• The Development of a Novel Pitching Assessment Tool

      Birfer, Richard; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Posture based ergonomic assessment tools are widely used to evaluate posture and injury risk for many workplace/occupational tasks. To date, there is no validated equivalent that can be used to assess the posture of a pitcher during baseball pitching. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to develop an inexpensive tool which can allow for the rapid assessment of a pitcher’s posture at lead foot strike, and establish the inter- and intra- rater reliability of the tool. For this study, 11 participants threw 30 pitches (15 fastballs, 15 curveballs) off an indoor pitching. Full body 3D kinematics were measured using reflective markers attached to anatomical landmarks and rigid bodies attached to body segments using a 10-camera Vicon Motion Capture system along with two high-speed video cameras (rear and side view) to record each pitch during the experimental trials. The kinematic data was analyzed, after which the highest velocity fastball of each of the 11 pitchers was selected for further analysis. A Pitching Mechanics Tool was designed to evaluate 16 different parameters at lead foot strike. Each of the 16 parameters had posture ranges or categories established based on scientific literature. Six evaluators with at least five years of experience working with adult pitchers completed the Pitching Mechanics Tool. Findings showed moderate to good levels of repeatability across multiple sessions as well as across multiple evaluators. Additionally, PMT results suggested that 2D qualitative analysis is a viable alternative to 3D motion capture.
    • Dietary Intakes and Periodontal Outcomes After Sanative Therapy

      Dodington, David; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2014-09-02)
      Diet has an important role in the maintenance of oral health, but the relationship between diet and clinical outcomes following sanative therapy (ST) has not been investigated. Due to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, we hypothesized that periodontal patients with higher intakes of vitamin C, vitamin D, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) would have greater reductions in probing depth (PD) after ST. Patients completed the Block food frequency questionnaire, a supplement use questionnaire and had their serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D measured. There were no significant associations between intakes of vitamin C, vitamin D, EPA, DHA and PD. There were, however, negative associations between intakes of linoleic acid, α- linolenic acid or total vegetable intake and PD, as well as a positive association between the total omega-6/omega-3 ratio and PD (p < 0.05). Therefore, dietary intakes of essential fatty acids and vegetables may be important modulators of periodontal outcomes following ST.
    • A discursive analysis of children's recreational adult-organized sport : when do children get to play?

      Gracey, Bonita.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2008-06-01)
      Adult-organized children's sport attracts millions of participants in Canada and the United States each year. Though there is a great deal of research that considers children's sport, little of it focuses on recreational or house league sport and less of it offers a deep examination of children's experience of their participation. Using observations, interviews, and focus groups involving ten participants in mixed-gender recreational basketball, this qualitative research project examined their experiences. With Foucault's concepts of correct training and the panoptic gaze in mind, I used discourse and deconstruction analyses to consider the children's descriptions along with my observations of their basketball experience. I was particularly looking for prevalent discourses on sport, childhood, and gender and how they affected their experiences. Despite the league's discursive emphasis on fun, participation, fairness, and respect, that was not necessarily what the children experienced. While most stated they enjoyed their season many also expressed serious disappointments. Size and particularly skill very much determined who was most involved in the action and thus actually played baskethaW. Gender also played a significant role in their sport experiences. My findings invite questions about what genuine sport participation actually is and how it might be alternatively imagined.
    • Do You See What I See: The Influence of Self-Objectification on Appearance Anxiety, Intrinsic Motivation, Interoceptive Awareness, and Physical Performance

