• Six-month outcomes of a multi-campus smoking cessation contest

      Wilson, Julie Dawn.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2006-05-21)
      Background: Up to 40% of North American post-secondary students smoke at least occasionally, and most want to quit. Given students' preferences for free, easy-to-access, self-directed, convenient cessation methods, a motivational, incentive-based cessation contest may be an effective way to assist students to quit. The current study describes 3- and 6-month outcomes experienced by post-secondary student smokers who entered the 'Let's Make A Deal!' contest. Methodology: Contestants from five university campuses who chose to quit completely ('Quit For Good') or reduce their tobacco consumption by 50% ('Keep The Count') were invited to participate in a study of the contest. Three and six months after registration, participants were contacted by phone to assess their smoking and quitting behaviours. Qualitative and quantitative measures were collected, including weekly tobacco consumption, efficacy to resist temptations to smoke, use of quitting aids, and strategies to cope with withdrawal. Quitting was assessed using 7-day point prevalence and continuous abstinence. Results: Seventy-four (64.9%) of the 114 participants recruited for the study completed the follow-ups. Over 31 % of participants who entered Quit For Good and 23.5% of participants who entered Keep The Count were identified as quitters at the 6-month follow-up. Among the quitters, 45.5% experienced sustained abstinence from smoking for the 6-month duration of the study. Keep The Count contestants reduced their tobacco consumption by 57.2% at 3-month follow-up and sustained some of this reduction through to the 6-month follow-up. Qualitative data provides insights into how quitters coped with withdrawal and what hampered continuing smokers' efforts to quit. Significance: A motivational, incentive-based contest for post-secondary students can facilitate both smoking cessation and harm reduction. The contest environment, incentives, resources, and "buddies" provide positive structural and social supports to help smokers overcome potential barriers to quitting, successfully stop smoking, and manage potential triggers to relapse. The contest cessation rates are higher than the typical 5-7% associated with unassisted quitting.
    • Social physique anxiety across physical activity settings : a meta-analytical review

      Waddell, Lindsay.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2006-05-21)
      The purpose of this meta-analytic investigation was to review the empirical evidence specific to the effect of physical activity context on social physique anxiety (SP A). English language studies were located from computer and manual literature searches. A total of 146 initial studies were coded. Studies included in the meta-analysis presented at least one empirical effect for SPA between physical activity participants (i.e., athletes or exercisers) and non-physical activity participants. The final sample included thirteen studies, yielding 14 effect sizes, with a total sample size of 2846. Studies were coded for mean SPA between physical activity participants and non-physical activity participants. Moderator variables related to demographic and study characteristics were also coded. Using Hunter and Schmidt's (2004) protocol, statistical artifacts were corrected. Results indicate that, practically speaking, those who were physically active reported lower levels of SPA than the comparison group (dcorr = -.12; SDeorr.-=-;22). Consideration of the magnitude of the ES, the SDeorr, and confidence interval suggests that this effect is not statistically significant. While most moderator analyses reiterated this trend, some differences were worth noting. Previous research has identified SPA to be especially salient for females compared to males, however, in the current investigation, the magnitude of the ES' s comparing physical activity participants to the comparison group was similar (deorr = -.24 for females and deorr = -.23 for males). Also, the type of physical activity was investigated, and results showed that athletes reported lower levels of SP A than the comparison group (deorr = -.19, SDeorr = .08), whereas exercisers reported higher levels of SPA than the comparison group (deorr = .13, SDeorr = .22). Results demonstrate support for the dispositional nature of SP A. Consideration of practical significance suggests that those who are involved in physical activity may experience slightly lower levels of SPA than those not reporting physical activity participation. Results potentially offer support for the bi-directionality of the relationship between physical activity and SP A; however, a causality may not be inferred. More information about the type of physical activity (i.e., frequency/nature of exercise behaviour, sport classificationllevel of athletes) may help clarify the role of physical activity contexts on SPA.
    • The effects of R(+)-lipoic acid supplementation on regulation of human skeletal muscle pyruvate dehydrogenase

