• Armor coats, inverse grading, and streambed scour in selected streams of Southern Ontario and Western New York /

      Maddalena, Albert L.; Department of Earth Sciences (Brock University, 1984-06-01)
      Surface size analyses of Twenty and Sixteen Mile Creeks, the Grand and Genesee Rivers and Cazenovia Creek show three distinct types of bed-surface sediment: 1) a "continuous" armor coat which has a mean size of -6.5 phi and coarser, 2) a "discontinuous" armor coat which has a mean size of approximately -6.0 phi and 3) a bed with no armor coat which has a mean surface size of -5.0 phi and finer. The continuous armor coat completely covers and protects the subsurface from the flow. The discontinuous armor coat is composed of intermittently-spaced surface clasts, which provide the subsurface with only limited protection from the flow. The bed with no armor coat allows complete exposure of the subsurface to the flow. The subsurface beneath the continuous armor coats of Twenty and Sixteen Mile Creeks is possibly modified by a "vertical winnowing" process when the armor coat is p«natrat«d. This process results in a welld «v«loped inversely graded sediment sequence.vertical winnowing is reduced beneath the discontinuous armor coats of the Grand and Genesee Rivers. The reduction of vertical winnowing results in a more poorly-developed inverse grading than that found in Twenty and sixteen Mile Creeks. The streambed of Cazenovia Creek normally is not armored resulting in a homogeneous subsurface which shows no modification by vertical winnowing. This streambed forms during waning or moderate flows, suggesting it does not represent the maximum competence of the stream. Each population of grains in the subsurface layers of Twenty and sixteen Mile Creeks has been modified by vertical winnowing and does not represent a mode of transport. Each population in the subsurface layers beneath a discontinuous armor coat may partially reflect a transport mode. These layers are still inversely graded suggesting that each population is affected to some degree by vertical winnowing. The populations for sediment beneath a surface which is not armored are probably indicative of transport modes because such sediment has not been modified by vertical winnowing. Bed photographs taken in each of the five streams before and after the 1982-83 snow-melt show that the probability of movement for the surface clasts is a function of grain size. The greatest probability of of clast movement and scour depth of this study were recorded on Cazenovia Creek in areas where no armor coat is present. The scour depth in the armored beds of Twenty and Sixteen Mile Creeks is related to the probability of movement for a given mean surface size.
    • Drift dispersal in central Southern Ontario /

      Podolak, Wilfred E.; Department of Earth Sciences (Brock University, 1984-06-01)
      Two tills are readily identi-f i able in central Southern Ontario, a very stony, loose deposit o-f variable matrix (Dummer till) and a moderately stony, fissile and compact deposit that is more homogeneous (drumlinized till). The quantity o-f Precambr i an, Paleozoic and Shadow Lake Formation (Paleozoic) rock types were determined and corresponding isopleth maps drawn. The changes in lithology content occurred in the direction o-f transport, there-fore, compositional isopleths o-f till may be considered equipotential lines for the reconstruction of glacier flow paths. Areal gradations of drift lithology indicated that the prime agents of dispersal were ice and glacial meltwaters. The down-ice abundance trend of till components indicated a dispersal pattern showing the concentration of a given lithology type peaking within a few kilometres of the source followed by a rapid decline and thereafter, a more gradual decrease with increasing distance. Within the esker deposits, igneous rocks may form the major component and can extend further onto the limestone plain than in the adjacent till. Evidence is presented that indicates the "style" of dispersal was one in which glacial ice may have been strongly influenced by local bedrock topography and the regional structural trends. The ice tended to follow pre-existing valleys and lows, depositing till composed mainly of local bedrock. Gradations in Paleozoic clast content showed that the local bedrock lithology became the primary till component within 3 km of down-ice transport. Evidence is presented that indicated the last glaciation may have occurred as a relatively thin ice mass, followed by stagnation and recession. No evidence of a lateglacial re-advance was found within the study area. Because of the lack of a contact between the Dummer and drumlinized till, and because of results showing gradation of the Dummer till into the drumlinized till (as indicated by lithology content and grain size), it is suggested that no re-advance occurred.
    • The surficial geology, sedimentology and geochemistry of the late glacial sediments and Paleozoic bedrock in the Campbellford area, Ontario, with special reference to the Dummer Complex /

