• The association between “leg length to height ratio” and blood pressure in peri-adolescents

      Wijesena, Dilani; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Background: Hypertension has a high prevalence in adults, and is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Children and adolescents with higher levels of blood pressure tend to have high blood pressures as adults. Identifying children with higher levels of blood pressure would be critical for effectively implementing preventive measures among them. Stature components have been found to be associated with the risk of CVD in adults and some CVD risk factors in children. A few studies have found an association between leg length to height ratio (LLHR) and blood pressure in children; however, none of these studies have been in Canada. Objective: To ascertain the relationship between leg length to height ratio and blood pressure in Canadian youth. Methods: This cross- sectional analysis was done using data from the Heart Behavioural Environment Assessment Team (HBEAT) study, which was conducted with students from Niagara Catholic District School Board. Blood pressure and stature components of 689 students between the ages of 9-14 years were included for the analysis. The height range was 106.3 cm to 178.5 cm, and the blood pressure range was 67 mmHg to 142 mmHg for systolic blood pressure, and 30 mmHg to 96 mmHg for diastolic blood pressure. Regression models were used to examine relationships between LLHR and blood pressures. Results: In the regression analyses, for every one standard deviation increment in LLHR, the systolic, diastolic, pulse pressure, and mean arterial pressure were on average 1.08 mmHg (p<0.01), 0.88mmHg (p<0.01), 0.20mmHg and 0.95mmHg (p<0.01) lower after adjusting for selected covariates. Conclusion: Inverse relationships between LLHR and systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressure have been observed among Canadian youth. However, whether this can be used to predict the future risk of high blood pressure among children with a lower LLHR needs further studies.
    • The Association of Energy Intake with Body Mass in Children With and Without Probable Developmental Coordination Disorder

      Pryzbek, Michael; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2015-01-05)
      Objective To determine if there is an association between energy intake (EI) and overweight or obesity status (OWOB) in children with and without probable developmental coordination disorder (p-DCD). Methods 1905 children were included. The Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency was used to assess p-DCD, body mass index for OWOB, and the Harvard Food Frequency Questionnaire for EI. Comparative tests and logistic regressions were performed. Results Reported EI was similar between p-DCD and non-DCD children among boys (2291 vs. 2281 kcal/day, p=0.917), but much lower in p-DCD compared to non-DCD girls (1745 vs.. 2068 kcal/day, p=0.007). EI was negatively associated with OWOB in girls only (OR: 0.82 (0.68, 0.98)). Conclusions Girls with p-DCD have a lower reported EI compared to their non-DCD peers. EI is negatively associated with OWOB in girls with p-DCD. Future research is needed to assess longitudinally the potential impact of EI on OWOB in this population.

      Schachtschneider, Carrie; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2014-01-23)
      Variation in hiring procedures occurs within fire service human resource departments. In this study, City 1 and City 2 applicants were required to pass their biophysical assessments prior to being hired as firefighters at the beginning and end of the screening process, respectively. City 1 applicants demonstrated significantly lower resting heart rate (RHR), resting diastolic blood pressure (RDBP), body fat% (BF) and higher z-scores for BF, trunk flexibility (TF) and overall clinical assessment (p<0.05). Regression analysis found that age and conducting the biophysical assessment at the end of the screening process explained poorer biophysical assessment results in BF% (R2=21%), BF z-score (R2=22%), TF z-score (R2=10%) and overall clinical assessment z-score (R2=7%). Each of RHR (OR=1.06, CI=1.01-1.10), RDBP (OR=1.05, CI=1.00-1.11) and BF% (OR=1.20, CI=1.07-1.37) increased the odds of being a City 2 firefighter (p<0.05). Biophysical screening at the end of the hiring process may result in the hiring of a less healthy firefighter.
    • Associations Between Personal Cancer History and Lung Cancer Risk