      Staples, Elizabeth M.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2006-06-04)
      This thesis investigated whole body glucose disposal and the adaptive changes in skeletal muscle carbohydrate metabolism following 28 d of supplementation with 1000 mg R(+)-lipoic acid in young sedentary males (age, 22.1 ± 0.67 yr, body mass, 78.7 ± 10.3 kg, n=9). In certain individuals, lipoic acid decreased the 180-min area under the glucose concentration and insulin concentration curve during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) (n=4). In the same individuals, lipoic acid supplementation decreased pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase activity (PDK) (0.09 ± 0.024 min"^ vs. 0.137 ± 0.023 min'\ n=4). The fasting levels of the activated form of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDHa) were decreased following lipoic acid (0.42 ± 0.13 mmol-min'kg'^ vs. 0.82 ± 0.32 mmolrnin'^kg"\ n=4), yet increased to a greater extent during the OGTT (1.21 ± 0.34 mmol-min'kg"' vs. 0.81 ±0.13 mmolmin"'kg'\ n=4) following hpoic acid supplementation. No changes were demonstrated in the remaining subjects (n=5). It was concluded that improved glucose clearance during an OGTT following lipoic acid supplementation is assisted by increased muscle glucose oxidation through increased PDHa activation and decreased PDK activity in certain individuals.
    • Determinants of left ventricular mass as measured by Doppler echocardiography in pre-adolescents

      Peralta-Huertas, Jose.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2006-06-04)
      This study examined factors contributing to the differences in left ventricular mass as measured by Doppler echocardiography in children. Fourteen boys (10.3 ± 0.3 years of age) and 1 1 girls (10.5 ± 0.4 years of age) participated in the study. Height and weight were measured, and relative body fat was determined from the measurement of skinfold thickness according to Slaughter et al. (1988). Lean Body Mass was then calculated by subtracting the fat mass from the total body mass. Sexual maturation was self-assessed using the stages of sexual maturation by Tanner (1962). Both pubic hair development and genital (penis or breast for boys and girls respectively) development were used to determine sexual maturation. Carotid Pulse pressure was assessed by applanation tomometry in the left carotid artery. Cardiac mass was measured by Doppler Echocardiography. Images of cardiac structures were taken using B-Mode and were then translated to M- Mode. The dimensions at the end diastole were obtained at the onset of the QRS complex of the electrocardiogram in a plane through a standard position. Measurements included: (a) the diameter of the left ventricle at the end diastole was measured from the septum edge to the endocardium mean border, (b) the posterior wall was measured as the distance from to anterior wall to the epicardium surface, and (c) the interventricular septum was quantified as the distance from the surface of the left ventricle border to the right ventricle septum surface. Systolic time measurements were taken at the peak of the T-wave of the electrocardiogram. Each measurement was taken three to five times before averaging. Average values were used to calculate cardiac mass using the following equation (Deveraux et al. 1986). Weekly physical activity metabolic equivalent was calculated using a standardize activity questionnaire (Godin and Shepard, 1985) and peakV02 was measured on a cycloergometer. There were no significant differences in cardiovascular mesurements between boys and girls. Left ventricular mass was correlated (p<0.05) with size, maturation, peakV02 and physical activity metabolic equivalent. In boys, lean body mass alone explained 36% of the variance in left ventricular mass while weight was the single strongest predictor of left ventricular mass (R =0.80) in girls. Lean body mass, genital developemnt and physical activity metabolic equivalent together explained 46% and 81% in boys and girls, respectively. However, the combination of lean body mass, genital development and peakV02 (ml kgLBM^ min"') explained up to 84% of the variance in left ventricular mass in girls, but added nothing in boys. It is concluded that left ventricular mass was not statistically different between pre-adolescent boys and girls suggesting that hormonal, and therefore, body size changes in adolescence have a main effect on cardiac development and its final outcome. Although body size parameters were the strongest correlates of left ventricular mass in this pre-adolescent group of children, to our knowledge, this is the first study to report that sexual maturation, as well as physical activity and fitness, are also strong associated with left ventricular mass in pre-adolescents, especially young females. Arterial variables, such as systolic blood pressure and carotid pulse pressure, are not strong determinants of left ventricular mass in this pre-adolescent group. In general, these data suggest that although there is no gender differences in the absolute values of left ventricular mass, as children grow, the factors that determine cardiac mass differ between the genders, even in the same pre-adolescent age.
    • Validation of ice skating protocol to predict aerobic power in hockey players

