• Investigation of the Time Dependent Influence of Extracellular Osmotic Stress on Protein Turnover in Skeletal Muscle Cells

      McAlpine, Michael; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Acute alterations in cell volume can substantively modulate subsequent metabolism of substrates. However, how such alterations in skeletal muscle modulate protein metabolism is limited. The purpose of this study was to determine the time dependent influence of extracellular osmotic stress on protein turnover in skeletal muscle cells. L6 cells were incubated in hyperosmotic (HYPER; 425.3 ± 1.8mmol/kg), hypo-osmotic (HYPO; 235.4 ± 1.0mmol/kg) or control (CON; 333.5 ± 1.4mmol/kg) media for 4, 8, 12, or 24hrs. During the final 4hrs, incorporation of L-[ring-3,5-3H]-tyrosine was measured to estimate protein synthesis. Western blotting measured markers of protein synthesis and degradation. No differences were observed in any outcomes except p70S6K phosphorylation whereby HYPO was lower (p<0.05) than CON and HYPER; which remained similar except for a large increase at 8hrs for HYPER. These findings suggest that regardless of duration, extracellular osmotic stress does not significantly affect protein metabolism in L6 cells.
    • Investigative links between cognitive function and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity in elementary physical education

      Pirrie, A. Melissa.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2008-06-01)
      Research has noted both physical and psychosocial benefits when children participate in regular physical activity. Recent studies are indicating that there may also be academic benefits and that students may be more efficient learners with participation in physical activity. This study investigated the influence of acute moderate-to-vigorous physical activity on four cognitive functions: planning, attention, simultaneous processing, and successive processing. Three classes (59 students) were each tested twice using a balanced design (intervention, balance, and control groups). It was found that the intervention group had a large increase in planning abiHty (ES = 1.67) when compared to the balance (ES = .80) and control (ES = -.89) groups. On the three remaining cognitive functions, the intervention group showed effect sizes similar to that of the balance and control groups. These results indicate that improved planning after physical activity may playa role in improving student performance.
    • Left ventricular structure in children with developmental coordination disorder

      Chirico, Daniel; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2011-03-08)
      Developmental coordination disorder (p-DCD) is a neuro-developmental disorder featuring impairment in developing motor coordination. This study examined left ventricular mass (LVM) in children with p-DCD (n=63) and controls (n=63). LVM was measured using echocardiography. Body composition was determined using BOD POD and peak oxygen uptake (peak V02) was measured by a progressive exercise test. Height, weight and blood pressure were also measured. LVM was not significantly elevated in p-DCD compared to controls. Peak V02 was lower and SBP, BMI, HR, and BF(%) were significantly higher in p-DCD. They also demonstrated elevated stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (CO), end-diastolic volume, and ventricular diameter in diastole. In regression analyses, p-DCD was a significant predictor of SV and CO after accounting for height, FFM, V02FFM, and sex. These differences in children with p-DCD indicate obesity related changes in the left ventricle and may represent early stages of developing hypertrophy of the left ventricle.
    • A Life without Gluten: Dietary Adherence, Physical Activity and Motives

      Crawford, Amy M; Applied Health Sciences Program
      The purpose of this study was to look at individuals living on a gluten-free diet (GFD), their dietary adherence, PA levels and the reasons why they engage in these lifestyle behaviours consistent with Organismic Integration Theory (Deci & Ryan, 2002). Participants (N = 202; Mage = 42.35 years, SDage = 12.43 years) completed a series of online questionnaires. GFD adherence (74.7%) across the previous week was consistent with existing literature (Dowd et al., 2013), but participant physical activity scores were higher than reported normative values (p = .00; Wilson et al., 2010). Specific motives predicted gluten-free dietary adherence (i.e., integrated and identified regulations) and PA (i.e., intrinsic and identified regulations; p < .05). Findings may be used by health professionals to inform behavioural interventions consistent with OIT (Deci & Ryan, 2002).
    • Linking of stress offset score (SOS), work satisfaction, and organizational commitment to intentions to quit