      Everett, Karl; Applied Health Sciences Program
      The study aim was to investigate the relationship between factors related to personal cancer history and lung cancer risk as well as assess their predictive utility. Characteristics of interest included the number, anatomical site(s), and age of onset of previous cancer(s). Data from the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Screening (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial (N = 154,901) and National Lung Screening Trial (N = 53,452) were analysed. Logistic regression models were used to assess the relationships between each variable of interest and 6-year lung cancer risk. Predictive utility was assessed through changes in area-under-the-curve (AUC) after substitution into the PLCOall2014 lung cancer risk prediction model. Previous lung, uterine and oral cancers were strongly and significantly associated with elevated 6-year lung cancer risk after controlling for confounders. None of these refined measures of personal cancer history offered more predictive utility than the simple (yes/no) measure already included in the PLCOall2014 model.
    • Associations between Selected Dietary Factors, Selected Obesity-Related Metabolic Markers (Leptin, C-peptide, and High-sensitivity C-reactive Protein), and Lung Cancer: A Matched Case-Control Study Nested in the Prospective PLCO Trial

      Chen, Yixian; Applied Health Sciences Program
      The purpose of the study was to evaluate the associations between selected dietary factors, body mass index (BMI), selected obesity-related metabolic markers, and lung cancer risk as well as histological types in ever-smokers (former and current-smokers). Characteristics of interest included BMI at age 50, fruits and vegetables daily frequency, supplemental beta-carotene intake, C-peptide (CP), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), and leptin concentrations. Data from the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial were analyzed. Linear regression models were used to describe the associations between quantitative variables. The relationships between variables of interest and lung cancer were studied by logistic regression modelling. Multivariable fractional polynomial (MFP) models were utilized to address non-linearity in these associations. Higher fruits and vegetables daily frequency and supplemental beta-carotene intake were associated with a lower risk of lung cancer in ever-smokers. Metabolic markers, C-peptide and hsCRP, were positively associated with lung cancer risk. Inverse relationships were observed between BMI and leptin with lung cancer risk. The relationships between selected dietary factors, BMI, selected metabolic markers, and lung cancer risk were more prominent in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in comparison with those in small cell lung cancer (SCLC).
    • Attention focus and balance control in young and older adults

      Paton, Erika.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2008-06-15)
      This thesis investigated attention focus and balance control in eighteen healthy young adults and eighteen healthy older adults. All participants performed sixteen consecutive trials of a balance task which involved standing for 30-s on an unstable platform that could rotate only in the roll direction. There were no attention focus instructions provided on any of the sixteen trials. Following the completion of the initial and final attempt in the series, participants reported "where" their attention had been focused when performing the task. The results showed differences in balance between young and older adults and improvements in balance with practice in both young and older adults. However, there were no differences in attention focus strategies between young and older adults. Both age groups directed attention to multiple sources during the balance task. An equal focus on internal (i.e., feet, trunk, and other body parts) and external (i.e., the platform) sources with little focus on events not related to the task dominated on the first attempt of the balance task. Focus on internal sources was maintained and focus on events not related to the task increased at the expense of focus on external sources on the final attempt of the balance task. Following the series of sixteen trials to establish "natural" attention focus, participants performed three randomly presented trials, each with specific attention focus instructions (i.e., think about minimizing movements of the feet, the trunk, or the platform). The results showed that, in contrast to the literature, instructions to focus on an internal source, the trunk, actually augmented control of the task as reflected in reduced trunk sway whereas instructions to focus on an internal source, the feet, or an external source, the platform, did not benefit performance on the task. Thus, the distance fi-om the interaction point of the body with the external source is critical and may not depend on whether the source is internal or external. Thus, a global attention focus instruction may not be beneficial and the nature of the task should be considered when adopting attention focus instructions for young and older adults.
    • Attenuation of skeletal muscle FFA-induced insulin resistance by the polyphenol resveratrol. Elucidation of the mechanisms involved