      Dimas, Michelle A; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Objectification theory suggests that when individuals take on an observer’s perspective of their physical appearance (known as self-objectification), they experience an increase in body shame and anxiety and a decrease in motivation and bodily awareness. The purpose of this study was to determine if self-objectification could impact social physique anxiety, intrinsic motivation, and bodily awareness as well as physical performance. Undergraduate female students (N=54) were recruited to participate in a Consumer Behaviour study (cover story). Participants were randomly assigned to a swimsuit or sweater condition, completed cover story and body image measures, changed into the clothing based upon randomization, then completed state body image measures and performed a series of balance tasks. Women in the swimsuit group experienced greater state self-objectification and reported greater amounts of body-related shame and appearance anxiety and lower amounts of intrinsic motivation. In addition, self-objectification led to restricted arms, trunk, and leg movements during a 1-leg stand. Findings could have implications for promoting positive experiences during physical activity, such as sport, exercise or rehabilitation settings.
    • Does altering brachial artery tone with lower-body negative pressure and flow-mediated dilation affect arterial stiffness?

      Goswami, Ruma.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2006-06-04)
      Although medium sized, muscular vessels normally respond to sympathetic stimulation by reducing compliance, it is unclear whether the large brachial artery is similarly affected by sympathetic stimulation induced via lower-body negative pressure (LBNP). Similarly, the impact of flow-mediated dilation (FMD) on brachial artery compliance and distensibility remains unresolved, hi addition, before such measures can be used as prognostic tools, it is important to investigate the reliability and repeatability of both techniques. Using a randomized order design, the effects of LBNP and FMD on the mechanical properties of the brachial artery were examined in nine healthy male subjects (mean age 24y). Non-invasive Doppler ultrasound and a Finometer were used to measure simultaneously the variation in systolic and diastolic diameter, and brachial blood pressure, respectively. These values were used to calculate compliance and distensibility values at baseline, and during both LBNP and FMD. The within-day and between-day repeatability of arterial diameter, compliance, distensibility, and FMD measures were assessed using the error coefficient and intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). While heart rate (P<0.01) and peripheral resistance increased during LBNP (P<0.05), forearm blood flow and pulse pressure decreased (P<0.01). hi terms of mechanical properties, vessel diameters decreased (P<0.05), but both compliance and distensibility were not changed. On the other hand, FMD resulted in a significant increase in diameter (P<0.001), with no change in compliance or distensibility. hi summary, LBNP and FMD do not appear to alter brachial artery compliance or distensibility in young, healthy males. Whereas measures ofFMD were not found to be repeatable between days, the ICC indicated that compliance and distensibility were repeatable only within-day.
    • Does Bracing affect Bone Health in Females with adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis?

      Akseer, Nasreen; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2013-09-11)
      This study examined the bone mineral content (BMC) in young women with Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS), treated with a brace (27.9 ±21.6 months, for 18.0±5.4 h/d) during adolescence (AIS-B, n = 15, 25.6 ±5.8 yrs), versus women with AIS but no treatment (AIS-NB, n = 15, 24.0 ±4.0 yrs), and women without AIS (C, n = 19, 23.5 ±3.8 yrs). After controlling for lean body mass, calcium and vitamin D daily intake, and strenuous physical activity, femoral neck BMC was lower in the AIS-B compared with AIS-NB and C (all p’s < .05). In summary, women with AIS, braced during their growing years are characterized by low lower limb BMC. However, the lack of a relationship between brace treatment duration and BMC, suggests that bracing was not the likely mechanism.
    • Don’t Stop the Music: Does the Thin Ideal in Pop Music Lyrics Affect Women’s Body Image During Exercise?