      Alexander, Angela.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2007-05-21)
      The purpose of this study was to identify the impact of stressors and offsetting satistiers, measured in this study with Stress Offset Score (SOS), on intentions to quit and examine the mediating and moderating effects of three facets of work satisfaction (job satisfaction, pay satisfaction, and satisfaction with supervisor) and two facets of organizational commitment (affective and nonnative commitment) on this relationship. The sample was composed of 2990 employees from 21 public and private organizations. The interaction of each type of work satisfaction and organizational commitment, with SOS, was tested using Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) procedures. Intentions to quit was the dependent variable. The research questions were determine: (1) Does SOS predict intentions to quit? (2) Does work satisfaction mediate the predictive relationship of SOS on intentions to quit? (3) Does organizational commitment mediate the predictive relationship of SOS on intent to quit? (4) Does work satisfaction moderate the predictive relationship of SOS on intentions to quit? and (5) Does organizational commitment moderate the predictive relationship of SOS on intentions to quit? The results indicated that SOS was negatively correlated with intentions to quit. Each of the types of work satisfaction and organizational commitment variables showed a partial mediated relationship with SOS and each relationship was highly significant, while normative commitment explained more of the relationship then other mediators. The study also tested for interactions but no statistical significant relationships where established between any of the interaction terms (e.g., SOSxJob Satisfaction and SOSxAffcctive Commitment) and intentions to quit.
    • Maternal High Fat Feeding: Impact of Female Offspring Body Composition and Bone Health

      Castelli, Laura; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2014-09-05)
      High fat diet (HFD) consumption in rodents alters body composition and weakens bones. Whether female offspring of mothers consuming a HFD are similarly affected at weaning and early adulthood is unclear. This research determined whether maternal HFD contributes to long-lasting alterations in body composition and bone health of female offspring. Rats were fed control or HFD for 10 weeks prior to and throughout pregnancy and lactation. Female offspring were studied at weaning or 3 months of age (consumed control diet). Main findings in female offspring: maternal HFD decreased lean mass, increased fat mass and femoral BMD at weaning, but not at 3 months; weanling femoral lipid composition reflected maternal diet, persisting to 3 months of age (decreased total and n6 polyunsaturates, increased saturates); and no differences in femoral strength at 3 months. In summary, 3 month old female offspring have similar body composition and bone health regardless of maternal diet.
    • Mechanisms of endothelin-1 induced reactive oxygen species production in vascular adventitial fibroblasts

      Chapman, Sandy.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2008-06-15)
      With the relationship between endothelin-1 (ET-1) stimulation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production unknown in adventitial fibroblasts, I examined the ROS response to ET-1 and angiotensin (Ang II). ET-1 -induced ROS peaked following 4 hrs of ET-1 stimulation and was inhibited by an ETA receptor antagonist (BQ 123, 1 uM) an extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 inhibitor (PD98059, 10 uM), and by both a specific, apocynin (10 uM), and non-specific, diphenyleneiodonium (10 uM), NAD(P)H oxidase inhibitor. NOX2 knockout fibroblasts did not produce an ET-1 induced change in ROS levels. Ang II treatment increased ROS levels in a biphasic manner, with the second peak occurring 6 hrs following stimulation. The secondary phase of Ang II induced ROS was inhibited by an ATi receptor antagonist, Losartan (100 uM) and BQ 123. In conclusion, ET-1 induces ROS production primarily through an ETA-ERKl/2 NOX2 pathway, additionally, Ang II-induced ROS production also involves an ETa pathway.
    • Mediating Influence of Physical Fitness on the Relationship between Academic Performance and Motor Proficiency

      Alexander, Ryan; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2011-08-10)
      We explored the potential mediating influence of physical fitness on the relationship between academic performance and motor proficiency in children. 1864 students (F:926, M:938, age 11.91 (SD:0.34). Academic achievement was derived from an average of standardized tests of reading, writing, and math. The Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Performance (short-form) determined motor proficiency. Fitness (peak oxygen uptake) was established with the Léger 20-m Shuttle Run Test. OLS regression identified several significant predictors of academic performance. After controlling for age (p=0.0135), gender (p<0.0001), and parental education (p<0.0001), motor proficiency (p<0.0001), was significant. After adding physical fitness (p=0.0030) to the model the effect of motor proficiency remained significant however the point estimate was reduced from 0.0034 (p<0.0001) to 0.0026 (p<0.0001). These results suggest that physical fitness plays a mediating role on the relationship between academic performance and motor proficiency although both aerobic fitness and motor proficiency have independent roles.
    • The Mediating Role of Perceived Scholastic Competence in the Relationship Between Motor Coordination and Academic Performance

