Browsing M.Sc. Physics by Subject "Crystal lattices."
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On the equation of state and atomic mean square displacement of crystalsWe have presented a Green's function method for the calculation of the atomic mean square displacement (MSD) for an anharmonic Hamil toni an . This method effectively sums a whole class of anharmonic contributions to MSD in the perturbation expansion in the high temperature limit. Using this formalism we have calculated the MSD for a nearest neighbour fcc Lennard Jones solid. The results show an improvement over the lowest order perturbation theory results, the difference with Monte Carlo calculations at temperatures close to melting is reduced from 11% to 3%. We also calculated the MSD for the Alkali metals Nat K/ Cs where a sixth neighbour interaction potential derived from the pseudopotential theory was employed in the calculations. The MSD by this method increases by 2.5% to 3.5% over the respective perturbation theory results. The MSD was calculated for Aluminum where different pseudopotential functions and a phenomenological Morse potential were used. The results show that the pseudopotentials provide better agreement with experimental data than the Morse potential. An excellent agreement with experiment over the whole temperature range is achieved with the Harrison modified point-ion pseudopotential with Hubbard-Sham screening function. We have calculated the thermodynamic properties of solid Kr by minimizing the total energy consisting of static and vibrational components, employing different schemes: The quasiharmonic theory (QH), ).2 and).4 perturbation theory, all terms up to 0 ().4) of the improved self consistent phonon theory (ISC), the ring diagrams up to o ().4) (RING), the iteration scheme (ITER) derived from the Greens's function method and a scheme consisting of ITER plus the remaining contributions of 0 ().4) which are not included in ITER which we call E(FULL). We have calculated the lattice constant, the volume expansion, the isothermal and adiabatic bulk modulus, the specific heat at constant volume and at constant pressure, and the Gruneisen parameter from two different potential functions: Lennard-Jones and Aziz. The Aziz potential gives generally a better agreement with experimental data than the LJ potential for the QH, ).2, ).4 and E(FULL) schemes. When only a partial sum of the).4 diagrams is used in the calculations (e.g. RING and ISC) the LJ results are in better agreement with experiment. The iteration scheme brings a definitive improvement over the).2 PT for both potentials.
Thermodynamic properties and Debye-Waller factor of fee materialsWe have calculated the equation of state and the various thermodynamic properties of monatomic fcc crystals by minimizing the Helmholtz free energy derived in the high temperature limit for the quasiharmonic theory, QH, and the lowest-order (cubic and quartic), 'A2, anharmonic terms of the perturbation theory, PT. The total energy in each case is obtained by adding the static energy. The calculation of the thermal properties was carried out for a nearest-neighbour central-force model of the fcc lattice by means of the appropriate thermodynamic relations. We have calculated the lattice constant, the thermal expansion, the coefficient of volume expansion, the specific heat at constant volume and at constant pressure, the isothermal and adiabatic bulk moduli, and the Griineisen parameter, for the rare-gas solids Kr and Xe, and gold. Morse potential and modified Morse potential were each used to represent the atomic interaction for the three fcc materials. For most of the calculated thermodynamic properties from the QH theory, the results for Kr and Xe with the modified Morse potential show an improvement over the results for the Morse potential when compared with the experimental data. However, the results of the 'A 2 equation of state with the modified Morse potential are in good agreement with experiment only in the case of the specific heat at constant volume and at constant pressure. For Au we have calculated the lattice contribution from the QH and 'A 2 PT and the electronic contribution to the thermal properties. The electronic contribution was taken into account by using the free electron model. The results of the thermodynamic properties calculated with the modified Morse potential were similar to those obtained with the Morse potential. U sing the minimized equation of state we also calculated the Mossbauer recoilless fraction for Kr and Xe and the Debye-Waller factor (DWF) for Pb, AI, eu, Ag, and Au. The Mossbauer recoilless fraction was obtained for the above two potentials and Lennard-Jones potential. The L-J potential gives the best agreement with experiment for Kr. No experimental data exists for Xe. At low temperature the calculated DWF results for Pb, AI, and eu show a good agreement with experimental values, but at high temperature the experimental DWF results increase very rapidly. For Ag the computed values were below the expected results at all temperatures. The DWF results of the modified Morse potential for Pb, AI, eu and Ag were slightly better than those of the Morse potential. In the case of Au the calculated values were in poor agreement with experimental results. We have calculated the quasiharmonic phonon dispersion curves for Kr, Xe, eu, Ag, and Au. The calculated and experimental results of the frequencies agree quite well for all the materials except for Au where the longitudinal modes show serious discrepancies with the experimental results. In addition, the two lowest-order anharmonic contributions to the phonon frequency were derived using the Green's function method. The A 2 phonon dispersion curves have been calculated only for eu, and the results were similar to those of the QH dispersion curves. Finally, an expression for the Griineisen parameter "( has been derived from the anharmonic frequencies, and calculated for these materials. The "( results are comparable with those obtained from the thermodynamic definition.
A treatment of atomic mean square displacement in higher order perturbation theoryA general derivation of the anharmonic coefficients for a periodic lattice invoking the special case of the central force interaction is presented. All of the contributions to mean square displacement (MSD) to order 14 perturbation theory are enumerated. A direct correspondance is found between the high temperature limit MSD and high temperature limit free energy contributions up to and including 0(14). This correspondance follows from the detailed derivation of some of the contributions to MSD. Numerical results are obtained for all the MSD contributions to 0(14) using the Lennard-Jones potential for the lattice constants and temperatures for which the Monte Carlo results were calculated by Heiser, Shukla and Cowley. The Peierls approximation is also employed in order to simplify the numerical evaluation of the MSD contributions. The numerical results indicate the convergence of the perturbation expansion up to 75% of the melting temperature of the solid (TM) for the exact calculation; however, a better agreement with the Monte Carlo results is not obtained when the total of all 14 contributions is added to the 12 perturbation theory results. Using Peierls approximation the expansion converges up to 45% of TM• The MSD contributions arising in the Green's function method of Shukla and Hubschle are derived and enumerated up to and including 0(18). The total MSD from these selected contributions is in excellent agreement with their results at all temperatures. Theoretical values of the recoilless fraction for krypton are calculated from the MSD contributions for both the Lennard-Jones and Aziz potentials. The agreement with experimental values is quite good.