• An application of cell-cluster theory to a rare gas crystal /|n[by] K. Westera. - 260 St. Catharines [Ont.] : Dept. of Physics, Brock University,

      Westera, K.; Department of Physics (Brock University, 1974-07-09)
      The Lennard-Jones Devonshire 1 (LJD) single particle theory for liquids is extended and applied to the anharmonic solid in a high temperature limit. The exact free energy for the crystal is expressed as a convergent series of terms involving larger and larger sets of contiguous particles called cell-clusters. The motions of all the particles within cell-clusters are correlated to each other and lead to non-trivial integrals of orders 3, 6, 9, ... 3N. For the first time the six dimensional integral has been calculated to high accuracy using a Lennard-Jones (6-12) pair interaction between nearest neighbours only for the f.c.c. lattice. The thermodynamic properties predicted by this model agree well with experimental results for solid Xenon.
    • Crystal growth, Raman scattering and optical properties of the superconductor Cd2Re2O7(16O, 18O)/

      Hajialamdari, Mojtaba.; Department of Physics (Brock University, 2008-06-15)
      Using the Physical Vapor Transport method, single crystals of Cd2Re207 have been grown, and crystals of dimensions up to 8x6x2 mm have been achieved. X-ray diffraction from a single crystal of Cd2Re207 has showed the crystal growth in the (111) plane. Powder X-ray diffraction measurements were performed on ^^O and ^^O samples, however no difference was observed. Assigning the space group Fd3m to Cd2Re207 at room temperature and using structure factor analysis, the powder X-ray diffraction pattern of the sample was explained through systematic reflection absences. The temperatiure dependence of the resistivity measurement of ^^O has revealed two structural phase transitions at 120 and 200 K, and the superconducting transition at 1.0 K. Using Factor Group Analysis on three different structiures of Cd2Re207, the number of IR and Raman active phonon modes close to the Brillouin zone centre have been determined and the results have been compared to the temperature-dependence of the Raman shifts of ^^O and ^*0 samples. After scaling (via removing Bose-Einstein and Rayleigh scattering factors from the scattered light) all spectra, each spectrum was fitted with a number of Lorentzian peaks. The temperature-dependence of the FWHM and Raman shift of mode Eg, shows the effects of the two structurjil phase transitions above Tc. The absolute reflectance of Cd2Re207 - '^O single crystals in the far-infrared spectral region (7-700 cm~^) has been measured in the superconducting state (0.5 K), right above the superconducting state (1.5 K), and in the normal state (4.2 K). Thermal reflectance of the sample at 0.5 K and 1.5 K indicates a strong absorption feature close to 10 cm~^ in the superconducting state with a reference temperature of 4.2 K. By means of Kramers-Kronig analysis, the absolute reflectance was used to calculate the optical conductivity and dielectric function. The real part of optical conductivity shows five distinct active phonon modes at 44, 200, 300, 375, and 575 cm~' at all temperatures including a Drude-like behavior at low frequencies. The imaginary part of the calculated dielectric function indicates a mode softening of the mode 44 cm~' below Tc.