      Mihychuk, MaryAnn.; Department of Earth Sciences (Brock University, 1984-06-01)
      The Dummer Complex extends 180 km along the Precambrian - Paleozoic contact from Tamworth to Lake Simcoe. It is composed of coarse, angular Paleozoic clasts in discontinuous, pitted, hummocky deposits. Deposits are usually separated by bare or boulder strewn bedrock, but have been found in the southern drumlinized till sheet. Dummer Complex deposits show rough alignment with ice-flow. Eskers cross-cut many of the deposits. Dummer sediment subfacies are defined on the basis of dominant coarse grain size and lithology, which relate directly to the underlying Paleozoic formation. Three subglacial tills are identified based on the degree of comminution and distance of transport; the immature facies of the Dummer Complex; the mature facies of the drumlinized till sheet and; the submature facies which is transitional. Carbonate geochemistry was used for till-bedrock correlation in various grain sizes. Of the 3 Paleozoic formations underlying the Dummer Complex, the Gull River Fm. is geochemically distinctive from the Bobcaygeon and Verulam Formations using Ca, Mg, Sr, Cu, Mn, Fe and Na. The Bobcaygeon Fm. and Verulam Fm. can be differentiated using Ca and the Sr/Ca ratio. The immature facies from 1.0 phi and finer is dominated by the non-carbonate, long distance transported component which decreases slightly downice. The submature till facies contains more long distance material than the immature facies. Sr and Mn can be used to correlate the Gull River immature till facies to the underlying bedrock the other subfacies could not be distinguished from each other or their respective source formation. This method proved to be ineffective for sediments with greater than 35% non-carbonate component, due to leaching of elements by the dissolving acid.The Dummer Complex is produced subglacially , as the compressional ice encounters the permeable Paleozoic carbonates. The increased shear strength of the ice and pore pressures in the carbonates results in the basal ice zones becoming debris ladden. Cleaner ice overrides the basal debris . laden dead ice which then acts as the glacier bed. During retreat, the Simcoe lobe stagnates as flow is cut-off by the Algonquin Highlands.
    • Evolution of an Archean greenstone belt in the Stormy Lake - Kawashegamuk Lake area (stratigraphy, structure and geochemistry) - Western Wabigoon Subprovince, Northwest Ontario /

      Kresz, D. U.; Department of Earth Sciences (Brock University, 1984-06-01)
      330 km 2 of the easter-n part of the Archean Manitou Lakes - Stormy Lake metavolcanic - metasedimentary belt have been mapped and sampled. A large number of rocks ~.vere analyzed for the major and trace constituents including the rare-earth elements (REE). The Stormy Lake - Kawashegamuk Lake area may be subdivided into four major lithological groups of supracrustal rocks 1) A north-facing mafic assemblage, consisting of pillowed tholeiitic basalts and gabbro sills characterized by flat REE profiles, is exposed in the south part of the map area and belongs to a 8000 m thick homoclinal assemblage outside the map area. Felsic pyroclastic rocks believed to have been issued from a large central vent conformably overlie the tholeiites. 2) A dominantly epiclastic group facing to the north consists of terrestrial deposits interpreted to be an alluvial fan deposit ; a submarine facies is represented by turbiditic sediments. 3) The northeastern part of the study area consists of volcanic rocks belonging to two mafic - felsic cycles facing to the southuest ; andesitic flows with fractionated REE patterns make up a large part of the upper cycle, whereas the lower cycle has a stronger chemical polarity being represented by tholeiitic flows, with flat REE, which a r e succeeded by dacitic and rhyolitic pyroclasti cs. iii 4) A thick monotonous succession of tholeiitic pillmled basalt f lows and gabbro sills with flat REE represent the youngest supracrustal rocks. TIle entire belt underwent folding, faulting and granitic plutonism during a tectono-thermal event around 2700 Ma ago. Rocks exposed in the map area were subjected to regional greenschist facies metamorphism, but higher metamorphic grades are present near late granitic intrusions. Geochemical studies have been useful in 1) distinguishing the various rock units ; 2) relating volcanic and intrusive rocks 3) studying the significance of chemical changes due to post magmatic processes 4) determining the petrogenesis of the major volcanic rock types. In doing so, two major volcanic suites have been recognized : a) a tholeiitic suite, mostly represented by mafic rocks, was derived from partial melting of upper mantle material depleted in Ti, K and the light REE ; b) a calc-alkalic suite which evolved from partial melting of amphibolite in the lower crust. The more differentiated magma types have been produced by a multistage process involving partial melting and fractional crystallization to yield a continuum of compos i t i ons ranging from basaltic andesite to rhyolite. A model for the development of the eastern part of the Manitou Lakes - Stormy Lake belt has been proposed.
    • An investigation of application of 29si magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance in geology

      Williams, Barbara L.; Department of Earth Sciences (Brock University, 1984-07-09)
    • The effects of moisture, cation concentration, temperature, density and composition of soils on their electrical resistivity

      Chaudhry, Mohammad Naveed Hayat.; Department of Earth Sciences (Brock University, 1984-07-09)
      The effects. of moisture, cation concentration, dens ity , temper~ t ure and grai n si ze on the electrical resistivity of so il s are examined using laboratory prepared soils. An i nexpen si ve method for preparing soils of different compositions was developed by mixing various size fractions i n the laboratory. Moisture and cation c oncentration are related to soil resistivity by powe r functions, whereas soil resistiv ity and temperature, density, Yo gravel, sand , sil t, and clay are related by exponential functions . A total of 1066 cases (8528 data) from all the experiments were used in a step-wise multiple linear r egression to determine the effect of each variable on soil resistivity. Six variables out of the eight variables studied account for 92.57/. of the total variance in so il resistivity with a correlation coefficient of 0.96. The other two variables (silt and gravel) did not increase the · variance. Moisture content was found to be - the most important Yo clay. variable- affecting s oil res istivi ty followed by These two variables account for 90.81Yo of the total variance in soil resistivity with a correlation ~oefficient ·.of 0 . 95. Based on these results an equation to ' ~~ed{ ct soil r esist ivi ty using moisture and Yo clay is developed . To t est the predicted equation, resistivity measurements were made on natural soils both in s i tu a nd i n the laboratory. The data show that field and laboratory measurements are comparable. The predicted regression line c losely coinciqes with resistivity data from area A and area B soils ~clayey and silty~clayey sands). Resistivity data and the predicted regression line in the case of c layey soils (clays> 40%) do not coincide, especially a t l ess than 15% moisture. The regression equation overestimates the resistivity of so i l s from area C and underestimates for area D soils. Laboratory prepared high clay soils give similar trends. The deviations are probably caused by heterogeneous distribution of mo i sture and difference in the type o f cl ays present in these soils.
    • Physical volcanology, sedimentology, stratigraphy and petrochemistry of the Berry Creek metavolcanics: an Archean calc-alkaline complex, Lake of the Woods, Ontario