      Petrella, Nicholas J.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2006-06-04)
      Validation ofan Ice Skating Protocol to Predict Aerobic Power in Hockey Players In assessing the physiological capacity of ice hockey players, researchers have often reported the outcomes from different anaerobic skate tests, and the general physical fitness of participants. However, with respect to measuring the aerobic power of ice hockey players, few studies have reported a sport-specific protocol, and currently there is a lack of cohort-specific information describing aerobic power based on evaluations using an on-ice protocol. The Faught Aerobic Skating Test (FAST) uses an on-ice continuous skating protocol to induce a physical stress on a participant's aerobic energy system. The FAST incorporates the principle of increasing workloads at measured time intervals during a continuous skating exercise. Regression analysis was used to determine the estimate of aerobic power within gender and age level. Data were collected on 532 hockey players, (males=384, females=148) ranging in age between 9 and 25 years. Participants completed a laboratory test to measure aerobic power using a modified Bruce protocol, and the on-ice FAST. Regression equations were developed for six male and female, age-specific cohorts separately. The most consistent predictors were weight and final stage completed on the FAST. These results support the application of the FAST to estimate aerobic power among hockey players with R^ values ranging from 0.174 to 0.396 and SEE ranging from 5.65 to 8.58 ml kg' min'' depending on the cohort. Thus we conclude that FAST to be an accurate predictor of aerobic power in age and gender-specific hockey playing cohorts.
    • The capillary supply of human skeletal muscle in health and disease

      Kadyan, Mamta.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2006-06-04)
      BACKGROUND: Capillaries function to provide a surface area for nutrient and waste exchange with cells. The capillary supply of skeletal muscle is highly organized, and therefore, represents an excellent choice to study factors regulating diffusion. Muscle is comprised of three specific fibre types, each with specific contractile and metabolic characteristics, which influence the capillary supply of a given muscle; in addition, both environmental and genetic factors influence the capillary supply, including aging, physical training, and various disease processes. OBJECTIVE: The present study was undertaken to develop and assess the functionality of a data base, from which virtual experiments can be conducted on the capillary supply of human muscle, and the adaptations of the capillary bed in muscle to various perturbations. METHODS: To create the database, an extensive search of the literature was conducted using various search engines, and the three key words - "capillary, muscle, and human". This search yielded 169 papers from which the data for the 46 variables on the capillary supply and fibre characteristics of muscle were extracted for inclusion in the database. A series of statistical analyses (ANOVA) were done on the capillary database to examine differences in skeletal muscle capillarization and fibre characteristics between young and old individuals, between healthy and diseased individuals, and between untrained, endurance trained, endurance welltrained, and resistance trained individuals, using SAS. RESULTS: There was a significantly higher capillarization in the young compared to the old individuals, in the healthy compared to the diseased individuals, and in the endurance-trained and endurance well-trained compared to the untrained individuals. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study support the conclusion that the capillary supply of skeletal muscle is closely regulated by factors aimed at optimizing oxygen and nutrient supply and/or waste removal in response to changes in muscle mass and/or metabolic activity.
    • Does altering brachial artery tone with lower-body negative pressure and flow-mediated dilation affect arterial stiffness?

      Goswami, Ruma.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2006-06-04)
      Although medium sized, muscular vessels normally respond to sympathetic stimulation by reducing compliance, it is unclear whether the large brachial artery is similarly affected by sympathetic stimulation induced via lower-body negative pressure (LBNP). Similarly, the impact of flow-mediated dilation (FMD) on brachial artery compliance and distensibility remains unresolved, hi addition, before such measures can be used as prognostic tools, it is important to investigate the reliability and repeatability of both techniques. Using a randomized order design, the effects of LBNP and FMD on the mechanical properties of the brachial artery were examined in nine healthy male subjects (mean age 24y). Non-invasive Doppler ultrasound and a Finometer were used to measure simultaneously the variation in systolic and diastolic diameter, and brachial blood pressure, respectively. These values were used to calculate compliance and distensibility values at baseline, and during both LBNP and FMD. The within-day and between-day repeatability of arterial diameter, compliance, distensibility, and FMD measures were assessed using the error coefficient and intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). While heart rate (P<0.01) and peripheral resistance increased during LBNP (P<0.05), forearm blood flow and pulse pressure decreased (P<0.01). hi terms of mechanical properties, vessel diameters decreased (P<0.05), but both compliance and distensibility were not changed. On the other hand, FMD resulted in a significant increase in diameter (P<0.001), with no change in compliance or distensibility. hi summary, LBNP and FMD do not appear to alter brachial artery compliance or distensibility in young, healthy males. Whereas measures ofFMD were not found to be repeatable between days, the ICC indicated that compliance and distensibility were repeatable only within-day.
    • Prevalence of overweight and obesity in children from urban and rural Niagara