      Sanli, Toran.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2008-11-04)
      Excess plasma free fatty acids (FFA) are correlated with insulin resistance and are a risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes. In this study we examined the effect of the polyphenol resveratrol on FF A-induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscle cells and the mechanisms involved. Incubation of L6 myotubes with the FF A palmitate significantly decreased the insulin-stimulated glucqse uptake. Importantly, the effect of palmitate was ameliorated by resveratrol. Palmitate significantly increased serine phosphorylation of IRS..; 1 and reduced insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation, an effect that was abolished by resveratrol. We then investigated the effect of palmitate and resveratrol on the expression and phosphorylation of JNK, mTOR, p70-S6K, and AMPK kinases. The results demonstrated that our treatments had no effect on the expression of these proteins. However, palmitate increased the phosphorylation of mTOR and p70- S6K, whereas resveratrol abolished this effect and increased the phosphorylation of AMPK. Furthermore, all effects of resveratrol were abolished with sirtuin inhibitors, sirtinol and nicotinamide. These results indicate that resveratrol ameliorated FF A-induced insulin resistance by regulating mTOR and p70-S6K phosphorylation in skeletal muscle cells, through a mechanism involving sirtuins.
    • Autonomic regulation and blood pressure in children

      Fitzgibbon, Laura K.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2009-01-28)
      Vagal baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) is a measure of short term blood pressure (BP) regulation through alterations in heart rate. Low BRS reflects impaired autonomic system regulation and has been found to be a surrogate marker for cardiovascular health. In particular, it has found to be associated with the pathogenesis of adult hypertension. However, only limited information exists as to the negative consequences of childhood BP on baroreflex function. The objective of this study was to investigate BRS in children with 2 different BP profiles while controlling for the effects of age, maturation, sex, and body composition. A preliminary subsample of 11-14 year-old children from the HBEAT (Heart Behavioural Environmental Assessment Team) Study was selected. The children were divided into 2 BP groups; high BP (HBP; 2:95tl1 percentile, n=21) and normal BP (NBP; <90th percentile, n=85). Following an initial 15 minutes of supine rest, 5 minutes of continuous beat-to-beat BP (Finapres) and RR interval (RRI) were recorded (standard ECG). Spectral indices were computed using Fast Fourier Transform and transfer function analysis was used to compute BRS. High frequency (HF) and low frequency (LF) power spectral areas were set to 0.15-0.4 Hz and 0.04-0.15 Hz, respectively. Body composition was measured using body mass index. After adjusting for body composition, maturation, age and sex ANCOV A results were as follows; LF and HF BRS, LF and HF RRI, and RRI total power were lower in the HBP versus NBP participants (p<0.05). As well, LF IHF SBP ratio was significantly higher in the HBP compared to the NBP group (p<0.05). The regression coefficients (unstandardized B) indicated that in changing groups (NBP to HBP) LF and HF BRS decreases by 4.04 and 6.18 ms/mmHg, respectively. Thus, as BP increases, BRS decreases. These data suggest that changes in autonomic activity occur in children who have HBP, regardless of age, sex, maturation, and body composition. Thus, despite their young age and relatively short amount of time having high BP compared with adults, these children are already demonstrating poor BP regulation and reduced cardiovagal activity. Given that childhood BP is associated with hypertension in adulthood, there is a growing concern in regards to the current cardiovascular health of our children and future adults.
    • Baroreflex sensitivity and developmental coordination disorder