      Lemay, Alex; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) are often referred to as clumsy because of their compromised motor coordination. Clumsiness and slow movement performances while scripting in children with DCD often result in poor academic performance and a diminished sense of scholastic competence. This study purported to examine the mediating role of perceived scholastic competence in the relationship between motor coordination and academic performance in children in grade six. Children receive a great deal of comparative information on their academic performances, which influence a student's sense of scholastic competence and self-efficacy. The amount of perceived academic self-efficacy has significant impact on academic performance, their willingness to complete academic tasks, and their self-motivation to improve where necessary. Independent t-tests reveal a significant difference (p < .001) between DCD and non-DCD groups when compared against their overall grade six average with the DCD group performing significantly lower. Independent t-tests found no significant difference between DCD and non-DCD groups for perceived scholastic competence. However, multiple linear regression analysis revealed a significant mediating role of 15% by perceived scholastic competence when examining the relationship between motor coordination and academic performance. While children with probable DCD may not rate their perceived scholastic competence as less than their healthy peers, there is a significant mediating effect on their academic performance.
    • Menstrual status and thermoregulatory responses of active adolescents during exercise in a cold environment

      Cunliffe, Melora.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2002-05-21)
      This study examined the interactions between the reproductive status and the thermoregulatory responses during exercise in the cold in girls involved in competitive sports. Four girls with established menstrual cycles comprised the eumenorrheic menarcheal group (EM) and 5 non-menstruating girls comprised the pre-menarcheal group (PM). During the first visit maximal oxygen consumption, height, weight and percent body fat (%BF) were measured. The second visit involved: a determination of metabolic rate in thermoneutrality (21°C) involving 10-min rest and 20-min cycling (30% of VCL max), and a cold stress test (5°C, 40% humidity, <0.3 m/s air velocity) involving 20-min rest and 40-min cycling (30% of VCL max.). Subjects in the EM group were tested twice in the chamber during the follicular and luteal phases. Pre-menarcheal subjects were found to have significantly (p<0.05) lower core temperatures during the final stages of cold exposure. Overall, body fat was not significantly correlated with core temperature in the cold, however there was a significant surface-to-mass ratio difference between the groups. While in the follicular phase, EM girls had a higher core temperature during cold exposure. Therefore, reproductive hormonal status seems to be an important factor in terms of cold tolerance in females during adolescence.
    • Migrations and gradations : reappraising the health profile of immigrants to Canada

      Hawes, Robert Alexander.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2005-06-15)
      New immigrants to Canada typically have a more favourable health profile than the non-immigrant population. This phenomenon, known as the 'healthy immigrant effect', has been attributed to both the socioeconomic advantage (ie. educational attainment, occupational opportunity) of non-refugee immigrants and existing screening protocols that admit only the healthiest of persons to Canada. It has been suggested that this health advantage diminishes as the time of residence in Canada increases, due in part to the adoption of health-risk behaviours such as alcohol and cigarette use, an increase in excess body weight, and declining rates of physical activity. However, the majority of health research concerning immigrants to Canada has been limited to cross-sectional studies (Dunn & Dyck, 2000; Newbold & Danforth, 2003), which may mask an immigrant-specific cohort effect. Furthermore, the practice of aggregating foreign-bom persons by geographical regions or treating all immigrants as a homogeneous group may also obfuscate intra-immigrant differences in health. Accordingly, this study uses the Canadian National Population Health Surveys (NPHS) and data from the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) to prospectively evaluate factors that predict health status among immigrants to Canada. Each immigrant in the NPHS was linked to the UNDP Human Development Index of their country of birth, which uses a combined measure of health, education, and per capita income of the populace. The six-year change in health function, psychological distress, and self-rated health were considered from a population health perspective (Evans, 1994), using generalized-estimating equations (GEE) to examine the compounding effect of past and recent predictors of health. Demographic
    • Mindfulness therapy as a means to improve sexual satisfaction in couples with neuromuscular disabilities