      Duncan, Kristy D. M.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2006-06-15)
      Purpose: The influence of environment in the development of overweight and obesity is an ongoing concern. This investigation examined the influence of urbanization on the rates of childhood overweight and obesity. Method: 2167 (1090M, 1077F) grade four children from 75 schools in Ontario's Niagara Region were sampled. A sophisticated algorithm overlaying electoral boundaries, population densities, and the knowledge of community members was used to classify schools into one of three location categories: urban {N= 1588), urban fringe {N= 379), and rural (A^= 234). Each subject was measured for: height, weight, and aerobic performance (Leger). Physical activity was evaluated with the self-report Participation Questionnaire (free-time and organized sport activities), and teacher's evaluations of student activity. Overweight (overweight and obesity combined) was measured both as a continuous (BMI) and categorical variable (BMI category), to evaluate the prevalence by location. A multivariate analysis was used to test for a suppression effect. Results: BMI and BMI category did not differ significantly by location or gender, and no evidence of a gender interaction existed. According to both a linear and logistic regression, physical activity or fitness levels did not suppress the influence of location on BMI and BMI category. Age, gender, free-time activity, organized sports, fitness level, and number of siblings, were all found to significantly influence overweight. Conclusions: It is plausible that the prevalence of overweight does not differ in urban and rural children from the Niagara Region. Further investigation is recommended, examining subjects by individual location of residence, in multiple regions throughout Ontario.
    • The acute effects of differential dietary fatty acids on PDHa activity in human skeletal muscle at the onset of exercise

      Bradley, Nicolette Shannon.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2006-06-29)
      Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) is an important regulator of carbohydrate oxidation during exercise and its activity can be down-regulated by an increase in dietary fat. The purpose of this study was to determine the acute metabolic effects of differential dietary fatty acids on the activation of PDH in its active form (PDHa) at rest and at the onset of moderate-intensity exercise. University-aged male subjects (n=7) underwent 2 fat loading trials spaced at least 2 weeks apart. Subjects consumed saturated (SFA) or polyunsaturated (PUFA) fat over the course of 5 hours. Following this, participants cycled at 65% VO2 max for 15 min. Muscle biopsies were taken prior to and following fat loading and at 1 min exercise. Plasma free fatty acids increased from 0.15 ± 0.07 to 0.54 ± 0.19 mM over 5 hours with SFA and from 0.1 1 ± 0.04 to 0.35 ±0.13 mM with PUFA. PDHa activity was unchanged following fat loading, but increased at the onset of exercise in the SFA trial, from 1 .4 ± 0.4 to 2.2 ± 0.4 /xmol/min/kg wet wt. This effect was negated in the PUFA trial (1 .2 ± 0.3 to 1 .3 ± 0.3 pimol/min/kg wet wt.). PDH kinase (PDK) was unchanged in both trials, suggesting that the attenuation of PDHa activity with PUFA was a result of changes in the concentrations of intramitochondrial effectors, more specifically intramitochondrial NADH or Ca^*. Our findings suggest that attenuated PDHa activity participates in the preferential oxidation of PUFA during moderateintensity exercise.
    • The effect of extracellular osmolality on cell volume and resting skeletal muscle metabolism