      Davison, James Gregory.; Department of Earth Sciences (Brock University, 1984-11-04)
      The steeply dipping, isoclinally folded early Precambrian (Archean) Berry Creek Metavolcanic Complex comprises primary to resedimented pyroclastic, epiclastic and autoclastic deposits. Tephra erupted from central volcanic edifices was dumped by mass flow mechanisms into peripheral volcanosedimentary depressions. Sedimentation has been essentially contemporaneous with eruption and transport of tephra. The monolithic to heterolithic tuffaceous horizons are interpreted as subaerial to subaqueous pumice and ash flows, secondary debris flows, lahars, slump deposits and turbidites. Monolithic debris flows, derived from crumble breccia and dcme talus, formed during downslope collapse and subsequent gravity flowage. Heterolithic tuff, lahars and lava flow morphologies suggest at least temporary emergence of the edifice. Local collapse may have accompanied pyroclastic volcanism. The tephra, produced by hydromagmatic to magmatic eruptions, were rapidly transported, by primary and secondary mechanisms, to a shallow littoral to deep water subaqueous fan developed upon the subjacent mafic metavolcanic platform. Deposition resulted from traction, traction carpet, and suspension sedimentation from laminar to turbulent flows. Facies mapping revealed proximal (channel to overbank) to distal facies epiclastics (greywackes, argillite) intercalated with proximal vent to medial fan facies crystal rich ash flows, debris flows, bedded tuff and shallow water to deep water lava flows. Framework and matrix support debris flows exhibit a variety of subaqueous sedimentary structures, e.g., coarse tail grading, double grading, inverse to normal grading, graded stratified pebbly horizons, erosional channels. Pelitic to psammitic AE turbidites also contain primary stru~tures, e.g., flames, load casts, dewatering pipes. Despite low to intermediate pressure greenschist to amphibolite grade metamorphism and variably penetrative deformation, relicts of pumice fragments and shards were recognized as recrystallized quartzofeldspathic pseudomorphs. The mafic to felsic metavolcanics and metasediments contain blasts of hornblende, actinolite, garnet, pistacitic epidote, staurolite, albitic plagioclase, and rarely andalusite and cordierite. The mafic metavolcanics (Adams River Bay, Black River, Kenu Lake, Lobstick Bay, Snake Bay) display _holeiitic trends with komatiitic affinities. Chemical variations are consistent with high level fractionation of olivine, plagioclase, amphibole, and later magnetite from a parental komatiite. The intermediate to felsic (64-74% Si02) metavolcanics generally exhibit calc-alkaline trends. The compositional discontinuity, defined by major and trace element diversity, can be explained by a mechanism involving two different magma sources. Application of fractionation series models are inconsistent with the observed data. The tholeiitic basalts and basaltic andesites are probably derived by low pressure fractionation of a depleted (high degree of partial melting) mantle source. The depleted (low Y, Zr) calc-alkaline metavolcanics may be produced by partial melting of a geochemically evolved source, e.g., tonalitetrondhjemite, garnet amphibolite or hydrous basalt.
    • Abrasion, transport and distribution of sediment in selected streams of Southern Ontario and Western New York /

      Kester, Stephen Joseph.; Department of Earth Sciences (Brock University, 1985-06-09)
      The rate of decrease in mean sediment size and weight per square metre along a 54 km reach of the Credit River was found to depend on variations in the channel geometry. The distribution of a specific sediment size consist of: (1) a transport zone; (2) an accumulation zone; and (3) a depletion zone. These zones shift downstream in response to downcurrent decreases in stream competence. Along a .285 km man-made pond, within the Credit River study area, the sediment is also characterized by downstream shifting accumulation zones for each finer clast size. The discharge required to initiate movement of 8 cm and 6 cm blocks in Cazenovia Creek is closely approximated by Baker and Ritter's equation. Incipient motion of blocks in Twenty Mile Creek is best predicted by Yalin's relation which is more efficient in deeper flows. The transport distance of blocks in both streams depends on channel roughness and geometry. Natural abrasion and distribution of clasts may depend on the size of the surrounding sediment and variations in flow competence. The cumulative percent weight loss with distance of laboratory abraded dolostone is defined by a power function. The decrease in weight of dolostone follows a negative exponential. In the abrasion mill, chipping causes the high initial weight loss of dolostone; crushing and grinding produce most of the subsequent weight loss. Clast size was found to have little effect on the abrasion of dolostone within the diameter range considered. Increasing the speed of the mill increased the initial amount of weight loss but decreased the rate of abrasion. The abrasion mill was found to produce more weight loss than stream action. The maximum percent weight loss determined from laboratory and field abrasion data is approximately 40 percent of the weight loss observed along the Credit River. Selective sorting of sediment explains the remaining percentage, not accounted for by abrasion.
    • Petrography, Petrochemistry and petrogenesis of Huronian volcanic rocks of the Elliot Lake region, Ontario