      Coverdale, Nicole; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2011-03-08)
      Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is a motor coordination disorder that is characterized by impairment of motor skills which leads to challenges with performing activities of daily living. Children with DCD have been shown to be less physically active and have increased body fatness. This is an important finding since a sedentary lifestyle and obesity are risk factors for cardiovascular disease. One indicator of cardiovascular health is baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), which is a measure of short term BP regulation that is accomplished through changes in HR. Diminished BRS is predictive of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to investigate BRS in 117 children aged 12 to 13 years with probable DCD (pOCO) and their matched controls with normal coordination. Following 15 minutes of supine rest, five minutes of continuous beat-by-beat blood pressure (Finapres) and RR interval were recorded (standard ECG). Spectral indices were computed using Fast Fourier Transform and transfer function analysis was used to compute BRS. High frequency and low frequency power spectral areas were set to 0.15-0.6 Hz and 0.04-0.15 Hz, respectively. BRS was compared between groups with an independent t-test and the difference was not significant. It is likely that a difference in BRS was not seen between groups since the difference in BMI between groups was small. As well, differences in BRS may not have manifested yet at this early age. However, the cardiovascular health of this population still deserves attention since differences in body composition and fitness were found between groups.
    • The Beneficial Effects of Motivational Self-Talk on Endurance Performance and Cognitive Function in the Heat

      Wallacep, Phillip Julian; Applied Health Sciences Program
      The role of psychological strategies on endurance performance and cognitive function in the heat is unclear. This thesis tested the effects of a two-week motivational self-talk (MST) intervention - specific to heat stress - on endurance capacity and cognitive function in the heat (35°C 50% RH). The study utilized a pre-test / post-test design testing endurance capacity using a time to exhaustion test (TTE) after exercise-induced hyperthermia. Cognitive function (e.g executive function) was tested at baseline in thermoneutral (22°C 30% RH), before (R1) and after the TTE (R2). MST led to a significant improvement (~30%) in TTE and significantly faster completion time with fewer errors made on executive function tasks at baseline and R2, but not in R1, while there were no differences in the control group. Overall, these results indicate that using a top-down regulation strategy consisting of self-contextualized MST can improve physical and cognitive performance in the heat.
    • Benefits of Using Target Activities to Assist in Improvement of Striking in Striking and Fielding Games for Individuals with Autism: A Comparative Case Study

      Hogan, Brittany; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2013-10-11)
      The purpose of the research study was to increase understanding about the potential benefits of combining target activities with striking-fielding games for individuals with high functioning autism spectrum disorder. A comparative case study was conducted to understand if target activities can assist in improving the skills of striking and throwing, aid the learning of tactics and add to current understanding of how certain teaching skills might be linked to the transfer between target and striking-fielding games. Data was collected through observations, student journals and interviews and were analyzed using both inductive and deductive methods. Results show an appearance of improvement in throwing, striking, bowling and badminton for overall skill levels. In regards to teaching skills, appropriate and effective teaching techniques, appropriate and effective equipment, dynamic of participants and student-instructors and consistency of attendance are vital. Future research should further look at the transferability to outdoor settings and interview the participants.
    • The Big Five Personality Traits and Choking Susceptibility

      Thiessen, Burgandy; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Choking susceptibility is the likelihood or potential of an individual choking under pressure (Mesagno et al., 2012). Choking susceptibility may be influenced by personality traits. The purpose of this study was to examine the differences between the Big Five personality traits on choking susceptible and choking non-susceptible individuals. A protocol developed by Mesagno et al. (e.g., 2008; 2009), comprised of a self-consciousness scale, sport anxiety scale, and coping style scale, was used to measure choking susceptibility. Personality traits were measured using the Big Five Inventory-10. A total of 60 post-secondary students were analysed in this study; 30 were choking susceptible and 30 were choking non-susceptible. A MANOVA showed a significant effect of the personality traits on choking susceptibility. Separate univariate tests on the outcome variables (i.e., neuroticism, openness, extraversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness) revealed a significant effect for neuroticism. Additionally, a discriminant function analysis further showed that neuroticism contributed the most to choking susceptibility compared to the other four personality traits. According to the current study, individuals higher in neuroticism are more choking susceptible than those lower in neuroticism. Therefore, individuals who are neurotic may benefit from interventions designed for their personality to combat the likelihood of choking under pressure. This study is the first to use Mesagno’s choking susceptibility protocol outside of sport.
    • Biological effects of resveratrol on skeletal muscle cells