      Jackson, Alyssa; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Viewing music videos emphasizing the thin ideal female body has been shown to have a negative impact on body image in young women, including increased body dissatisfaction, social comparisons, self-objectifications and body size discrepancies. However, it is unclear whether the changes in body image outcomes are due to the highly objectified images of women representing the thin ideal or the lyrics of the songs. This study aimed to explore the effects of music lyrics on body image during exercise in physically active female university students. A repeated measures design was used; 29 women completed two conditions in which they were asked to walk or run for 30 minutes while listening to music. In one condition, the negative music lyric condition, songs referred explicitly to women’s appearance, objectified the female body, or referenced the thin ideal. In the neutral music lyric condition, the songs did not refer to appearance at all. Participants completed state measures of mood, body satisfaction, self-objectification and body appreciation prior to and following each of their walks/runs. Rating of perceived exertion (RPE) was assessed following each walk/run and total distance traveled was recorded. Results indicated a statistically significant time effect (all ps < 0.05) for all outcomes except self-objectification, with women reporting feeling more confident, physically attractive, appreciative of their body, happier and feeling less fat, anxious, depressed and angry from pre- to post-exercise following both conditions. There were no effects of condition and no interaction effects. There were no differences between condition for RPE or distance travelled. This study highlights the positive effects exercise has on body image and mood outcomes and suggests that exercise may buffer the possible negative effects of objectifying lyrics. Music that is motivational, even with appearance-focused lyrics, may not be harmful to body image in exercise settings and may be used to keep women happier and more positive about their body following exercise.
    • Drumming toward communitas : a case study of facilitated recreational music making and the Arthurian method

      Cunningham, Amy.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2008-06-01)
      The phenomenon of communitas has been described as a moment 'in and out of time' in which a collective of individuals may be experienced by one as equal and individuated in an environment stripped of structural attributes (Turner, 1 969). In these moments, emotional bonds form and an experience of perceived 'oneness' and synergy may be described. As a result of the perceived value of these experiences, it has been suggested by Sharpe (2005) that more clearly understanding how this phenomenon may be purposefully facilitated would be beneficial for leisure service providers. Consequently, the purpose of this research endeavor was to examine the ways in which a particular leisure service provider systematically employs specific methods and sets specific parameters with the intention of guiding participants toward experiences associated with communitas or "shared spirit" as described by the organization. A qualitative case study taking a phenomenological approach was employed in order to capture the depth and complexity of both the phenomenon and the purposefiil negotiation of experiences in guiding participants toward this phenomenon. The means through which these experiences were intentionally facilitated was recreational music making in a group drumming context. As such, an organization which employs specific methods of rhythm circle facilitation as well as trains other facilitators all over the world was chosen purposely for their recognition as the most respectable and credible in this field. The specific facilitator was chosen based on high recommendation by the organization due to her level of experience and expertise. Two rhythm circles were held, and participants were chosen randomly by the facilitator. Data was collected through observation in the first circle and participant- observation in the second, as well as through focus groups with circle participants. Interviews with the facilitator were held both initially to gain broad understanding of concepts and phenomenon as well as after each circle to reflect on each circle specifically. Data was read repeatedly to drawn out patterns which emerged and were coded and organized accordingly. It was found that this specific process or system of implementation lead to experiences associated with communitas by participants. In order to more clearly understand this process and the ways in which experiences associated with communitas manifest as a result of deliberate facilitator actions, these objective facilitator actions were plotted along a continuum relating to subjective participant experiences. These findings were then linked to the literature with regards to specific characteristics of communitas. In so doing, the intentional manifestation of these experiences may be more clearly understood for ftiture facilitators in many contexts. Beyond this, findings summarized important considerations with regards to specific technical and communication competencies which were found to be essential to fostering these experiences for participants within each group. Findings surrounding the maintenance of a fluid negotiation of certain transition points within a group rhythm event overall were also highlighted, and this fluidity was found to be essential to the experience of absorption and engagement in the activity and experience. Emergent themes of structure, control, and consciousness have been presented as they manifested and were found to affect experiences within this study. Discussions surrounding the ethics and authenticity of these particular methods and their implementation has also been generated throughout. In conclusion, there was a breadth as well as depth of knowledge found in unpacking this complex process of guiding individuals toward experiences associated with communitas. The implications of these findings contribute in broadening the current theoretical as well as practical understanding as to how certain intentional parameters may be set and methods employed which may lead to experiences of communitas, and as well contribute a greater knowledge to conceptualizing the manifestation of these experiences when broken down.
    • Dynamic Upper Leg Strength and Neuromuscular Function in Children, Adolescents and Adults