      Cumming, Bradley R.; Department of Earth Sciences (Brock University, 1985-07-09)
      In the Elliot lake region of northern Ontario, Yolcanlc lava piles represent the lowermost units of the Huronian SUpergroup. These rocks general1y trend east-west and belong to the Elliot lake Group. They are s1tuated on the north and south limbs or the QuIrke lake Syncline. The volcanIc rocks of this study contain a secondary minerai assemblage consisting of actinolite, biotite, chlorIte, eptdote/cllnozoislte tttanomagnettte and calcite characteristic of greenschist metamorphism. Compilation of data suggests that metamorphism of the volcanic rocks proceeded between 325- and 425-C and between 2.4 and 4.7 kb. Geochemtcally these lavas represent tholeiitic and calc-alkaline assemblages. The tholeiites are character1sttcally enriched tn Fe and Tt and consist mainly of basalts, basaltic andesites and andesites. These rocks are believed to have formed by the partIal melting of a peridottte source at low P-T. In contrast, the calc-alkaline rocks are depleted in Fe and TI, but show a signIficant enrichment In 51 and Zr; andesIte Is the major rock type for thIs assemblage. I·t Is postUlated that the calc-alkalIne sU1te of rocks was the result of eIther the partIal meltIng of abasaltic·magma at shallow depth, or the melttng of s1al1c crustal materIal due to the added we1ght of tholeiitIc material on an unstable crust and to downwarplng processes Inttlated by convection cells.
    • The sedimentology of unconsolidated deltaic and aeolian sediments east of Dunnville, Ontario /

      Pastirik, George Paul.; Department of Earth Sciences (Brock University, 1985-07-14)
      Surficial sediments east of Dunnville, Ontario representing a limited deltaic/lacustrine/aeolian system are investigated with the aim of defining and interpreting their geological history by means of exarrrrning their sedimentology and interrelationships. The Folk and \oJard grain size statistics of samples fran the area were calculated. These sample parameters were e1en plotted on maps to detennine regional patterns. The strongest pattern observed was one of distinct fining to the east, away fran the sand source. Aeolian deposits were fourrl to be better sorted than the surrcunding sediments. The grain size parameter values were also plotted on bivariate graphs in an attempt to separate the samples according to depositional environment. This exercise met with little success, as rrost of the sediments sampled in the area have similar grain size parameters. This is believed to be because the sediment sources for the different environments (delta, distal delta, aeolian dune) are intimately related, to the point that nnst dunes appear to have been sourcErl fran immediately local sediments. It is FOstulated that in such a srrall sedimentological sub-system, sediments were not involved in active transport for a length of time sufficient for the rraterial to cane to equilibritnn with its transporting medium. Thus, fe..v distinctive patterns of parameters were developed that would enable one to differentiate between various environments of neposition. The i.rnTaturity of rrany dune forms and the i.Imaturity of mineralogical composition of all deposits support the above hyt:XJthesis of limited transport time. Another hypothesis proposen is that eadh geologically or geographically distinct area or "sub-system" rray have its o,.m "signature" of grain size relationships as plotted on bivariate graphs. Thus, the emphasis, concerning graphs of this type, should not be placErl on attempting to nifferentiate between various environnents of deposition, hut raB1er on investigating the interrelationships between sanples am environments within that "sub-system". Through the course of this investigation, the existence of nelta plain distributary Channels in the thesis area is SUG0ested, and the mscovery of significantly mfferent sub-units within the TUnnville dune sediments is documented. It is inferred by reference to other authors interpretations of the glacial history of the area, that the tirre of effective aeolian acti vi ty in the Dunnville area was between 12,300 to 12,100 years R.p.
    • A sedimentological study of the glacigenic deposits at Mohawk Bay, near Dunnville, Ontario

      Barnsley, John Anthony.; Department of Earth Sciences (Brock University, 1985-11-04)
    • Structural studies and gabbro mylonitization within the Barton Bay Deformation Zone, Geraldton, Ontario /

      Buck, Shane.; Department of Earth Sciences (Brock University, 1986-06-01)
      Structures related to ductile siMple shear parallel to the Bankf ield-Tonbill Fault, define a 5km wide zone, the Barton Bay Deformation Zone. Structures present within this zone Include; simple shear fabrics S, C and C , asymmetric Z shaped folds with rotated axes, boudinage and pinch and swell structures and a subhorlzontal extension llneation. The most highly deformed rock is a gabbro mylonite which occurs in the fault zone. The deformation of this gabbro has been traced in stages from a protomylonite to an ultramylonite In which feldspar and chlorite grainslze has been reduced from over 100 microns to as little as 5 microns. Evidence from the mylonite and the surrounding structure indicates that deformation within the Barton Bay Deformation Zone is related to a regional simple shear zone, the Bankf ield-Tombill Fault. Movement along this shear zone was in a south over north oblique strike slip fashion with a dextral sense of displacement.
    • A geochemical and paleoceanographic investigation using marine molluscs of the late Quaternary marine submergences Quebec, Ontario, British Columbia