      Breen, Danna M.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2005-11-04)
      Resveratrol, a polyphenol found in red wine, has been reported to have antithrombotic, antiatherogenic, and anticancer properties both in vitro and III VIVO. However, possible antidiabetic properties of resveratrol have not been examined. The objective of this study was to investigate the direct effects of resveratrol on basal and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and to elucidate its mechanism of action in skeletal muscle cells. In addition, the effects of resveratrol on basal and insulin- stimulated amino acid transport and mitogenesis were also examined. Fully differentiated L6 rat skeletal muscle cells were incubated with resveratrol concentrations ranging from 1 to 250 IlM for 15 to 120 min. Maximum stimulation, 201 ± 8.90% of untreated control, (p<0.001), of2eH] deoxy- D- glucose (2DG) uptake was seen with 100 IlM resveratrol after 120 min. Acute, 30 min, exposure of the cells to 100 nM insulin stimulated 2DG uptake to 226 ± 12.52% of untreated control (p<0.001). This appears to be a specific property of resveratrol that is not shared by structurally similar antioxidants such as quercetin and rutin, both of which did not have any stimulatory effect. Resveratrol increased the response of the cells to submaximal insulin concentrations but did not alter the maximum insulin response. Resveratrol action did not require insulin and was not blocked by the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide. L Y294002 and wortmannin, inhibitors of PI3K, abolished both insulin and resveratrolstimulated glucose uptake while phosphorylation of AktlPKB, ERK1I2, JNK1I2, and p38 MAPK were not increased by resveratrol. Resveratrol did not stimulate GLUT4 transporter translocation in GLUT4cmyc overexpressing cells, in contrast to the significant translocation observed with insulin. Furthermore, resveratrol- stimulated glucose transport was not blocked by the presence of the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors BIMI and G06983. Despite that, resveratrol- induced glucose transport required an intact actin network, similar to insulin. In contrast to the stimulatory effect seen with resveratrol for glucose transport, e4C]methylaminoisobutyric acid (MeAIB) transport was inhibited. Significant reduction of MeAIB uptake was seen only with 100uM resveratrol (74.2 ± 6.55% of untreated control, p<0.05), which appeared to be maximum. In parallel experiments, insulin (100 nM, 30 min) increased MeAIB transport by 147 ± 5.77% (p<0.00l) compared to untreated control. In addition, resveratrol (100 JlM, 120 min) completely abolished insulin- stimulated amino acid transport (103 ± 7.35% of untreated control,p>0.05). Resveratrol also inhibited cell proliferation in L6 myoblasts with maximal inhibition of eH]thymidine incorporation observed with resveratrol at 50 J.LM after 24 hours (8 ± 1.59% of untreated control, p<O.OOI). Insulin (100 nM, 24 h) significantly increased thymidine incorporation (280 ± 9.92% of untreated control, p<O.OOI) and media containing 10% FBS resulted in stimulation of thymidine incorporation to 691 ± 36.92% of untreated control, p<O.OO1. Resveratrol (50JlM) completely abolished both insulin- (11 ± 1.26% of untreated control,p<O.OOI) and FBS- stimulated (36 ± 5.16% of untreated control, p<0.05) cell proliferation. These results suggest that resveratrol increases glucose transport in L6 skeletal muscle cells by a mechanism that is in4ependent of insulin and protein synthesis. Resveratrol- stimulated glucose uptake may be PI3K and actin cytoskeleton- dependent and independent of AktIPKB, PKC, ERK1I2, JNK1I2, p38 MAPK, and GLUT4 translocation. However, unlike glucose transport, resveratrol inhibits both basal and insulin- stimulated amino acid transport and mitogenesis.
    • Bone markers and cytokines in response to low-impact, high-intensity exercise

