• The diffusion of Co⠶溩 Zrâ â Tiâ â alloy /|nS. Kumar. -- 260 St Catharines [Ont.] : Dept. of Physics, Brock University,

      Kumar, S.; Department of Physics (Brock University, 1973-07-09)
      The diffusion of Co60 in the body centered cubic beta phase of a ZrSOTi SO alloy has been studied at 900°, 1200°, and 1440°C. The results confirm earlier unpublished data obtained by Kidson17 • The temperature dependence of the diffusion coefficient is unusual and suggests that at least two and possibly three mechanisms may be operative Annealing of the specimen in the high B.C.C. region prior to the deposition of the tracer results in a large reduction in the diffusion coefficient. The possible significance of this effect is discussed in terms of rapid transport along dislocation network.
    • Coriolis effects in symmetric top spectra /

      Cimprich, Lloyd Lee John.; Department of Physics (Brock University, 1974-06-09)
      The "x-y Coriolis Coupling Theory" as presented by Dilauro and Mills (1966) is reformulated and extended to the determination of Raman intensities. Theoretical Raman and Infrared spectra are computed in order to understand the effects due to this coupling in both types of spectra. Both the Infrared and Raman spectra obtained indicate very real effects due to Coriolis coupling. In some of the cases chosen the computed spectra are grossly different from the normal spectra where coupling is absent. Such large effects can greatly impede the interpretation of experimental results. Theoretical spectra therefore aids in the interpretation of experimental results, as is clearly demonstrated in the results of this work.
    • An application of cell-cluster theory to a rare gas crystal /|n[by] K. Westera. - 260 St. Catharines [Ont.] : Dept. of Physics, Brock University,

      Westera, K.; Department of Physics (Brock University, 1974-07-09)
      The Lennard-Jones Devonshire 1 (LJD) single particle theory for liquids is extended and applied to the anharmonic solid in a high temperature limit. The exact free energy for the crystal is expressed as a convergent series of terms involving larger and larger sets of contiguous particles called cell-clusters. The motions of all the particles within cell-clusters are correlated to each other and lead to non-trivial integrals of orders 3, 6, 9, ... 3N. For the first time the six dimensional integral has been calculated to high accuracy using a Lennard-Jones (6-12) pair interaction between nearest neighbours only for the f.c.c. lattice. The thermodynamic properties predicted by this model agree well with experimental results for solid Xenon.
    • Dechanneling of 2 Mev Heâ ½ in gold

      Wright, David Roderick.; Department of Physics (Brock University, 1978-07-09)
      Thick gold single crystals of high quality were prepared for Rutherford Backscattering Dechanneling studies by electropolishing and annealing. The variation.; with temperature of the Random Fraction versus Depth spectrtnn for 2 MeV He+ on < 110> gold was extracted from measured Aligned and Random (Energy) Spectra. The measured dechanneling rate showed a sixfold increase in going from 4loK to 293°K and is in reasonable agreement with calculations made using the Steady Increase in Transverse Energy (SITE) approximation.
    • The band structure of Cd0

      Leaver, Alan.; Department of Physics (Brock University, 1978-07-09)
      The Augmented Pl ane Wave Method has been used to calculate the one-electron energy band structure of CdO. Energy eigenva l ues were calculated along three symmetry lines and for some other general wave-vectors of interest.
    • Brillouin spectroscopy : measurement of elastic and photoelastic constants of some alkali holide crystals

      Bräul, Hans.; Department of Physics (Brock University, 1979-07-09)
      The assembly and testing of apparatus for the measurement of elastic and photoelastic constants by Brillouin scattering, using a Fabry-Perot interferometer and with argon ion laser excitation is described. Such measurements are performed on NaCI, KBr and LiF using the A = 488.0 nm laser line. The elastic constants obtained here are in very good agreement with the ultrasonic data for all three materials. The discrepancy between ultrasonic and hypersonic sound velocities which was reported by some authors for KBr and LiF is not confirmed, and the elastic constants obtained for LiF are the most accurate to date. Also, the present photoelastic constants are in good agreement with the data obtained by ultrasonic techniques for all three crystals. The results for the KBr and LiF crystals constitute the first set of photoelastic constants obtained for these materials by Brillouin spectroscopy. Our results for LiF are the best available to date.
    • On the anharmonic, multi-phonon, Debye-Waller contributions to the phonon-limited resistivity of metals : applications to Na and K