      Antolic, AnaMaria.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2006-06-29)
      The purpose of the current investigation was to establish an in-l'itro skeletal muscle model to study acute alterations in resting skeletal muscle cell volume. Isolated. whole muscle (SOL and EDL) was dissected from Long Evans rats and incubated for 60 min in Sigma Medium-199 (resting tension (lg). bubbled with 95:5% 02:C02, 30 ± 2°C, and pH 7.4). Media osmolality was altered to simulate hypo-osmotic (190 ± 10 Osm) (HYPO) or hyper-osmotic conditions (400 ± 10 Osm) (HYPER) while an iso-osmotic condition (290± 1 0 Osm) (CON) served as a control (n= 17.19.17). Following incubation, relative muscle water content decreased with HYPER and increased with HYPO in both muscle types (p<0.05). The cross-sectional area of HYPO SOL type I and type II fibres increased (p<0.05) while the EDL type 11 fibre area decreased in HYPER and increascd from HYPO exposure. Furthermore, HYPER exposure in both muscles lead to decreased ATP and phosphocreatine (p<0.05) and increased creatine and lactate (p<0.05) compared to CON. This isolated skeletal muscle model proved viable and demonstrated that altering extracellular osmolality could cause acutc alterations in muscle water content and resting muscle metabolism.
    • The influence of skeletal muscle cell volume on carbohydrate metabolism in contracting skeletal muscle

      Cermak, Naomi.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2006-06-29)
      This study investigated the regulation of carbohydrate metabolism through changes in skeletal muscle cell volume immediately post contraction and during recovery. Using an established in vitro isolated muscle strip model, soleus (SOL) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) were dissected from male rats and incubated in an organ bath (perfused with 95% O2; 5% CO2, pH 7.4, temperature 25°C) containing medium- 199 altered to a target osmotic condition (iso-, hypo- or hyper-osmotic; 290, 1 80, 400 mmol/kg). Muscles were stimulated for 10 minutes (40 Hz SOL; 30 Hz EDL) and then either immediately flash frozen or allowed to recover for 20 minutes before subsequent metabolite and enzyme analysis. Results demonstrated a relative water decrease in HYPER vs. HYPOosmotic condition (n=8/group; p<0.05) regardless of muscle type. Specifically, the SOL HYPER condition had elevated metabolite concentrations after 10 minutes of stimulation in comparison to both HYPO and ISO (p<0.05), while EDL muscle did not show any significant difTerences between the HYPER or HYPO conditions. After 20 minutes of recovery, metabolic changes occurred in both SOL and EDL with the SOL HYPER condition showing greater relative changes in metabolite concentrations versus HYPO. The results of the current study have demonstrated that osmotic imbalance induces metabolic change within the skeletal muscle cell and muscle type may influence the mechanisms utilized for cell volume regulation.
    • The association between body composition and arterial stiffness in peri-pubescent children

      Banach, Alayna M.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2006-06-29)
      The objective of this study was to examine the association between body composition and arterial stiffuess in peri-pubescent boys and girls. Differences in arterial distensibility were measured in 68 children (45 normal weight, 12 overweight, and 11 obese) between the ages of9 to 12 years. Weight classification was based on age and gender-specific body mass index cut-offs, while pubertal maturation was self-reported using Tanner staging. Distensibility was determined using two-dimensional, B-Mode echo Doppler ultrasound to measure changes at the right common carotid artery (CCA) diameter changes, while carotid pulse pressure (cPP) was measured at the left CCA by applanation tonometry. One-way ANOV A analysis revealed significant differences (p<0.001) in all anthropometric measures between the normal weight and overweight children, as well as the normal weight and obese children. Body stature was only higher in obese children compared to normal weight children (p<0.01). No significant differences were found between groups regarding age or Tanner stage. Common carotid artery distensibility showed a significant difference (p<0.01) between normal weight children (0.008 ± 0.002 mmHg-1 ) compared to obese children (0.005 ± 0.002 mmHg-1 ), with a borderline significant difference between the normal and overweight subjects (p=0.06). There was no significant effect for gender between males and females across all independent variables. The strongest determinants of distensibility in children were cPP (r= -0.52, p<O.OOI), change in diastolic diameter (r= 0.50, p<O.OOI), and sum of 4 skinfold thickness (r= -0.40, p<O.OOI). Regression analysis revealed that cPP alone explained 27% of the variance in distensibility in children. In addition, cPP, diameter difference, systolic and diastolic diameter, as well as waist-to-hip ratio explained 94% of the variance among peri-pubescent children. This study greatly underscores the need for weight management for long-term prevention of cardiovascular disease in overweight and obese children.
    • Effects of dietary restraint and oral contraceptives on bone strength and bone turnover in young women