      Mezil, Yasmeen; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2014-02-21)
      A low-impact, high-intensity interval exercise (HIE) bout was used to determine whether an association exists between cytokines and bone turnover markers following an acute bout of exercise. Twenty-three recreationally active males (21.8±2.4yr) performed a single HIE bout on a cycle ergometer at 90% relative intensity. Venous blood samples were collected prior to exercise, 5-minutes, 1-hour, and 24-hours post-exercise, and were analyzed for serum levels of pro-inflammatory (IL-6, IL-1α, IL-1β, and TNF-α) and anti- inflammatory cytokines (IL-10) and markers of bone formation (BAP, OPG) and resorption (NTX, RANKL). Significant effects were observed with all bone markers, especially 5-minutes post-exercise with BAP, OPG, and RANKL increasing from baseline (p<0.05). Significant effects were also observed for IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α (p<0.00, p=0.04, p=0.03, p<0.00). In addition, post-exercise changes in NTX, BAP, and OPG were significantly correlated pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, suggesting that an interaction exists between the immune and skeletal response to exercise.
    • Bone properties and skeletal maturity in adolescent males, as assessed by quantitative ultrasound

      Braid, Sarah Anne.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2007-06-04)
      ABSTRACT Background: Previous studies have implied that weight-bearing, intense and prolonged physical activities optimize bone accretion during the grow^ing years. The majority of past inquiries have used dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) to examine bone strength and hand-wrist radiography to determine skeletal maturity in children. Recently, quantitative ultrasound (QUS) technologies have been developed to examine bone properties and skeletal maturity in a safe, noninvasive and cost-effective manner. Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare bone properties and skeletal maturity in competitive male child and adolescent athletes with minimallyactive, age-matched controls, using QUS technology. >. Methods: In total, 224 males were included in the study. The 115 pre-pubertal boys aged 10-12 years consisted of control, minimally-active children (n=34), soccer players (n=26), gymnasts (n=25) and hockey players (n=30). In addition, the 109 late-pubertal boys aged 14-16 years consisted of control, minimally-active adolescents (n=31), soccer players (n=30), gymnasts (n=17) and hockey players (n=31). The athletic groups were elite level players that predominantly trained year-round. Physical activity, nutrition and sports participation were assessed with various questionnaires. Anthropometries, such as height, weight and relative body fat percentage (BF%) were assessed using standard measures. Skeletal strength and age were evaluated using bone QUS. Lastly, salivary testosterone (sT) concentration was measured using Radioimmunoassay (RIA). Results: Within each age group, there were no significant differences between the activity groups in age and pubertal stage. An age effect was apparent in all variables, as expected. A sport effect was noted in all physical characteristics: the child and adolescent gymnasts were shorter and lighter than other sports groups. Adiposity was greater in the controls and in the hockey players. All child subjects were pubertal stage (fanner) I or II, while adolescent subjects were pubertal stage IV or V. There were no differences in daily energy and mineral intakes between sports groups. In both age groups, gymnasts had a higher training volume than other athletic groups. Bone speed of sound (50s) was higher in adolescents compared with the children. Gymnasts had signifieantly higher radial 50S than controls, hockey and soccer players in both age cohorts. Hockey athletes also had higher radial 50S than controls and soccer players in the child and adolescent groups, respectiyely. Child gymnasts and soccer players had greater tibial 50S compared with the hockey players and control groups. Likewise, adolescent gymnasts and soccer players had higher tibial SoS compared with the control group. No interaction was apparent between age and type of activity in any of the bone measures. » Lastly, maturity as assessed by sT and secondary sex characteristics (Tanner stage) was not different between sports group within each age group. Despite the similarity in chronological age, androgen levels and sexual maturity, differences between activity groups were noted in skeletal maturity. In the younger group, hockey players had the highest bone age while the soccer players had the lowest bone age. In the adolescent group, gymnasts and hockey players were characterized by higher skeletal maturity compared with controls. An interaction between the age and sport type effects was apparent in skeletal maturity, reflecting the fact that among the children, the soccer players were significantly less mature than the rest of the groups, while in the adolescents, the controls were the least skeletally mature. Summary and Conclusions: In summary, radial and tibial SOS are enhanced by the unique loading pattern in each sport (i.e, upper and lower extremities in gymnastics, lower extremities in soccer), with no cumulative effect between childhood and adolescence. That is, the effect of sport participation on bone SOS was apparent already among the young athletes. Enhanced bone properties among athletes of specific sports suggest that participation in these sports can improve bone strength and potential bone health.
    • Bone speed of sound in overweight and normal-weight girls and adolescents