      VanderSchans, Martinus Bartus.; Department of Physics (Brock University, 1979-07-09)
      The anharmonic, multi-phonon (MP), and Oebye-Waller factor (OW) contributions to the phonon limited resistivity (;0) of metals derived by Shukla and Muller (1979) by the doubletime temperature dependent Green function method have been numerically evaluated for Na and K in the high temperature limit. The anharmonic contributions arise from the cubic and quartic shift of phonons (CS, QS), and phonon width (W) and the interference term (1). The QS, MP and OW contributions to I' are also derived by the matrix element method and the results are in agreement with those of Shukla and Muller (1979). In the high temperature limit, the contributions to;O from each of the above mentioned terms are of the type BT2 For numerical calculations suitable expressions are derived for the anharmonic contributions to ~ in terms of the third and fourth rank tensors obtained by the Ewald procedure. The numerical calculation of the contributions to;O from the OW, MP term and the QS have been done exactly and from the CS, Wand I terms only approximately in the partial and total Einstein approximations (PEA, TEA), using a first principle approach (Shukla and Taylor (1976)). The results obtained indicate that there is a strong pairwise cancellation between the: OW and MP terms, the QS and CS and the Wand I terms. The sum total of these contributions to;O for Na and K amounts to 4 to 11% and 2 to 7%, respectively, in the PEA while in the TEA they amount to 3 to 7% and 1 to 4%, respectively, in the temperature range.
    • On the path integral formulation and the evaluation of quantum statistical averages

      Manz, Arthur.; Department of Physics (Brock University, 1979-07-09)
      Four problems of physical interest have been solved in this thesis using the path integral formalism. Using the trigonometric expansion method of Burton and de Borde (1955), we found the kernel for two interacting one dimensional oscillators• The result is the same as one would obtain using a normal coordinate transformation, We next introduced the method of Papadopolous (1969), which is a systematic perturbation type method specifically geared to finding the partition function Z, or equivalently, the Helmholtz free energy F, of a system of interacting oscillators. We applied this method to the next three problems considered• First, by summing the perturbation expansion, we found F for a system of N interacting Einstein oscillators^ The result obtained is the same as the usual result obtained by Shukla and Muller (1972) • Next, we found F to 0(Xi)f where A is the usual Tan Hove ordering parameter* The results obtained are the same as those of Shukla and Oowley (1971), who have used a diagrammatic procedure, and did the necessary sums in Fourier space* We performed the work in temperature space• Finally, slightly modifying the method of Papadopolous, we found the finite temperature expressions for the Debyecaller factor in Bravais lattices, to 0(AZ) and u(/K/ j,where K is the scattering vector* The high temperature limit of the expressions obtained here, are in complete agreement with the classical results of Maradudin and Flinn (1963) .
    • On the formulation and the calculation of the harmonic contributions to the Debye-Waller factor in metals (sodium)

      Dey, Sajalendu.; Department of Physics (Brock University, 1979-07-09)
      The algebraic expressions for the anharmonic contributions to the Debye-Waller factor up to 0(A ) and 0 L% ) £ where ^ is the scattering wave-vector] have been derived in a form suitable for cubic metals with small ion cores where the interatomic potential extends to many neighbours. This has been achieved in terms of various wave-vector dependent tensors, following the work of Shukla and Taylor (1974) on the cubic anharmonic Helmholtz free energy. The contribution to the various wave-vector dependent tensors from the coulomb and the electron-ion terms in the interatomic metallic potential has been obtained by the Ewald procedure. All the restricted multiple whole B r i l l o u i n zone (B.Z.) sums are reduced to single whole B.Z. sums by using the plane wave representation of the delta function. These single whole B.Z. sums are further reduced to the •%?? portion of the B.Z. following Shukla and Wilk (1974) and Shukla and Taylor (1974). Numerical calculations have been performed for sodium where the Born-Mayer term in the interatomic potential has been neglected because i t is small £ Vosko (1964)3 • *n o^er to compare our calculated results with the experimental results of Dawton (1937), we have also calculated the r a t io of the intensities at different temperatures for the lowest five reflections (110), (200), (220), (310) and (400) . Our calculated quasi-harmonic results agree reasonably well with the experimental results at temperatures (T) of the order of the Debye temperature ( 0 ). For T » © ^ 9 our calculated anharmonic results are found to be in good agreement with the experimental results.The anomalous terms in the Debye-Waller factor are found not to be negligible for certain reflections even for T ^ ©^ . At temperature T yy Op 9 where the temperature is of the order of the melting temperature (Xm) » "the anomalous terms are found to be important almost for all the f i ve reflections.
    • Rotation-electronic interaction in the 3p-complex Rydberg state of water

