conductivity shows five distinct active phonon modes at 44, 200, 300, 375, and 575 cm~' at all temperatures including a Drude-like behavior at low frequencies. The imaginary part of the calculated dielectric function indicates a mode softening of the mode 44 cm~' below Tc.
    • Far infrared reflectance and optical properties of organic superconductor (TMTSF)2ClO4 /

      Ellison, Rodica.; Department of Physics (Brock University, 2001-05-21)
      Polarized reflectance measurements of the quasi I-D charge-transfer salt (TMTSFh CI04 were carried out using a Martin-Puplett-type polarizing interferometer and a 3He refrigerator cryostat, at several temperatures between 0.45 K and 26 K, in the far infrared, in the 10 to 70 cm- 1 frequency range. Bis-tetramethyl-tetraselena-fulvalene perchlorate crystals, grown electrochemically and supplied by K. Behnia, of dimensions 2 to 4 by 0.4 by 0.2 mm, were assembled on a flat surface to form a mosaic of 1.5 by 3 mm. The needle shaped crystals were positioned parallel to each other along their long axis, which is the stacking direction of the planar TMTSF cations, exposing the ab plane face (parallel to which the sheets of CI04 anions are positioned). Reflectance measurements were performed with radiation polarized along the stacking direction in the sample. Measurements were carried out following either a fast (15-20 K per minute) or slow (0.1 K per minute) cooling of the sample. Slow cooling permits the anions to order near 24 K, and the sample is expected to be superconducting below 1.2 K, while fast cooling yields an insulating state at low temperatures. Upon the slow cooling the reflectance shows dependence with temperature and exhibits the 28 cm- 1 feature reported previously [1]. Thermoreflectance for both the 'slow' and 'fast' cooling of the sample calculated relative to the 26 K reflectance data indicates that the reflectance is temperature dependent, for the slow cooling case only. A low frequency edge in the absolute reflectance is assigned an electronic origin given its strong temperature dependence in the relaxed state. We attribute the peak in the absolute reflectance near 30 cm-1 to a phonon coupled to the electronic background. Both the low frequency edge and the 30 cm-1 feature are noted te shift towards higher frequcncy, upon cntering the superconducting state, by an amount of the order of the expected superconducting energy gap. Kramers-Kronig analysis was carried out to determine the optical conductivity for the slowly cooled sample from the measured reflectance. In order to do so the low frequency data was extrapolated to zero frequency using a Hagen-Ru bens behaviour, and the high frequency data was extended with the data of Cao et al. [2], and Kikuchi et al. [3]. The real part of the optical conductivity exhibits an asymmetric peak at 35 cm-1, and its background at lower frequencies seems to be losing spectral weight with lowering of the temperature, leading us to presume that a narrow peak is forming at even lower frequencies.
    • Optical properties of organic superconductor K-(BETS)2FeBr4 /

      Liu, Baochang.; Department of Physics (Brock University, 2007-06-04)
      /c-(BETS)2FeBr4 is the first antiferromagnetic organic superconductor with successive antiferromagnetic and superconducting transitions at Ta^=2.5K and Tc=l.lK respectively at ambient pressure. Polarized reflectance measurements were performed on three single crystalsamples of this material using a Briiker IFS66V/S Interferometer, and a Bolometer detector or an MCT detector, at seven temperatures between 4K and 300K, in both the far-infrared and mid-infrared frequency range. After the reflectance results were obtained, the Kramers-Kronig dispersion relation was apphed to determine the optical conductivity of /c-(BETS)2FeBr4 at these seven temperatures. Additionally, the optical conductivity spectra were fitted with a Drude/Lorentz Oscillator model in order to study the evolution of the optical conductivity with temperature along the a-axis and c-axis. The resistivities calculated from the Drude model parameters along the a-axis and c-axis agreed reasonably with previous transport measurements.
    • Optical properties of organic superconductor K-(BETS)2FeBr4 /

      Hossein Khah, Nazanin.; Department of Physics (Brock University, 2007-06-09)
      K-(BETS)2FeBr4 is a quasi-2D charge transfer organic metal with interesting electronic and magnetic properties. It undergoes a transition to an antiferromagnetic (AF) state at ambient pressure at the Neel temperature (T^^) = 2.5 K, as well as to a superconducting (SC) state at 1.1 K [1]. The temperature dependence of the electrical resistivity shows a small decrease at T;v indicating the resistivity drops as a result of the onset of the ordering of Fe'*''" spins. A sharp drop in the resistivity at 1.1 K is due to its superconducting transition. The temperature dependence of the susceptibility indicates an antiferromagnetic spin structure with the easy axis parallel to the a-axis. The specific heat at zero-field shows a large peak at about 2.4 K, which corresponds to the antiferromagnetic transition temperature (Tat) and no anomaly is observed around the superconducting transition temperature (1.1 K) demonstrating that the magnetically ordered state is not destroyed by the appearance of another phase transition (the superconducting transition) in the 7r-electron layers [1], [2]. This work presents an investigation of how the low frequency electromagnetic response is affected by the antiferromagnetic and superconducting states, as well as the onset of strong correlation. The location of the easy axis of three samples was determined and polarized thermal reflectance measurements of these «-(BETS)2FeBr4 samples oriented with their vertical axis along the a- and c axes were then carried out using a *He refrigerator cryostat and a Martin-Puplett type polarizing interferometer at various temperatures (T = 0.5 K, 1.4 K. 1.9 K, 2.8 K) above and below the superconducting state and/or antiferromagnetic state. Comparison of the SC state to the normal state along the o- and c-axes indicates a rising thermal reflectance at low frequencies (below 10 cm"' ) which may be a manifestation of the superconducting energy gap. A dip-Hke feature is detected at low frequencies (below 15 cm"') in the thermal reflectance plots which probe the antiferromagnetic state along the two axes, and may be due to the opening of a gap in the excitation spectrum as a result of the antiferromagnetism. In another set of experiments, thermal reflectance measurements carried out along the a- and c-axes at higher temperatures (10 K-80 K) show that the reflectivity decreases with increasing temperature to 60 K (the coherence temperature) above which it increases again. Comparison of the thermal reflectance plots along the a- and c-axes at higher temperatures reveals an anisotropy between these two axes. The Hagen-Rubens thermal reflectance plots corresponding to an average over the ac-plane were calculated using experimental hterature resistivity values. Comparison of the Hagen-Rubens plots with the experimental thermal reflectance along the a- and c-axes indicates that both exhibit the general trend of a decrease in thermal reflectance with increasing frequency, however the calculated Hagen-Rubens thermal reflectance at different temperatures is much lower than the experimental curves.