      Jenkins, Glenn; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2013-01-14)
      This study examined muscle strength, muscle performance, and neuromuscular function during contractions at different velocities across maturation stages and between sexes. Participants included pre-pubertal, late-pubertal and adult males and females. All completed 8 isometric and 8 isokinetic leg extensions at two different velocities. Peak torque (PT), rate of torque development (PrTD), electromechanical-day (EMD), rate of muscle activation (Q30), muscle activation efficiency and coactivation were determined. Sex, maturity, and velocity main effects were found in PT and PrTD, reflecting greater values in men, adults, and isometric contractions respectively. When values were normalized to quadriceps cross-sectional area (qCSA), there was still an increase with maturity. EMD decreased with maturity. Adults had greater activation efficiency than children. Overall, differences in muscle size and neuromuscular function failed to explain group differences in PT or PrTD. More research is needed to investigate why adults may be affected to a greater extent by increasing movement velocity.
    • The effect of 17-B estradiol therapy on bone mineral density and structure of alveolar bone in the ovariectomized rat model of postmenopausal osteoporosis

      Johnston, Bryan; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2015-01-23)
      The ovariectomized (OVX) rat, a preclinical model for studying postmenopausal bone loss, may also be used to study differences in alveolar bone (AB). The objectives of this study were to quantify the differences in AB following estrogen replacement therapy (ERT), and to investigate the relationship between AB structure and density, and trabecular bone at the femoral neck (FN) and third lumbar vertebral body (LB3). Estrogen treated rats had a higher bone volume fraction (BV/TV) at the AB region (9.8% P < 0.0001), FN (12% P < 0.0001), and LB3 (11.5% P < 0.0001) compared to the OVX group. BV/TV of the AB was positively correlated with the BV/TV at the FN (r = 0.69 P < 0.0001) and the LB3 (r = 0.75 P < 0.0001). The trabecular number (Tb.N), trabecular separation (Tb.Sp), and structure model index (SMI) were also positively correlated (P < 0.05) between the AB and FN (r = 0.42, 0.49, and 0.73, respectfully) and between the AB and LB3 (r = 0.44, 0.63, and 0.69, respectfully). Given the capacity of AB to respond to ERT, future preclinical drug/nutritional intervention studies aimed at improving skeletal health should include the AB as a region of interest (ROI).
    • Effect of a high fat maternal diet on body composition and bone development in male offspring

      Miotto, Paula; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2014-08-29)
      Direct high fat (HF) feeding has adverse effects on body composition and bone development in rodents. However, it is unclear whether maternal HF feeding has similar effects in male rat offspring. The objectives of this thesis were to determine if maternal HF feeding altered body composition, plasma hormones, bone development, and bone fatty acid composition in male offspring at weaning and 3 months of age. Maternal HF feeding increased bone mass and altered femur fatty acid composition at weaning, without differences in fat mass, lean mass, plasma hormones, or bone mass (femur or lumbar vertebrae). However, early differences did not persist at 3 months of age or contribute to lower bone strength – following consumption of a control diet post-weaning. These findings suggest that maternal HF feeding can alter body composition and bone development in weanling male offspring, without long-lasting effects if a healthy control diet is consumed post-weaning.
    • The effect of a segmental, localized lower limb cooling protocol on muscular strength and balance

      Montgomery, Roger Edward; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2012-11-27)
      The human neuromuscular system is susceptible to changes within the thermal environment. Cold extrinsic temperatures can significantly reduce muscle and nervous system function and communication, which can have consequences for motor performance. A repeated measures design protocol exposed participants to a 12°C cold water immersion (CWI) up to the ankle, knee, and hip to determine the effect that reduced skin and muscle temperature had on balance and strength task execution. Although a linear reduction in the ability to perform balance tasks was seen from the control condition through to the hip CWI, results from the study indicated a significant reduction in dynamic balance (Star Excursion Balance Test reach distance) performance from only the hip CWI (P<0.05). This reduced performance could have been due to an increase in joint stiffness, increased agonist-antagonist co-contraction, and/or reduced isokinetic muscular strength. Reduced physical performance due to cold temperature could negatively impact outdoor recreational athletics.
    • The Effect of a Stickhandling and Puck Control (SPC) Training Intervention on SPC Skills and Wrist Shot Performance Variables in Female Collegiate Ice Hockey Players