      Hussain, Syed Mohammad Javed.; Department of Physics (Brock University, 1979-07-09)
      An energy theory is formulated for the rotational energy levels in a p-complex Rydberg state of an asymmetric top molecule of symmetry C2v. The effective Hamiltonian used consists of the usual rigid rotor Hamiltonian augmented with terms representing electronic spin and orbital angular momentum effects. Criteria for assigning symmetry species to the rotational energy levels, following Houganfs scheme that uses the full molecular group,are established and given in the form of a table. This is particularly suitable when eigenvectors are calculated on a digital computer. Also, an intensity theory for transitions to the Rydberg p-complex singlet states is presented and selection rules in terms of symmetry species of energy states are established. Finally, applications to HpO and DpO are given.
    • An experimental investigation of dechanneling in copper single crystals

      Tulonen, Paul V. G.; Department of Physics (Brock University, 1984-07-09)
      This investigation comprises a comparison of experimental and theoretical dechanneling of MeV protons in copper single crystals. Dechanneling results when an ion's transverse energy increases to the value where the ion can undergo small impact parameter collisions with individual atoms. Depth dependent dechanneling rates were determined as functions of lattice temperature, ion beam energy and crystal axis orientation. Ion beam energies were IMeV and 2MeV,temperatures ranged from 35 K to 280 K and the experiment was carried out along both the (lOa) and <110) axes. Experimental data took the form of aligned and random Rutherford backscattered energy spectra. Dechanneling rates were extracted from these spectra using a single scattering theory that took explicit account of the different stopping powers experienced by channeled and dechanneled ions and also included a correction factor to take into account multiple scattering effects along the ion's trajectory. The assumption of statistical equilibrium and small angle scattering of the channeled ions allows a description of dechanneling in terms of the solution of a diffusion like equation which contains a so called diffusion function. The diffusion function is shown to be related to the increase in average transverse energy. Theoretical treatments of increase in average transverse energy due to collisions of projectiles with channel electrons and thermal perturbations in the lattice potential are reviewed. Using the diffusion equation and the electron density in the channel centre as a fitting parameter dechanneling rates are extracted. Excellent agreement between theory and experiment has been demonstrated. Electron densities determined in the fitting procedure appear to be realistic. The surface parameters show themselves to be good indicators of the quality of the crystal.
    • Application of [Lambda] to the fourth perturbation theory in calculating the equation of state of rare gas solids and fcc metals

      Shanes, Fredrick C.; Department of Physics (Brock University, 1984-07-09)
      We have calculated the thermodynamic properties of monatomic fcc crystals from the high temperature limit of the Helmholtz free energy. This equation of state included the static and vibrational energy components. The latter contribution was calculated to order A4 of perturbation theory, for a range of crystal volumes, in which a nearest neighbour central force model was used. We have calculated the lattice constant, the coefficient of volume expansion, the specific heat at constant volume and at constant pressure, the adiabatic and the isothermal bulk modulus, and the Gruneisen parameter, for two of the rare gas solids, Xe and Kr, and for the fcc metals Cu, Ag, Au, Al, and Pb. The LennardJones and the Morse potential were each used to represent the atomic interactions for the rare gas solids, and only the Morse potential was used for the fcc metals. The thermodynamic properties obtained from the A4 equation of state with the Lennard-Jones potential, seem to be in reasonable agreement with experiment for temperatures up to about threequarters of the melting temperature. However, for the higher temperatures, the results are less than satisfactory. For Xe and Kr, the thermodynamic properties calculated from the A2 equation of state with the Morse potential, are qualitatively similar to the A 2 results obtained with the Lennard-Jones potential, however, the properties obtained from the A4 equation of state are in good agreement with experiment, since the contribution from the A4 terms seem to be small. The lattice contribution to the thermal properties of the fcc metals was calculated from the A4 equation of state, and these results produced a slight improvement over the properties calculated from the A2 equation of state. In order to compare the calculated specific heats and bulk moduli results with experiment~ the electronic contribution to thermal properties was taken into account~ by using the free electron model. We found that the results varied significantly with the value chosen for the number of free electrons per atom.
    • Molecular dynamics calculation of mean square displacement in alkali metals and rare gas solids and comparison with lattice dynamics