      Di Giovanni, Gioia.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2006-06-29)
      ABSTRACT Introduction The purpose of this study was to assess specific osteoporosis-related health behaviours and physiological outcomes including daily calcium intake, physical activity levels, bone strength, as assessed by quantitative ultrasound, and bone turnover among women between the ages of 18 and 25. Respective differences on relevant study variables, based on dietary restraint and oral contraceptive use were also examined. Methods One hundred women (20.6 ± 0.2 years of age) volunteered to participate in the study. Informed written consent was obtained by all subjects prior to participation. The study and all related procedures were approved by the Brock University Research Ethics Board. Body mass, height, relative body fat, as well as chest, waist and hip circumferences were measured using standard procedures. The 10-item restrained eating subscale of the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ) was used to assess dietary restraint (van Strien et al., 1986). Daily calcium intake was assessed by the Rapid Assessment Method (RAM) (Hertzler & Frary 1994). Weekly physical activity was documented by the 4-item Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire (Godin & Shephard 1985). Bone strength was determined from the speed of sound (SOS) as measured by QUS (Sunlight 7000S). SOS measurements (m/s) were taken of the dominant and non-dominant sides of the distal one third of the radius and the mid-shaft of the tibia. Resting blood samples were collected from all subjects between 9am and 12pm, in order to evaluate the impact of lifestyle factors on biochemical markers of bone turnover. Blood was collected during the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle (approximately days 1-5) for all subjects. Samples were centrifliged and the serum or plasma was aliquoted into separate tubes and stored at -80°C until analysis. The bone formation markers measured were Osteocalcin (OC), bone specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) and 25-OH vitamin D. The bone resorption markers measured were the carboxy (CTx) and amino (NTx) terminal telopeptides of type-I collagen crosslinks. All markers were assessed by ELISA. Subjects were divided into high (HDR) and low dietary restrainers (LDR) based on the median DEBQ score, and also into users (BC) and non-users (nBC) of oral contraceptives. A series of multiple one way ANOVA's were then conducted to identify differences between each set of groups for all relevant variables. A two-way ANOVA analysis was used to explore significant interactions between dietary restraint and use of oral contraceptives while a univariate follow-up analysis was also performed when appropriate. Pearson Product Moment Correlations were used to determine relationships among study variables. Results HDR had significantly higher BMI, %BF and circumference measures but lower daily calcium intake than LDR. There were no significant differences in physical activity levels between HDR and LDR. No significant differences were found between BC and nBC in body composition, calcium intake and physical activity. HDR had significantly lower tibial SOS scores than LDR in both the dominant and non-dominant sites. The post-hoc analysis showed that within the non-birth control group, the HDR had significantly lower tibial SOS scores of bone strength when compared to the LDR but Aere were no significant differences found between the two dietary restraint groups for those currently on birth control. HDR had significantly lower levels of OC than LDR and the BC group had lower levels of BAP than the nBC group. Consistently, the follow-up analysis revealed that within those not on birth control, subjects who were classified as HDR had significantly (f*<0.05) lower levels of OC when compared with LDR but no significant differences were observed in bone turnover between the two dietary restraint groups for those currently on birth control. Physical activity was not correlated with SOS scores and bone turnover markers possibly due to the low physical activity variability in this group of women. Conclusion This is the first study to examine the effects of dietary restraint on bone strength and turnover among this population of women. The most important finding of this study was that bone strength and turnover are negatively influenced by dietary restraint independent of relative body fat. In general, the results of the present thesis suggest that dietary restraint, oral contraceptive use, as well as low daily calcium intake and low physical activity levels were widespread behaviours among this population of college-aged women. The young women who were using dietary restraint as a strategy to lose weight, and thus were in the HDR group, despite their higher relative body fat and weight, had lower scores of bone strength and lower levels of markers of bone turnover compared to the low dietary restrainers. Additionally, bone turnover seemed to be negatively affected by oral contraceptives, while bone strength, as assessed by QUS, seemed unaffected by their use in this population of young women. Physical activity (weekly energy expenditure), on the other hand, was not associated with either bone strength or bone tiimover possibly due to the low variability of this variable in this population of young Canadian women.
    • The exercise leader's gender and physique salience : effects on self-presentational concerns in an exercise context