      Komenda, Briar; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2011-04-11)
      The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of a 16 session stickhandling and puck control (SPC) off-ice training intervention on SPC skills and wrist shot performance variables. Eighteen female collegiate ice hockey players participated in a crossover design training intervention, whereby players were randomly assigned to two groups. Each group completed 16 SPC training sessions in two conditions [normal vision (NV) and restricted vision (RV)]. Measures obtained after the training intervention revealed significant improvements in SPC skills and wrist shot accuracy. Order of training condition did not reach significance, meaning that SPC improvement occurred as a result of total training volume as opposed to order of training condition. However, overall changes in the RV-NV condition revealed consistently higher effect sizes, meaning a greater improvement in performance. Therefore, support can be provided for this technical approach to SPC training and an alternative method of challenging SPC skills.
    • The effect of a weighted-vest strength and balance training program on obstructed walking in postmenopausal women

      Slack, Jill Patricia.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2003-05-21)
      SUMMARY Background: Age related declines in lower extremity strength have been associated with impaired mobility and changes in gait patterns, which increase the likelihood of falls. Since community dwelling adults encounter a wide range of locomotor challenges including uneven and obstmcted walking surfaces, we examined the effect of a strength 11 and balance exercise program on obstructed walking in postmenopausal women. Objectives: This study examined the effect of a weighted-vest strength and balance exercise program on adaptations of the stance leg during obstacle walking in postmenopausal women. Methods: Eighteen women aged 44-62 years who had not engaged in regular resistance training for the past year were recruited from the St. Catharines community to participate in this study. Eleven women volunteered for an aerobic (walking), strength, and balance training program 3 times per week for 12 weeks while 7 women volunteered as controls. Measurements included: force platform dynamic balance measure of the center of pressure (COP) and ground reaction forces (GRFs) in the stance leg while going over obstacles of different heights (0,5, 10,25 and 30 cm); and isokinetic strength measures of knee and ankle extension and flexion. Results: Of the 18 women, who began the trial, 16 completed it. The EX group showed a significant increase of 40% in ankle plantar flexion strength (P < 0.05). However, no improvements in measures of COP or GRFs were observed for either group. Failure to detect any changes in measures of dynamic balance may be due to small sample size. Conclusions: Postmenopausal women experience significant improvements in ankle strength with 12 weeks of a weighted-vest balance and strength training program, however, these changes do not seem to be associated with any improvement in measures of dynamic balance.
    • The effect of acute low-load resistance exercise with the addition of blood flow occlusion on muscle function in children and adults