      Wassenaar, Leonard I.; Department of Earth Sciences (Brock University, 1986-07-09)
      Sedjrrlents deposited in the Late Quaternary marine sUbrnergences that follov'ted the deglaciation of Ontario} Quebec., and 6ritlst-1 Columbia often contaln an abundant nlarlne invertebrate macrofauna. The rnacrofauna~ dotYllnated by aragonitic pelecypods} is fully preserved In their original mineralogy and cherrlistry 8S deternl1ned by x-ray dlffractlon., scannlng electron tl-,lcroscoDY., trace and r1l1 nor elet11ent analyses and stable isotopes. Ttle trace elernent and stable isotope geochen-Ilstry of chernlcal1y unaltered aragorlitlc molluscs can be used to determine paleoter1-lperatures and paleosallnltles." HO\Never} corrections need to be tllade \fvtlen deterrTIlnlng oxygen-isotope paleotenlperi:ttures due to the lnfluence of isotopically 11gtlt glaciol rneltv-laters and reduced sal1nltles. Ttle eastern Laurentide Ice Sheet probably had an o:~ygen lS0tOP1C composition as low as -8e) 0/00 (Sr1[IW). In additl0fl} corrections need to be rnade to the carbonlsotope values, before salinity deterrnlnatlons are t11ade., due to the reJjuctlon of the terrestrial carbon bl0rnass during glac1al maxlrna. Using geochernlcal data frot11 537 marlne n-'8crolnvertebrates frorTI 72 localities in soutt-,easter Ontarl0 and southern Quebec, it tras been deterrnined that the Late Quaternary Char1lplaln Sea \N6S density stratified along salinity and temperatlJre gradients. The deep-\h/aters of tt-,e Charnplaln Sea tlad salinities that ranged frorn 31 to 36 ppt} and terrlperatures of 00 to 5°C. Conversely.. the st1alloy./-\f*later regirrle of ttle Ctlarnplaln Sea tlad sal1nltles that ranged fron-, 24 to 33 ppt} Y.tltt1 terrlperatures ranglng from 5° to 15°C. Tr,8 rrlajorl rnlnor1 and trace e1et1-,ent geochernlcal analysls of 155 marine lnvertebrates frorn 4 10C611t1es of tt-,e Late Quaternary Ft. Langley Forrnatlon and Capl1ano Sedlments;. souttl\Nestern Brltlsh Columblal suggest l t~lat the 'waters of the o-,arlne lnundation that fol1o....ved the retreating Cordl11eran Ice Sheet had sal1nltles ranglng frorn 32 to 3f. DPt.
    • Molluscan carbonate geochemistry and paleoceanography of the Late Cretaceous western interior seaway of North America

      Morrison, Joan O.; Department of Earth Sciences (Brock University, 1986-07-09)
      North Amerlc8 W8S inundated by fJ major eplcontlnental sea during ihe C:retaceo.us Period. The sOljihw6rd transgression of th.e northern Boreal See along the ~\festern Interior Seaway resulted in a meetlng with the northward edv6nclng waters from the GUlf of Mexico (Obradovich and Cobban, 1975). Th1s link was 1n eXlstence by late Albien time and 6llowed for the comm1ngl1ng of the prol1ferous Arctic and Gulf rnar1ne faunas (F1g. 1). By early Campanlan time, there was a widening of B6ffln Bay wlth a slrnult8neous subsidence 1n the Arct1c Archlpelago and Sverdrup 6as1n (W11liam and Stelck, 1975). Williams and Burk (1964) found 6 break 1n the marines sedlmentatlon in the f1anltoba area, suggesting Bland corlnectlon from the Dlstrlct of Keewatln through eastern M6fl1toba to the lake Sl~perlor reglon, lmplying that the only dlrect connection between the Interlor Sea with Baffln Bay, was yia the Arct1c. This hiatus was also documented by Meek and Hayden (1861) ln the United states between the Niobrara and Pierre Format1ons. Jeletzky (1971) suggested that the retreat of the sea towards the east was by a serles of strong pulses resultlng in the regression of the Campanlan and M66str1chtlan seas. During ttle Cretaceous1 the r1s1ng Corl1111era caused the western shoreline of the Interlor Sea to migrate eastwards and the Cordillera'l detritus produced deltaic cornplexes from the Mackenzie Valley to Ne\N Mexlcoo The foreland basin was continually subslding and thls down\",arplng aided in the eastward m1gration of the western shorel1ne. Thls also lndicates that trle water 'tIes becom1ng deeper in the central Plains sect10n of the Seaway (Fig. 2).
    • Geochemistry and petrogenesis of the Proterozoic Pater metavolcanic suite, Spragge, Ontario /