      Lamarche, Larkin.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2007-05-21)
      Self-presentation is the process by which individuals attempt to monitor and control how others perceive and evaluate them (Leary, 1992; Leary & Kowalski, 1990). Self-presentational concerns have been shown to influence a number of exercise-related behaviours, cognitions, and affective responses to exercise (e.g., social anxiety). Social anxiety occurs when an individual wants to create a specific impression on others, but is unsure (s)he will be successful (Leary & Kowalski, 1995). Social physique anxiety (SPA) is a specific form of social anxiety related the evaluation of one's body (Hart, Leary, & Rejeski, 1989). Both social anxiety and SPA may act as deterrents to exercise (Lantz, Hardy, & Ainsworth, 1997; Leary, 1992), so it is important to examine factors that may influence social anxiety and SPA; one such factor is self-presentational efficacy (SPE). SPE is one's confidence in successfully making desired impressions on others (Leary & Atherton, 1986) and has been associated with social anxiety and SPA (Leary & Kowalski, 1995; Gammage, Martin Ginis, & Hall, 2004). Several aspects of the exercise environment, such as the presence of mirrors, clothing, and the exercise leader or other participant characteristics, may be manipulated to influence self-presentational concerns (e.g., Gammage, Martin Ginis et aI., 2004; Martin & Fox, 2001; Martin Ginis, Prapavessis, & Haase, 2005). Given that the exercise leader has been recognized as one of the most important influences in the group exercise context (Franklin, 1988), it is important to further examine how the leader may impact self-presentational concerns. The present study examined the impact of the exercise leader's gender and physique salience (i.e., the extent to which the body was emphasized) on SPE, state social anxiety (SSA), and state social physique anxiety (SPA-S) of women in a live exercise class. Eighty-seven college-aged female non- or infrequent exercisers (i.e., exercised 2 or fewer times per week) participated in a group exercise class led by one of four leaders: a female whose physique was salient; a female whose physique was non-salient; a male whose physique was salient; or a male whose physique was non-salient. Participants completed measures of SPE, SSA, and SPA-S prior to and following completion of a 30- minute group exercise class. In addition, a measure of social comparison to the exercise leader and other participants with respect to attractiveness, skill, and fitness was completed by participants following the exercise class. A MANOV A was conducted to examine differences between groups on postexercise variables. Results indicated that there were no significant differences between groups on measures ofSPE, SSA, or SPA-S (allp's > .05). However, when all participants were collapsed into one group, a MANOV A showed a significant time effect (F(3, 81) = 19.45,p < .05, 1')2= .419). Follow-up ANOVAs indicated that post-exercise SPE increased significantly, while SSA and SPA-S decreased significantly (SPE: F(I, 83) = 30.87,p < .001,1')2 = .27; SSA: F(I,83) = 11.09,p < .001, 1')2 = .12; SPA-S: F (1,83) = 42.79,p < .001, 1')2 = .34). Further, results of a MANOVA revealed that participants who believed they were less fit than other group members (i.e., made negative social comparisons) reported significantly more post-exercise SSA and SP A-S than those who believed they were more fit than the other participants (i.e., made positive comparisons; SSA: F(2, 84) = 3.46, p < .05, 1')2 = .08; SPA-S: F(2, 84) = 5.69, p < .05, 1')2 = .12). These results may indicate that successfully completing an exercise class may serve as a source of SPE and lead to reduced social anxiety and SPA-S in this population. Alternatively, characteristics of the exercise leader may be less important than characteristics of the other participants. These results also suggest that the types of social comparisons made may influence self-presentational concerns in this sample. Future research should examine how the type of social comparison (i.e., negative or positive) made to the other group members may either generate or reduce anxiety. Also, factors that contribute to the types of social comparisons made with other exercisers should be examined. Implications for practice and research are discussed.
    • A qualitative case study of the processes of peer education in a young adult tobacco control initiative, Leave the Pack Behind