      Heiser, Gernot A.; Department of Physics (Brock University, 1984-07-09)
      Molec ul ar dynamics calculations of the mean sq ua re displacement have been carried out for the alkali metals Na, K and Cs and for an fcc nearest neighbour Lennard-Jones model applicable to rare gas solids. The computations for the alkalis were done for several temperatures for temperature vol ume a swell as for the the ze r 0 pressure ze ro zero pressure volume corresponding to each temperature. In the fcc case, results were obtained for a wide range of both the temperature and density. Lattice dynamics calculations of the harmonic and the lowe s t order anharmonic (cubic and quartic) contributions to the mean square displacement were performed for the same potential models as in the molecular dynamics calculations. The Brillouin zone sums arising in the harmonic and the quartic terms were computed for very large numbers of points in q-space, and were extrapolated to obtain results ful converged with respect to the number of points in the Brillouin zone.An excellent agreement between the lattice dynamics results was observed molecular dynamics and in the case of all the alkali metals, e~ept for the zero pressure case of CSt where the difference is about 15 % near the melting temperature. It was concluded that for the alkalis, the lowest order perturbation theory works well even at temperat ures close to the melting temperat ure. For the fcc nearest neighbour model it was found that the number of particles (256) used for the molecular dynamics calculations, produces a result which is somewhere between 10 and 20 % smaller than the value converged with respect to the number of particles. However, the general temperature dependence of the mean square displacement is the same in molecular dynamics and lattice dynamics for all temperatures at the highest densities examined, while at higher volumes and high temperatures the results diverge. This indicates the importance of the higher order (eg. ~* ) perturbation theory contributions in these cases.
    • An analysis of decoupling procedures in generating thermal Green's functions of O([lambda]â ´) by the Zubarev equation of motion method

      Delogu, Richard.; Department of Physics (Brock University, 1985-07-09)
      The Zubarev equation of motion method has been applied to an anharmonic crystal of O( ,,4). All possible decoupling schemes have been interpreted in order to determine finite temperature expressions for the one phonon Green's function (and self energy) to 0()\4) for a crystal in which every atom is on a site of inversion symmetry. In order to provide a check of these results, the Helmholtz free energy expressions derived from the self energy expressions, have been shown to agree in the high temperature limit with the results obtained from the diagrammatic method. Expressions for the correlation functions that are related to the mean square displacement have been derived to 0(1\4) in the high temperature limit.
    • The finite bandwidth model for spin fluctuations in Pd

      Longo, Janice P.; Department of Physics (Brock University, 1988-07-09)
      The frequency dependence of the electron-spin fluctuation spectrum, P(Q), is calculated in the finite bandwidth model. We find that for Pd, which has a nearly full d-band, the magnitude, the range, and the peak frequency of P(Q) are greatly reduced from those in the standard spin fluctuation theory. The electron self-energy due to spin fluctuations is calculated within the finite bandwidth model. Vertex corrections are examined, and we find that Migdal's theorem is valid for spin fluctuations in the nearly full band. The conductance of a normal metal-insulator-normal metal tunnel junction is examined when spin fluctuations are present in one electrode. We find that for the nearly full band, the momentum independent self-energy due to spin fluctuations enters the expression for the tunneling conductance with approximately the same weight as the self-energy due to phonons. The effect of spin fluctuations on the tunneling conductance is slight within the finite bandwidth model for Pd. The effect of spin fluctuations on the tunneling conductance of a metal with a less full d-band than Pd may be more pronounced. However, in this case the tunneling conductance is not simply proportional to the self-energy.
    • Pressure dependence of superconductivity in amorphous Ni x Zr 100-x alloys

      Mahini Abyaneh, Fariba.; Department of Physics (Brock University, 1988-10-02)
      Pressure variations of the superconducting transition temperature Ic of a series of amorphous NixZr 1 OO-x alloys have been studied under quasmydrostatic pressures upto 8 G Pa. For amorphous samples having Ni-concentration less than 40%, i)Tc/dP is positive in sign and it decreases non linearly with increase in I. whereasdTcldP is negative in sign for Ni concentration of 45%. Comparison with the Hall coefficient (I) and the thermoelectric power (2) results for the same amorphous alloys leads to the conclusion that s-d hybridization nature of the d-band (Nil plays a central role in the sign reversal behaviour. Application of pressures greater than 2 G Pa to Ni20ZrgO led to the formation of a new phase, w-Zr. which retains its form after the pressure is released.
    • On the equation of state and atomic mean square displacement of crystals