      Lorek, Edward G.; Department of Earth Sciences (Brock University, 1987-06-15)
      The Pater metavolcanic suite (PVS) was extruded as part O'f the basal Pater Formation of the Huronian Supergroup ca. 2.4 Ga. They Ars classified as wi thin-plate tholeiites associated with an immature ri-fting episode, and are inter layered with associated vol cani clastic and metasedimentary units. Post-solidif ication alteration caused redistribution o-f the alkalies, Sr, Rb, Ba, Cu, and SiO^. Ce, Y, Zr, CFezOs (as total Fe), Al^Os, TiOa, and, PaOa are considered to have remained essentially immobile in least altered samples. Petrogenetic modelling indicates the PVS was derived from the partial melting of two geochemical ly similar sources in the sub-continental lithosphere. Fractionation was characterized by an oli vine-plagioclase assemblage and a sub-volcanic plagioclase-clinopyroxene assemblage. A comparative study indicates that enrichment of the postulated Huronian source cannot be reconciled by Archean contamination. Enrichment is thought to have been caused by hydrous veined metasomatic heterogeneities in the sub-continental lithosphere, generated by an Archean subduct ion event before 2.68 Ga.
    • Structural analysis of the Paint Lake Deformation Zone, Northern Ontario /

      Reilly, Brian Arthur.; Department of Earth Sciences (Brock University, 1987-06-29)
      The Paint Lake Deformation Zone (PLDZ), located within the Superior Province of Canada, demarcates a major structural and lithological break between the Onaman-Tashota Terrane to the north and the Beardmore-Geraldton Belt to the south. The PLDZ is an east-west trending lineament, approximately 50 km in length and up to 1 km in width, comprised of an early ductile component termed the Paint Lake Shear Zone and a late brittle component known as the Paint Lake Fault. Structures associated with PLDZ development including S-, C- and C'-fabrics, stretching lineations, slickensides, C-C' intersection lineations, Z-folds and kinkbands indicate that simple shear deformation dominated during a NW-SE compressional event. Movement along the PLDZ was in a dextral sense consisting of an early differential motion with southside- down and a later strike-slip motion. Although the locus of the PLDZ may in part be lithologically controlled, mylonitization which accompanied shear zone development is not dependent on the lithological type. Conglomerate, intermediate and mafic volcanic units exhibit similar mesoscopic and microscopic structures where transected by the PLDZ. Field mapping, supported by thin section analysis, defines five strain domains increasing in intensity of deformation from shear zone boundary to centre. A change in the dominant microstructural deformation mechanism from dislocation creep to diffusion creep is observed with increasing strain during mylonitization. C'-fabric development is temporally associated with this change. A decrease in the angular relationship between C- and C'-fabrics is observed upon attaining maximum strain intensity. Strain profiling of the PLDZ demonstrates the presence of an outer primary strain gradient which exhibits a simple profile and an inner secondary strain gradient which exhibits a more complex profile. Regionally metamorphosed lithologies of lower greenschist facies outside the PLDZ were subjected to retrograde metamorphism during deformation within the PLDZ.
    • A geochemical and petrological study of volcanic rocks in the Beardmore-Geraldton Archaean Greenstone Belt, Northwestern Ontario

      Soo, Kwong Yin.; Department of Earth Sciences (Brock University, 1988-07-09)
      Three repetitive sequences of northward youngIng, east striking, linear, volcano-sedimentary units are found in the late Archaean BeardmoreGeraldton greenstone belt, situated within the Wabigoon subprovince of the Superior Province of northwestern Ontario. The volcanic components are characterised by basaltic flows that are pillowed at the top and underlain by variably deformed massive flows which may In part be intrusive. Petrographic examination of the volcanic units indicates regional metamorphism up to greenschist facies (T=3250 C - 4500 C, P=2kbars) overprinted by a lower amphibolite facies thermal event (T=5750 C, P=2kbars) confined to the south-eastern portion of the belt. Chemical element results suggest olivine, plagioclase and pyroxene are the main fractionating mineral phases. Mobility studies on the varIOUS chemical elements indicate that K, Ca, Na and Sr are relatively mobile, while P, Zr, Ti, Fet (total iron = Fe203) and Mg are relatively immobile. Discriminant diagrams employing immobile element suggests that the majority of the samples are of oceanic affinity with a minor proportion displaying an island arc affinity. Such a transitional tectonic setting IS also refle.cted in REE data where two groups of volcanic samples are recognised. Oceanic tholeiites are LREE depleted with [La/Sm] N = 0.65 and a relatively flat HREE profile with [Sm/Yb] N = 1.2. Island arc type basalts (calc-alkaline) are LREE enriched, with a [La/Sm] N = 1.6, and a relatively higher fractionated HREE profile with [Sm/Yb] N = 1.9. Petrogenetic modelling performed on oceanIC tholeiites suggests derivation from a depleted spinel lherzolite source which undergoes 20% partial melting. Island arc type basalts can be derived by 10% partial melting of a hypothetical amphibolitised oceanic tholeiite source. The majority of the volcanic rocks in the Beardmore-Geraldton Belt are interpreted to represent fragments of oceanic crust trapped at a consuming plate margin. Subsequent post accretionary intrusion of gabbroic rocks (sensu lato) with calc-alkaline affinity is considered to result in the apparent hybrid tectonic setting recognized for the BGB.
    • Biogeochemistry of Paleozoic brachiopods from New York State and Ontario