      Bax, Alyssa; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Background: Resistance training recommendations to increase muscular strength suggest using high loads. However, some individuals cannot withstand high mechanical stress. Thus, in adults, low-load training is used with blood flow occlusion (BFO), to mimic strength increases from high-load training. Due to differing physiological responses to exercise, children may respond differently to BFO than adults. This study compares the effect of low-load exercise with BFO on maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and electromyographical (EMG) activity in children and adults. Methods: 16 men (24.4±2.5y) and 14 boys (10.7±2.0y) performed two experimental conditions: (1) occlusion and (2) control. During the occlusion condition, a blood pressure cuff on the upper arm was inflated above systolic pressure during 25 wrist flexions at 35% MVC. Participants then performed an MVC and rated their perceived exertion (RPE). The control condition was the same as the occlusion condition but without the use of BFO. EMG signal was recorded from the flexor carpi radialis (FCR). Results: Men displayed a 16.9±7.1% increase in FCR EMG amplitude across the occlusion (p=0.005) but not the control condition (p=0.919). The boys did not show a change in EMG amplitude between time points (p=0.576) or conditions (p=0.549). Across both age groups, EMG mean power frequency was influenced by a condition-x-time interaction, with a larger decrease across the occlusion (-20.1±9.6%; p<0.001) than the control condition (-5.6±9.7%; p=0.002). Furthermore, across both age groups, MVC torque decreased more following the occlusion (-18.7±12.8%; p<0.001) than the control condition (-6.7±12.5%; p<0.001). Discussion: Based on our findings, a partial explanation for increases in EMG amplitude in the men but not the boys may be that the men recruited more of their higher-threshold motor units than the boys. However, not all measures were consistent in showing child-adult differences, as BFO caused similar decreases in MPF for both groups. Thus, while adults use low-loads with BFO to simulate high-load training, it remains unclear whether this form of training would be as effective for children.
    • Effect of altering dietary calcium and vitamin D in AIN93G diet on bone development in CD-1 male mice

      Wakefield, Brent; Applied Health Sciences Program
      The current levels of vitamin D (vit D) and calcium (Ca) in the AIN93G diet may be higher than required to support healthy bone structure and bone mineral density (BMD) in rodent models. The study objectives were to determine if lower levels of vit D (400 and 100 IU/kg) and Ca (0.35, 0.3, or 0.25%) support healthy bone structure and BMD while maintaining intestinal integrity in weanling male CD-1 mice up to 4 months of age. Lowering the levels of vit D (400 IU/kg) and Ca (0.35%) had no effect on bone structure and BMD, and fecal albumin levels were not different among groups, however, differences were observed in measures of serum LPS among groups. Adjusting the level of vit D to 400 IU/kg and Ca to 0.35% may provide sufficient levels for healthy bone structure and BMD, however further analysis of intestinal integrity is required.
    • The effect of an eight session skate treadmill and agility training program on the degree of separation in ice hockey players

      Harriss, Daniel J.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2011-05-17)
      The sport of ice hockey places multiple simultaneous demands on the physiological, mechanical, and cognitive abilities of individual players. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of an eight session degree of separation (DOS) training intervention on sport specific measures of skating, stick handling and puck control movements in competitive ice hockey players. All participants completed a battery of pre and pos t skill and DOS specific tests designed to evaluate DOS abilities: Ttest of agility, a modified Cunningham Faulkner test of anaerobic capacity performed on a skate treadmill and a DOS skate treadmill test. Statistically significant differences were found between groups on the post test scores, meaning that the training intervention had a specific effect on the post test scores of the experimental group (p~O.05). Results of this investigation suggested that a DOS specific training program has the potential to enhance the integration and automation of or sequencing and coordination of uncoordinated ice hockey movements.
    • The effect of an exercise and balance training intervention program on balance and mobility in community-dwelling older adults

      Accardo, Peter; Applied Health Sciences Program
      This thesis investigated the effect of a 12-week exercise and balance training intervention program on perceived and actual balance and mobility outcomes in healthy community-dwelling older adults. Forty-six older adults completed baseline testing including balance confidence and movement reinvestment questionnaires, and a series of balance and mobility tests. Those older adults who were randomly assigned to the intervention group participated in a 12-week program that included aerobic exercise, upper and lower body resistance training, flexibility training and balance training while those assigned to the control group were asked not to make any lifestyle changes during a 12-week control period. The same testing protocol was repeated upon completion of the 12-week intervention program or control period. The results indicated that the intervention group showed improved performance between baseline and 12-week testing sessions for two balance measures (e.g., faster Timed-Up and Go duration, fewer obstacle course errors) while there was no change observed in these measures in the control group. There was also a trend observed for higher balance confidence and less movement self-consciousness reinvestment at the 12-week compared to baseline testing session for the intervention group while no change in these measures was observed in the control group. The findings suggest that participating in 12 weeks of an exercise and balance training intervention can effect change in select perceived and actual balance outcome measures in healthy community-dwelling older adults.
    • The Effect of Blade Alignment on Kinetic and Kinematic Characteristics During the Execution of Goaltender-Specific Movement Patterns