      Hubschle, Hermann J.; Department of Physics (Brock University, 1989-07-09)
      We have presented a Green's function method for the calculation of the atomic mean square displacement (MSD) for an anharmonic Hamil toni an . This method effectively sums a whole class of anharmonic contributions to MSD in the perturbation expansion in the high temperature limit. Using this formalism we have calculated the MSD for a nearest neighbour fcc Lennard Jones solid. The results show an improvement over the lowest order perturbation theory results, the difference with Monte Carlo calculations at temperatures close to melting is reduced from 11% to 3%. We also calculated the MSD for the Alkali metals Nat K/ Cs where a sixth neighbour interaction potential derived from the pseudopotential theory was employed in the calculations. The MSD by this method increases by 2.5% to 3.5% over the respective perturbation theory results. The MSD was calculated for Aluminum where different pseudopotential functions and a phenomenological Morse potential were used. The results show that the pseudopotentials provide better agreement with experimental data than the Morse potential. An excellent agreement with experiment over the whole temperature range is achieved with the Harrison modified point-ion pseudopotential with Hubbard-Sham screening function. We have calculated the thermodynamic properties of solid Kr by minimizing the total energy consisting of static and vibrational components, employing different schemes: The quasiharmonic theory (QH), ).2 and).4 perturbation theory, all terms up to 0 ().4) of the improved self consistent phonon theory (ISC), the ring diagrams up to o ().4) (RING), the iteration scheme (ITER) derived from the Greens's function method and a scheme consisting of ITER plus the remaining contributions of 0 ().4) which are not included in ITER which we call E(FULL). We have calculated the lattice constant, the volume expansion, the isothermal and adiabatic bulk modulus, the specific heat at constant volume and at constant pressure, and the Gruneisen parameter from two different potential functions: Lennard-Jones and Aziz. The Aziz potential gives generally a better agreement with experimental data than the LJ potential for the QH, ).2, ).4 and E(FULL) schemes. When only a partial sum of the).4 diagrams is used in the calculations (e.g. RING and ISC) the LJ results are in better agreement with experiment. The iteration scheme brings a definitive improvement over the).2 PT for both potentials.
    • A treatment of atomic mean square displacement in higher order perturbation theory

      Martin, Jeffrey Howard.; Department of Physics (Brock University, 1990-07-09)
      A general derivation of the anharmonic coefficients for a periodic lattice invoking the special case of the central force interaction is presented. All of the contributions to mean square displacement (MSD) to order 14 perturbation theory are enumerated. A direct correspondance is found between the high temperature limit MSD and high temperature limit free energy contributions up to and including 0(14). This correspondance follows from the detailed derivation of some of the contributions to MSD. Numerical results are obtained for all the MSD contributions to 0(14) using the Lennard-Jones potential for the lattice constants and temperatures for which the Monte Carlo results were calculated by Heiser, Shukla and Cowley. The Peierls approximation is also employed in order to simplify the numerical evaluation of the MSD contributions. The numerical results indicate the convergence of the perturbation expansion up to 75% of the melting temperature of the solid (TM) for the exact calculation; however, a better agreement with the Monte Carlo results is not obtained when the total of all 14 contributions is added to the 12 perturbation theory results. Using Peierls approximation the expansion converges up to 45% of TM• The MSD contributions arising in the Green's function method of Shukla and Hubschle are derived and enumerated up to and including 0(18). The total MSD from these selected contributions is in excellent agreement with their results at all temperatures. Theoretical values of the recoilless fraction for krypton are calculated from the MSD contributions for both the Lennard-Jones and Aziz potentials. The agreement with experimental values is quite good.
    • Calculation of the optical conductivity for the Anderson impurity model using the slave boson technique

      Arberg, Peter.; Department of Physics (Brock University, 1990-07-09)
      The optical conductivity of the Anderson impurity mode l has been calculated by emp l oying the slave boson technique and an expansion in powers of l i N, where N is the d egeneracy o f the f electron level . This method has been used to find the effective mass of the conduction electrons for temperatures above and below the Kondo tempera ture. For low temperatures, the mass enhancement is f ound to be large while a t high t emperatures, the mass enhancement is sma ll. The conductivity i s f ound to be Drude like with frequency dependent effective mass and scattering time for low independent effective mass and temperatures and scattering time f requency for high t emperatures. The behavior of both the effective mass and the conductivity is in qualitative agreement with experimental r esul t s .
    • Study of heat capacity measurement methods for small samples

      Rogge, Ronald B.; Department of Physics (Brock University, 1990-07-09)
      Methods of measuring specific heats of small samples were studied. Three automated methods were explored, two of which have shown promising results. The adiabatic continuous heating method, has provided smooth well behaved data but further work is presently underway to improve on the results obtained so far . The decay method has been success fully implemented demonstrating reasonable agreement with accepted data for a copper test sample.