      Bates, Nicholas R.; Department of Earth Sciences (Brock University, 1989-07-09)
      A comprehensive elemental, isotopic and microstructural analyses was undertaken of brachiopod calcites from the Hamilton Group (Middle Devonian), Clinton Group (Middle Silurian) and Middle to Upper Ordovician strata of Ontario and New York State. The majority of specimens were microstructurally and chemically preserved in a pristine state, although a number of specimens show some degree of post-depositional alteration. Brachiopod calcites from the Hamilton and Clinton Groups were altered by marine derived waters whereas Trenton Group (Middle Ordovician) brachiopods altered in meteorically derived fluids. Analysis of the elemental and isotopic compositions of pristine Hamilton Group brachiopods indicates there are several chemical relationships inherent to brachiopod calcite. Taxonomic differentiation of Mg, Sr and Na contents was evident in three co-occuring species from the Hamilton Group. Mean Mg contents of pristine brachiopods were respectively Athyris spiriferoides (1309ppm), Mucrospirifer mucronatus (1035ppm) and Mediospirifer audacula (789ppm). Similarly, taxonomic differentiation of shell calcite compositions was observed in co-occuring brachiopods from the Clinton Group (Middle Silurian) and the Trenton Group (Middle Ordovician). The taxonomic control of elemental regulation into shell calcite is probably related to the slightly different physiological systems and secretory mechanisms. A relationship was observed in Hamilton Group species between the depth of respective brachiopod communities and their Mg, Sr and Na contents. These elements were depleted in the shell calcites of deeper brachiopods compared to their counterparts in shallower reaches. Apparently shell calcite elemental composition is related to environmental conditions of the depositional setting, which may have controlled the secretory regime, mineral morphology of shell calcite and precipitation rates of each species. Despite the change in Mg, Sr and Na contents between beds and formations in response to environmental conditions, the taxonomic differentiation of shell calcite composition is maintained. Thus, it may be possible to predict relative depth changes in paleoenvironmental reconstructions using brachiopod calcite. This relationship of brachiopod chemistry to depth was also tested within a transgressiveregressive (T-R) cycle in the Rochester Shale Formation (Middle Silurian). Decreasing Mg, Sr and Na contents were observed in the transition from the shallow carbonates of the Irondequoit Formation to the deeper shales of the lowest 2 m of Rochester Shale. However, no isotopic and elemental trends were observed within the entire T-R cycle which suggests that either the water conditions did not change significantly or that the cycle is illusory. A similar relationship was observed between the Fe and Mn chemistries of shell calcite and redox/paleo-oxygen conditions. Hamilton Group brachiopods analysed from deeper areas of the shelf are enriched in Mn and Fe relative to those from shallow zones. The presence of black shales and dysaerobic faunas, during deposition of the Hamilton Group, suggests that the waters of the northern Appalachian Basin were stratified. The deeper brachiopods were marginally positioned above an oxycline and their shell calcites reflect periodic incursions of oxygen depleted water. Furthermore, analysis of Dalmanella from the black shales of the Collingwood Shale (Upper Ordovician) in comparison to those from the carbonates of the Verulam Formation (Middle Ordovician) confirm the relationship of Fe and Mn contents to periodic but not permanent incursions of low oxygen waters. The isotopic compositions of brachiopod calcite found in Hamilton Group (813C; +2.5% 0 to +5.5% 0; 8180 -2.50/00 to -4.00/00) and Clinton Group (813C; +4.00/00 to +6.0; 8180; -1.8% 0 to -3.60/ 00) are heavier than previously reported. Uncorrected paleotemperatures (assuming normal salinity, 0% 0 SMOW and no fractionation effects) derived from these isotopic values suggest that the Clinton sea temperature (Middle Silurian) ranged from 18°C to 28°C and Hamilton seas (Middle Devonian) ranged between 24°C and 29°C. In addition, the isotopic variation of brachiopod shell calcite is significant and is related to environmental conditions. Within a single time-correlative shell bed (the Demissa Bed; Hamilton Group) a positive isotopic shift of 2-2.5% 0 in 013C compositions and a positive shift of 1.0-1.50/00 in 0180 composition of shell calcite is observed, corresponding with a deepening of brachiopod habitats toward the axis of the Appalachian Basin. Moroever, a faunal succession from deeper Ambocoelia dominated brachiopod association to a shallow Tropidoleptus dominated assocation is reflected by isotopic shifts of 1.0-1.50/00. Although, other studies have emphasized the significance of ±20/oo shifts in brachiopod isotopic compositions, the recognition of isotopic variability in brachiopod calcite within single beds and within depositional settings such as the Appalachian Basin has important implications for the interpretation of secular isotopic trends. A significant proportion of the variation observed isotopic distribution during the Paleozoic is related to environmental conditions within the depositional setting.
    • Middle Ordovician (Whiterockian-Chazyan) trilobites from the Sunblood Formation, District of Mackenzie