      Seliman, Merna; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Research regarding sexuality after neuromuscular disabilities has focused on either men or women separately, without considering the couple and how acquiring a disability may influence relationships. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of an 8-week modified mindfulness intervention on sexual satisfaction in couples where one or both partners are living with neuromuscular disability. One couple (male age 42, female age 44) with the female living with neuromuscular disability (relapsing remitting MS, 11 years since diagnosis) participated in the study. The mindfulness intervention was administered to participants via a booklet and the exercises were explained verbally after the baseline interview. The booklet contained a total of eight mindfulness-based exercises for each week of the intervention. The exercises were explained in a step-by-step manner in the booklet. The booklet also included reflection questions at the end of each exercise in order to prompt the couple to journal about their experiences and record how much time they dedicated to that exercise per week. The exercises were carried out at home. The intervention also included a psycho-education session that was offered at week five of the intervention. The psycho-education session aimed to challenge thought patterns and negative beliefs about sex and physical abilities. It also involved a discussion about body-image as it relates to mindfulness. Testing involved a sexual satisfaction questionnaire that was completed by each member of the couple individually at baseline and at the end of the 8-week intervention. II Also, an in-depth semi-structured phenomenological interview of the couple together was conducted at baseline and at the end of the 8-week intervention. The results of this study showed that sexual satisfaction and sexual-self view have improved for the couple as a result of participating in the 8-week mindfulness intervention. In addition, the couple reported an improvement in communication, understanding, and awareness. Sensate focus exercises enhanced intimacy between the couple. Themes such as acceptance and feeling present in the moment were discerned from phenomenological analysis. These findings show promise for mindfulness-based therapies to enhance sexual satisfaction and relationship satisfaction in couples living with neuromuscular disabilities.
    • Muscle strength and activation characteristics of power- trained and non-athlete boys and men

      Mitchell, Cameron Jeffrey.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2009-02-16)
      During maturation, muscle strength is enhanced through muscle growth, although neuro-muscular factors are also believed to be involved. In adults, training for power sports has been shown to enhance muscle strength and activation. The purpose of this study was to examine muscle strength and activation in power-trained athletes (POW) compared with non-athletes (CON), in boys and in adults. After familiarization subjects performed ten 5-s explosive maximal voluntary contractions for elbow and knee flexion and extension. The adults were stronger then the boys and the adult POW were stronger then the adult CON, even after correction for muscle size. Normalized rate of torque development was higher in the adults then in the boys and higher in the POW then CON boys. The rate of muscle activation was higher in the adults and POW groups. The results suggest that maturation and power-training have an additive effect on muscle activation.
    • Myosin Regulatory Light Chain Phosphorylation and Its Effect on the Contractile Economy of Mouse Fast Muscle

      Bunda, Jordan; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Activated by elevations in myoplasmic calcium concentration, myosin light chain kinase (skMLCK) phosphorylates the regulatory light chains (RLCs) of fast muscle myosin. This covalent modification potentiates force production, but requires an investment of ATP. Our objective was to investigate the effect of RLC phosphorylation on the contractile economy (mechanical output:metabolic input) of fast twitch skeletal muscle. Extensor digitorum longus muscles isolated from Wildtype and skMLCK-/- mice mounted in vitro (25°C) were subjected to repetitive low-frequency stimulation (10Hz,15s) known to cause activation of skMLCK, and staircase potentiation of force. With a 3-fold increase in RLC phosphate content, Wildtype generated 44% more force than skMLCK-/- muscles over the stimulation period (P = .002), without an accompanied increase in energy cost (P = .449). Overall, the contractile economy of Wildtype muscles, with an intact RLC phosphorylation mechanism, was 73% greater than skMLCK /- muscles (P = .043), demonstrating an important physiological function of skMLCK during repetitive contractile activity.
    • The nature experiences of wilderness recreation leaders : throwing a stone