      Gartner, Tiffany.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2007-05-21)
      Peer education involves peers offering credible and reliable information about sensitive life issues through the means of an informal peer group setting (Topping & Ehly, 1998). The purpose of this instrumental case study was to examine the processes of peer education through the exploration of two teams within a young adult tobacco control initiative, Leave the Pack Behind (LTPB). This qualitative case study examined two peer education teams over an eight-month period. Interviews, focus groups and observations were conducted with 12 participants across two peer education teams. Findings show the complexities of the processes of peer education including a connection between the stages of change and the changing role of the peer educator across stages of the empowerment process. Peer education teams and factors in the macro environment were also found to impact the process of peer education. This study provides a new definition for the process of peer education: peer education is a fluid process of knowledge exchange in which peer educators adopt different styles of facilitation as people move through stages of empowerment and change. This study contributes to the academic hterature upon the processes of peer education by providing a definition, a model and an overall understanding through an ecological and empowerment framework. The findings from this study suggest peer educators can be further trained to: use specific peer educational approaches that fit with student smoker's stage of change; better understand their position as a peer educator on the LTPB team; understand the reciprocal relationship between the macro environment and the peer education teams having an effect on one another.
    • The implications of being an international medical graduate (IMG) in Canadian society : a qualitative study of foreign-trained physicians' resettlement, sense of identity and health status

      de Carvalho, Maria Auxiliadora Junqueira.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2007-05-21)
      This qualitative research study used grounded theory methodology to explore the settlement experiences and changes in professional identity, self esteem and health status of foreign-trained physicians (FTPs) who resettled in Canada and were not able to practice their profession. Seventeen foreign-trained physicians completed a pre-survey and rated their health status, quality of life, self esteem and stress before and after coming to Canada. They also rated changes in their experiences of violence and trauma, inclusion and belonging, and racism and discrimination. Eight FTPs from the survey sample were interviewed in semi-structured qualitative interviews to explore their experiences with the loss of their professional medical identities and attempts to regain them during resettlement. This study found that without their medical license and identity, this group of FTPs could not fully restore their professional, social, and economic status and this affected their self esteem and health status. The core theme of the loss of professional identity and attempts to regain it while being underemployed were connected with the multifaceted challenges of resettlement which created experiences of lowered selfesteem, and increased stress, anxiety and depression. They identified the re-licensing process (cost, time, energy, few residency positions, and low success rate) as the major barrier to a full and successful settlement and re-establishment of their identities. Grounded research was used to develop General Resettlement Process Model and a Physician Re-licensing Model outlining the tasks and steps for the successfiil general resettlement of all newcomers to Canada with additional process steps to be accomplished by foreign-trained physicians. Maslow's Theory of Needs was expanded to include the re-establishment of professional identity for this group to re-establish levels of safety, security, belonging, self-esteem and self-actualization. Foreign-trained physicians had established prior professional medical identities, self-esteem, recognition, social status, purpose and meaning and bring needed human capital and skills to Canada. However, without identifying and addressing the barriers to their full inclusion in Canadian society, the health of this population may deteriorate and the health system of the host country may miss out on their needed contributions.
    • Testing the IZOF directionality model in a team sport

      Brachlow, Manuela C.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2007-05-21)
    • Youth's experiences of motivation in school physical education and sport

      Patrick, Amy.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2007-05-21)
      This study's objective was to examine how thirteen year-old females perceive and describe their lived experiences of being physically active in school PE (physical education) and organized youth sport settings through a self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985) lens. Motivational factors and links between both settings were discussed with five participants using in-depth interviews. Participants discussed factors that facilitated and disrupted their motivation to be active in PE and sport settings. The selfdetermination theory was used as a framework in this qualitative study and results are based on participants' own words and perspectives. Results indicate that participants' positive experiences in school PE and organized sport have the potential to meet their needs of autonomy, competence and relatedness. The autonomy supportive behaviours of social agents, feeling challenged and successful at activities and the strong relationships formed in both settings are all things that motivated young people in this study to continue being physically active throughout high-school and into adulthood.
    • The coach-athlete relationship in university female team sports : perceptions of moral agency and ethical considerations

      Lagzdins, Milaina.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2007-05-21)