      Tremblay, James V.; Department of Earth Sciences (Brock University, 1989-07-09)
      The Middle Ordovician Sunblood Formation in the South Nahanni River area, District of Mackenzie, comprises mainly limestones and dolostones of intertidal and shallow subtidal origin as indicated by the presence of desiccation polygons, fenestral fabric, and oncolites. The study of well preserved, silicified trilobites from low diversity, Bathyurus-dominated, Nearshore Biofacies faunas of Whiterockian and Chazyan age collected in six stratigraphic sections through the Sunblood Formation permits the recognition of three new Whiterockian zones, and two previously established Chazyan zones. The Bathyurus mackenziensis, Bathyurus sunbloodensis, and Bathyurus margareti zones (Whiterockian), together with the Bathyurus nevadensis and Bathyurus granu/osus zones (Chazyan) represent the Nearshore Biofacies components of a dual biostratigraphic scheme that considers both temporal and spatial distribution patterns, and are compositionally distinct from faunas in correlative strata around North America that represent other biofacies. Twenty-six species belonging to eighteen genera are described and illustrated. Ludvigsenella ellipsepyga is established as a new bathyurine genus, in addition to four new species of Bathyurus : Bathyurus mackenziensis, Bathyurus sunbloodensis, Bathyurus margareti and Bathyurus acanthopyga. Other genera present are: Basilicus, Isote/us, ///aenus, Bumastoides, Fail/eana, Phorocepha/a,Ceraurinella, Acanthoparypha, Xystocrania, Cydonocephalus, Ectenonotus, Pseudomera, Encrinuroides, Calyptaulax, Amphilichas and Hemiarges.
    • Microstructural and geochemical investigation of North American lower-middle Paleozoic trilobites and recent arthropods

      McAllister, John E.; Department of Earth Sciences (Brock University, 1989-07-09)
      Trilobites ¥tere collected from Ordovician and Devonian formations of Ontario} New York} Ohio} Oklahoma} and Indiana. Diversity was generally low} but 19..?telllS and Ph..~tY>ps ¥tere the most abundant species from the Ordovician and Devonian} respectively. Recent marine arthropods ¥tere collected from the Atlantic shore of the middle Florida Keys} and from the Pacific and lagoonal waters at Cape Beale} B. C. Fresh-water arthropods were collected along the shore of the Severn River in northcentral Ontario. Cuticles ¥tere analyzed for major} minor and trace elements, 180 and 13C isotopes, as ¥tell as examined by scanning electron micr?scope to identify original and diagenetic fabrics. Examination of trilobite cuticles by scanning electron microscope revealed several microstructures consistent with those observed in Recent arthropods. Microstructures} such as setae and tegumental gland duct openings} in like sized Lim/IllS and Isoteline trilobites may indicate common ancestral origins for these organisms, or simply parallel cuticle evolutions. The dendritic microstructure, originally' thought to be a diagenetic indicator, was found in Recent specimens and therefore its presence in trilobites may be suggestive of the delicate nature of diagenesis in trilobites. The absence of other primary microstructures in trilobites may indicate alteration, taxonomic control} or that there is some inherent feature of S EM examination which may' not allow detection of some features} while others are apparently visit·le onl~1 under SH.·1. The region of the cuticle sampled for examination is also a major influence in detecting pristine microstructures, as not all areas of trilobite and Recent arthropod cuticles will have microstructures identifiable in a SEM study. Subtleties in the process of alteration, however} ma~·· leave pristine microstructures in cuticles that are partial~/ silicified or do 10m itized, and degree and type of alteration may vary stratigraphically and longitudinally within a unit. The presence of fused matrices, angular calcite rhombs, and pyrite in the cuticle are thought to be indicative of altered cuticles, although pyritization may not affect the entire cuticle. t-~atural processes in Recent arthropods, such as molting, lead to variations in cuticle chemistries, and are thought to reflect the area of concentration of the elements during calcification. The level of sodium in Recent arthropods was found to be higher than that in trilobites, but highly mobile when sUbjected to the actions of VY'€'athering. Less saline water produced lovy'€'r magnesium and higher calcium values in Recent specimens .. and metal variations in pristine Ordovician trilobite cuticle appears to follow the constraints outlined for Recent arthropods, of regulation due to the chemislry of the surrounding medium. In diagenetic analysis, sodium, strontium and magnesium proved most beneficial in separating altered from least altered trilobites. Using this criterion, specimens from shale show the least amount of geochemical alteration, and have an original mineralogy of 1.7 - 2.4 mole % MgC03 (8000 t(> 9500 ppm magnesium) for both /s>..?/e/11S lJA'i.riff!11S and PseIAit'11J17ites I..itmirpin..itl/~ and 2.8 - 3.3 mole % MgC03 (5000 to 7000 ppm magnesium) for Ph.i{).?PS This is Slightly lower than the mineralogy of Recent marine arthropods (4.43 - 12.1 mole % MgC03), and slightly higher than that of fresh-water crayfish (0.96 - 1.82 mole % MgC03). Geochemically pristine trilobites were also found to possess primary microstructures. Stable isotope values and trends support the assertion that marine-meteoriclburial fluids were responsible for the alteration observed in a number of the trilobite specimens. The results of this stUdy suggest that fossil material has to be evaluated separately along taxonomic and lithological lines to arrive at sensible diagenetic and e nvironmenta I interpretations.