      Grimwood, Bryan S. R.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2005-05-21)
      Through this descriptive exploratory study, the ways that wilderness recreation leaders experience nature are illuminated, deconstructing the assumed environmental benefits of and practices used in outdoor recreation (Haluza-Delay, 2001). This study also offers a foundation for advancing an environmental ethic among wilderness recreation leaders, participants, and organizations. With the continued degradation of and threats to natural environments, and the rising popularity of outdoor recreation participation, the outdoor recreation professional can be a leader in promoting human reconnections to the Earth (Henderson, 1999). Leaders of outdoor recreation experiences play an important role in encouraging these revived relationships to natural settings and can contribute to the necessary environmental consciousness shift needed within Western society (Hanna, 1995; Jordan, 1996). The purpose of this research was to describe the lived-experience in nature of wilderness recreation leaders. Specifically, a phenomenological method of inquiry was used to describe the meaning of nature, the connections and relationships to nature, and the behaviours and emotions experienced in nature by a group of wilderness canoe trip leaders employed by a residential summer camp. In addition to the implications of this research, achieving this outcome provides a rich descriptive understanding of wilderness leaders' experiences—a basis from which to extend future research endeavours and programmatic practices that promote effective environmental outcomes of outdoor recreation participation. Each of the five study participants was employed in the summer of 2003 by an Ontario residential summer camp organization that sponsors extended wilderness river canoe trips for youth. Two in-depth and semi-structured interviews were performed with each participant, asking them to reflect on the canoe trip that they led for the summer camp organization during 2003. Phenomenological data was analyzed according to Colaizzi's (1978) thematic analysis process. Consistent with van Manen's (1997) emphasis on phenomenological writing, the final result presents the essence of the nature experiences of wilderness recreation leaders in the format of a narrative description. This narrative piece is the culmination of this research effort. Throughout the journey, however, various foundations within the outdoor recreation field, such as minimum impact principles, environmentally responsible behaviours, anthropocentric and ecocentric worldviews, and effective leadership are deconstructed and discussed.
    • Neuromotor Mechanisms Involved in the Recovery from Local Muscular Fatigue

      Green, Lara; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2013-01-14)
      The phenomenon of over-recovery consists of a participant’s maximal force levels returning to values above initial levels. The present study examined the presence and causes of over-recovery following local muscular fatigue. Fourteen males completed two fatigue protocols consisting of maximal isometric dorsiflexion contractions. Upon completion of the fatigue protocol participants’ force was monitored over a 15 minute recovery period. Dorsiflexion force and surface electromyography (sEMG) from the tibialis anterior and soleus were monitored concurrently. Following the two fatigue conditions (10 and 20% force decrement) force recovered to 100.5 and 99.5% of initial levels for each condition, respectively. Surface EMG root-mean-square amplitude and MPF exhibited changes consistent with a warm-up effect. It was concluded that over-recovery was not present in the tibialis anterior following a local muscular fatigue. However, the return in force to initial values, rather than a persistent decrement as normally observed, was mediated by the warm-up effect.
    • Neuromuscular adaptations in endurance-trained boys and men