      Dunne, Colin; Applied Health Sciences Program
      The goaltender skate traditionally consists of the boot, cowling, and blade runner. The cowling protects the foot and positions the blade on the boot. Innovations in boot design and material properties have deemed the cowling redundant, presenting the opportunity to manipulate skate blade alignment and potentially reveal a performance advantage. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of blade alignment on select kinetic and kinematic variables during the execution of two goaltender-specific movement patterns; Butterfly Drop to Recovery, Lateral Butterfly Slide to Recovery. A male goaltender (n = 1) with professional hockey experience completed an A-B-A, quasi-experimental design across three days investigating four blade alignment conditions. Blade alignment conditions were defined by the blade holder type and positioning on the boot [alignment neutral cowling (ANC), alignment neutral (AN), alignment lateral (AL), and alignment medial (AM)]. Five trials were executed per blade alignment condition for both movements (n=30 trials per day, n=90 trials overall). All trials were executed in a controlled laboratory environment on synthetic ice (xHockeyProductsTM). Kinetic measures included; in-skate peak plantar pressure [PPP(psi)], time to peak plantar pressure [TPP(s)] collected with in-skate LogRTM insoles (Orpyx® Medical Technologies Inc.). Kinematic measures included; butterfly drop velocity [BDV(m/s)], left leg recovery velocity [LLRV(m/s)], right leg recovery velocity [RLRV(m/s)], lateral butterfly slide velocity [LBSV(m/s)], butterfly width [BW(m)] collected with 3D motion capture (ViconTM). Results revealed no significant differences in nineteen of twenty kinetic and kinematic analyses between the two neutral alignment conditions (ANC, AN) defined by different holder types. True Hockey blade holders were retrofit with slots to facilitate the blade alignments. Results revealed significantly higher Butterfly Drop PPP on the AM compared to AN, and higher Left and Right Leg Recovery PPP on AM compared to AL and AN during the Butterfly Drop to Recovery. Results also revealed significantly higher BDV on AM compared to AL and AN during the Butterfly Drop to Recovery, and higher BDV on AM compared to AN during the Lateral Butterfly Slide to Recovery. Study outcomes provide insight into the contribution of manipulating blade alignment to positively impact the execution of goaltender-specific movement patterns.
    • The effect of cardiolipin acyl chain composition on cytochrome c protein conformation and resulting peroxidase activity: Exploring the potential mechanisms that contribute to cellular apoptosis.

      Wilkinson, Jennifer; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Skeletal muscle is a highly active tissue comprising up to 40% of total body weight. This highly dynamic tissue relies on mitochondria for calcium homeostasis, program cell death, and ATP production through mitochondrial respiration. The composition of mitochondrial phospholipids influences the functional efficiency of mitochondrial proteins, and healthy membranes include unsaturated acyl chains to promote respiration. Increasing membrane saturation has been implicated in muscle wasting, a condition caused by apoptosis and identified by the release of specific proteins from the mitochondria. It is unclear how membrane composition promotes the release of these pro-apoptotic proteins, specifically cytochrome c, to induce apoptosis. Thus, in this work synthetic membranes mimicking the composition of mitochondrial membranes from healthy and dystrophic mouse muscle were used. Cytochrome c conformation and function was measured with and without these membranes. There were no differences in protein conformation or function between the healthy and dystrophic membrane mimetics. However, cytochrome c affinity to these membranes was increased with greater unsaturation. This suggests that decreasing membrane saturation, as implicated in muscle wasting diseases, promotes the release of cytochrome c and apoptotic-mediated cell death. As such, interventions to improve or maintain membrane unsaturation may prove to be an alternative therapy for muscle wasting diseases.