      Yao, Matthew W.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2009-02-01)
      Over the last two decades, the prevalence of obesity in the general population has been steadily increasing. Obesity is a major issue in scientific research because it is associated with many health problems, one of which is bone quality. In adult females, adiposity is associated with increased bone mineral density, suggesting that there is a protective effect of fat on bone. However, the association between adiposity and bone strength during childhood is not clear. Thus, the purpose of this study was to compare bone strength, as reflected by speed of sound (SOS), of overweight and obese girls and adolescents with normal-weight age-matched controls. Data from 75 females included normal-weight girls (G-NW; body fat:::; 25%; n = 21), overweight and obese girls (GOW; body fat ~ 28%; n = 19), normal-weight adolescents (A-NW, body fat:::; 25%; n = 13) and overweight and obese adolescents (A-OW; body fat ~ 28%; n = 22). Nutrition was assessed with a 24-hour recall questionnaire and habitual physical activity was measured for one week using accelerometry. Using quantitative ultrasound (QUS; Sunlight Omnisense™), bone SOS was measured at the distal radius and mid-tibia. No differences were found between groups in daily total energy, calcium or vitamin D intake. However, all groups were below the recommended daily calcium intake of 1300 mg (Osteoporosis Canada, 2008). Adolescents were significantly less active than girls (14.7 ± 0.6 vs. 6.3 ± 0.6% active for G and A, respectively). OW accumulated significantly less minutes of moderate-to-very vigorous physical activity per day (MVPA) than NW in both age groups (114 ± 6 vs. 57 ± 5 min/day for NW and OW, i respectively). Girls had significantly lower radial SOS (3794 ± 87 vs. 3964 ± 64 mls for G-NW and A-NW, respectively), and tibial SOS (3678 ± 86 vs. 3878 ± 52 mls for G-NW and A-NW, respectively) than adolescents. Radial SOS was similar in the two adiposity groups within each age group. However, tibial SOS was lower in the two overweight groups (3601 ± 75 mls vs. 3739 ± 134 mls for G-OW and A-OW, respectively) compared with the age-matched normal-weight controls. Body fat percentage negatively correlated with tibial SOS in the study sample as a whole (r = -0.30). However, when split into groups, percent bo~y fat correlated with tibial SOS only in the A-OW group (r = -0.53). MVPA correlated with tibial SOS (r = 0.40), once age was partialed out. In conclusion, in contrast withthe higher bone strength characteristic of obese adult women, overweight and obese girls and adolescents are characterized by low tibial bone strength, as assessed with QUS. The differences between adiposity groups in tibial SOS may be at least partially due to the reduced weight-bearing physical activity levels in the overweight girls and adolescents. However, other factors, such as hormonal influences associated with high body fat may also playa role in reducing bone strength in overweight girls. Further research is required to reveal the mechanisms causing low bone strength in overweight and obese children and adolescents.
    • Bone speed of sound, biochemical markers of bone turnover and IGF-1 in competetive synchronized swimmers

      Ludwa, Izabella Atena.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2009-07-14)
      The purpose of this study was to compare bone speed of sound (SOS) measured by quantitative ultrasound, circulating levels of IGF- 1 and biochemical markers of bone turnover in pre- (Pr) and post-menarcheal (Po) synchronized swimmers (SS) and controls (NS). Seventy participants were recruited: 8 PrSS, 22 PoSS, 20 PrNS, and 20 PoNS. Anthropometric measures of height, weight, skeletal maturity and percent body fat were taken, and dietary intake evaluated using 24-hour recall. Bone SOS was measured at the distal radius and mid-tibia and blood samples analyzed for IGF-1, osteocalcin, NTx, and 25-OH vitamin D. Results demonstrated maturational effects on bone SOS, IGF-1 and bone turnover (p<0.05), with no differences observed between SS and NS. Main effects were observed for a reduced caloric intake in SS compared to NS (p<0.05). Therefore, SS does not offer additive affects on bone strength but imparts no adverse affects to skeletal health in these athletes.
    • Can Attention Focus Instructions Reduce the Effects of Fatigue on Balance Control?