      Cohen, Rotem.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2009-01-28)
      Competitive sports participation in youth is becoming increasingly more common in the Western world. It is widely accepted that sports participation, specifically endurance training, is beneficial for physical, psychomotor, and social development of children. The research on the effect of endurance training in children has focused mainly on healthrelated benefits and physiological adaptations, particularly on maximal oxygen uptake. However, corresponding research on neuromuscular adaptations to endurance training and the latter's possible effects on muscle strength in youth is lacking. In children and adults, resistance training can enhance strength and mcrease muscle activation. However, data on the effect of endurance training on strength and neuromuscular adaptations are limited. While some evidence exists demonstrating increased muscle activation and possibly increased strength in endurance athletes compared with untrained adults, the neuromuscular adaptations to endurance training in children have not been examined. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine maximal isometric torque and rate of torque development (RID), along with the pattern of muscle activation during elbow and knee flexion and extension in muscle-endurancetrained and untrained men and boys. Subjects included 65 males: untrained boys (n=18), endurance-trained boys (n=12), untrained men (n=20) and endurance-trained men (n=15). Maximal isometric torque and rate of torque development were measured using an isokinetic dynamometer (Biodex III), and neuromuscular activation was assessed using surface electromyography (SEMG). Muscle strength and activation were assessed in the dominant arm and leg, in a cross-balanced fashion during elbow and knee flexion and extension. The main variables included peak torque (T), RTD, rate of muscle activation (Q30), Electro-mechanical delay (EMD), time to peak RTD and co-activation index. Age differences in T, RTD, electro-mechanical delay (EMD) and rate of muscle activation (Q30) were consistently observed in the four contractions tested. Additionally, Q30, nonnalized for peak EMG amplitude, was consistently higher in the endurancetrained men compared with untrained men. Co-activation index was generally low in all contractions. For example, during maximal voluntary isometric knee extension, men were stronger, had higher RTD and Q30, whether absolute or nonnalized values were used. Moreover, boys exhibited longer EMD (64.8 ± 18.5 ms vs. 56.6 ± 15.3 ms, for boys and men respectively) and time to peak RTD (112.4 ± 33.4 ms vs. 100.8 ± 39.1 ms for boys and men, respectively). In addition, endurance-trained men had lower T compared with untrained men, yet they also exhibited significantly higher nonnalized Q30 (1.9 ± 1.2 vs. 1.1 ± 0.7 for endurance-trained men and untrained men, respectively). No training effect was apparent in the boys. In conclusion, the findings demonstrate muscle strength and activation to be lower in children compared with adults, regardless of training status. The higher Q30 of the endurance-trained men suggests neural adaptations, similar to those expected in response to resistance training. The lower peak torque may su9gest a higher relative involvement oftype I muscle fibres in the endurance-trained athletes. Future research is required to better understand the effect of growth and development on muscle strength and activation patterns during dynamic and sub-maximal isometric contractions. Furthennore, training intervention studies could reveal the effects of endurance training during different developmental stages, as well as in different muscle groups.
    • Neuromuscular responses to an isometric force and position task during passive hyperthermia

      Coletta, Nico; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Mechanisms of central nervous system (CNS) impairment during hyperthermia are largely task-dependent. This thesis sought to compare neuromuscular responses of an isometric force and position task during passive hyperthermia, and the relative contributions of rectal (Tre) and skin (T ̅sk) temperature afferents. Surface electromyography (sEMG) was used to assess the electrical activity of the flexor carpi radialis (FCR) muscle during a force and position task. Twenty participants were passively heated from 37.1°C to 39.0°C Tre or thermal tolerance and then cooled back to 37.8°C using a liquid conditioning garment. Passive hyperthermia induced progressive increases in root-mean-square (RMS) amplitude, mean power frequency (MPF) and median power frequency (MDF) for the force task. No change was observed in the sEMG signal for the positon task with passive heating, yet RMS amplitude increased upon skin cooling. Discrepancies in the sEMG signal exist between isometric and dynamic tasks, and these changes are due to core and skin afferents, respectively.
    • Ontario high school sport : an investigation of organizational design and its context

      Sarson, Lindsay A.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2005-05-19)
      In 2002, The Ontario Federation of School Athletic Associations (OFSAA) identified that in providing extracurricular sport programs schools are faced with the 'new realities' of the education system. Although research has been conducted exploring the pressures impacting the provision of extracurricular school sport (Donnelly, Mcloy, Petherick, & Safai, 2000), few studies within the field have focused on understanding extracurricular school sport from an organizational level. The focus of this study was to examine the organizational design (structure, systems, and values) of the extracurricular sport department within three Ontario high schools, as well as to understand the context within which the departments exist. A qualitative multiple case study design was adopted and three public high schools were selected from one district school board in Ontario to represent the cases under investigation. Interviews, observations and documents were used to analyze the extracurricular sport department design of each case and to better understand the context within which the departments exist. As the result of the analysis of the structure, systems and values of each case, two designs emerged- Design KT1 and Design KT2. Differences in the characteristics of design archetype KT1 and KT2 centered on the design dimension of values, and therefore this study identified that contrasting organizational values reflect differences in design types. The characteristics of the Kitchen Table archetype were found to be transferable to the sub-sector of extracurricular school sport, and therefore this research provides a springboard for further research in organizational design within the education sector of extracurricular high school sport. Interconnections were found between the data associated with the external and internal contexts within which the extracurricular sport departments exist. The analysis of the internal context indicated the important role played by organizational members in shaping the context within which the departments exist. The analysis of the external context highlighted the institutional pressures that were present within the education environment. Both political and cultural expectations related to the role of extracurricular sport within schools were visible and were subsequently used by the high schools to create legitimacy and prestige, and to access resources.
    • Organizational commitment and perceived relatedness as correlates of the intention to continue officiating in track and field

      Gray, Casey.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2006-05-19)
      The objectives of the present study were to explore three components of organizational commitment (affective [AC], normative [NC] and continuance [CC] commitment; Allen & Meyer, 1991), perceived relatedness (Oeci & Ryan, 1985; 2002), and behavioural intention (Ajzen, 2002) within the context of volunteer track and field officiating. The objectives were examined in a 2-phase study. Ouring phase 1, experts (N = 10) with domain familiarity assessed the item content relevance and representation of modified organizational commitment (OC; Meyer, Allen & Smith, 1993) and perceived relatedness (La Guardia, Oeci, Ryan & Couchman, 2000) items. Fourteen of 26 (p < .05) items were relevant (Aiken's coefficient V) and NC (M = 3.88, SO = .64), CC (M = 3.63, SD = .52), and relatedness (M = 4.00, SD = .93) items had mean item content-representation ratings of either "good" or "very good" while AC (M = 2.50, SD = 0.58) was rated "fair". Participants in phase 2 (N = 80) responded to items measuring demographic variables, perceptions of OC to Athletics Canada, perceived relatedness to other track and field officials, and a measure of intention (yiu, Au & Tang, 2001) to continue officiating. Internal consistency reliability estimates (Cronbach's (1951) coefficient alpha) were as follows: (a) AC = .78, (b) CC = .85, (c) NC = .80 (d) perceived relatedness = .70 and, (e) intention = .92 in the present sample. Results suggest that the track and field officials felt only minimally committed to Athletics Canada (AC M = 3.90, SD = 1.23; NC M = 2.47, SD = 1.25; CC M = 3.32; SD = 1.34) and that their relationships with other track and field officials were strongly endorsed (M = 5.86, SD = 0.74). Bivariate correlations (Pearson r) indicated that perceived relatedness to other track and field officials demonstrated the strongest relationship with intention to continue officiating (r = .346, p < .05), while dimensions of OC were not significantly related to intention (all p's > .05). Together perceived relatedness (j3 = .339, p = .004), affective commitment (j3 = -.1 53, p = .308), normative commitment (j3 = -.024, p = .864) and continuance commitment (j3 = .186, P = .287) contribute to the prediction of intention to continued officiating (K = .139). These relationships remained unaffected by the inclusion of demographic (j3age = -.02; P years with Athletics Canada = -.13; bothp's > .05) or alternative commitment (j3sport = -.19; P role = .15; Pathletes = .20; all p' s > .05) considerations. Three open-ended questions elicited qualitative responses regarding participants' reasons for officiating. Responses reflecting initial reasons for officiating formed these higher order themes: convenience, helping reasons, extension of role, and intrinsic reasons. Responses reflecting reasons for continuing to officiate formed these higher order themes: track and field, to help, and personal benefits. Responses reflecting changes that would influence continued involvement were: political, organizational/structural, and personal. These results corroborate the findings of previous investigations which state that the reasons underpinning volunteer motivations change over time (Cuskelly et al., 2002). Overall, the results of this study suggest that track and field officials feel minimal commitment to the organization of Athletics Canada but a stronger bond with their fellow officials. Moreover, the degree to which track and field officials feel meaningfully connected to one another appears to exert a positive influence on their intentions to continue officiating. As such, it is suggested that in order to promote continued involvement, Athletics Canada increases its focus on fostering environments promoting positive interactions among officials.