      Huff, Richard; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2014-09-10)
      Localized muscular fatigue has been identified to have detrimental effects on balance control, an important skill for everyday life. Manipulation of attention focus instructions has been shown to benefit performance of various motor skills including balance and has been found to facilitate endurance during fatiguing tasks. The purpose of this thesis was to determine if the use of attention focus instructions could attenuate the effects of muscular fatigue on balance control. Twenty-four participants performed a balance task (two-legged stance on an unstable platform) before and after a fatigue protocol. Trunk sway, platform excursions, and lower limb muscle activity was measured. Results suggest that use of either internal or external attention focus instructions can reduce the immediate effects of muscular fatigue of the lower limb on balance control as shown through reduced trunk sway and platform excursions. These results have relevance for individuals performing balance tasks in a fatigued state.
    • Capacity and transformational development within the 2005 Canada Summer Games host society

      Marunchak, Katrusia.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2006-05-19)
      Although capacity has been used in recent federal government accords and policies related to the voluntary and amateur sport sectors, there is little consensus over the meaning of the term. Consequently, the purpose of this qualitative case study was to explore the concept of organizational capacity within a temporary voluntary sport organization. Specifically, the nature of organizational capacity was examined within the case of the Volunteers Division of the 2005 Canada Summer Games (CSG) Host Society. Data were collected from executive planning and middle management CSG volunteers through the use of a variety of methods: verbal journals, interviews, observations, documents and a focus group. Findings indicated several challenges associated with the volunteer management model utilized by the host society, varying levels of importance among six elements of capacity, and key aspects of the relationship between organizational capacity and transformational development. Implications focused upon the importance of highlighting individuals rather than the organizational as a whole in order to build capacity, and utilizing a brain or hybrid brain-machine organizational form to enhance capacity. Recommendations are provided for both the Canada Games Council and Canada Games host societies.
    • The capillary supply of human skeletal muscle in health and disease

      Kadyan, Mamta.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2006-06-04)
      BACKGROUND: Capillaries function to provide a surface area for nutrient and waste exchange with cells. The capillary supply of skeletal muscle is highly organized, and therefore, represents an excellent choice to study factors regulating diffusion. Muscle is comprised of three specific fibre types, each with specific contractile and metabolic characteristics, which influence the capillary supply of a given muscle; in addition, both environmental and genetic factors influence the capillary supply, including aging, physical training, and various disease processes. OBJECTIVE: The present study was undertaken to develop and assess the functionality of a data base, from which virtual experiments can be conducted on the capillary supply of human muscle, and the adaptations of the capillary bed in muscle to various perturbations. METHODS: To create the database, an extensive search of the literature was conducted using various search engines, and the three key words - "capillary, muscle, and human". This search yielded 169 papers from which the data for the 46 variables on the capillary supply and fibre characteristics of muscle were extracted for inclusion in the database. A series of statistical analyses (ANOVA) were done on the capillary database to examine differences in skeletal muscle capillarization and fibre characteristics between young and old individuals, between healthy and diseased individuals, and between untrained, endurance trained, endurance welltrained, and resistance trained individuals, using SAS. RESULTS: There was a significantly higher capillarization in the young compared to the old individuals, in the healthy compared to the diseased individuals, and in the endurance-trained and endurance well-trained compared to the untrained individuals. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study support the conclusion that the capillary supply of skeletal muscle is closely regulated by factors aimed at optimizing oxygen and nutrient supply and/or waste removal in response to changes in muscle mass and/or metabolic activity.