• Wearable activity monitors and goals: Perceptions on physical activity, attitudes and motivational outcomes

      Bell, Connor; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Evidence attesting to the benefits of wearable activity monitors for increasing PA has been reported (USDHHS, 2018). Goal setting is one behavior change technique that often accompanies wearable activity monitors and has been deemed an essential component to any health behavior change intervention (National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, 2014). Specific to PA behavior, goal setting has been deemed effective regardless of age, sex, and activity status (McEwan et al., 2016). Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine if affective goals confer unique benefits on physical activity (PA), attitudes and behavioral regulations consistent with the Organismic Integration Theory (OIT; Ryan & Deci, 2017) among users of wearable activity monitors. Affective goals were compared with instrumental goals, step count and a no goal condition. Adopting a randomized experimental post-test only design, undergraduate students (N = 153) were assigned to one of eight conditions. Participants read a scenario then completed a battery of questionnaires housed on a secure online interface. Differences by condition were not found for short- or long-term PA or attitudes (p’s >.05). Differences were noted for extrinsic regulation (p = 0.025; ηp2 = .105). Results indicated that extrinsic regulation was higher in the no goal condition when compared to most other conditions. These findings imply that goal setting, regardless of type, may offset increases in extrinsic motivation associated with the use of wearable activity monitors. Users of wearable activity monitors looking to improve PA, positive attitudes and motivation associated with PA may benefit by utilizing goal setting in combination with other commonly used BCTs. A further investigation upon goal setting and users of wearable activity monitors is warranted.
    • What children value : a scale to guide health promotion programs

      Foster, Kelly A.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2003-05-21)
      Objective. Physical activity is important for the health of all human beings. Although it is important to develop good health promotion programs for children to increase participation in physical activity, to date there appear to be no programs based on what kids value beyond health and physical activity itself. This study proposed to create a scale with strong content and face validity that could uncover what any given population of children value in life regardless of their participation in physical activity and that experts feel could be related to physical activity. These findings will allow the development of targeted health promotion programs to increase children's participation in regular physical activity. Method In this study, a combination of qualitative and quantitative approaches was used. Data were gathered from seven experts in the field, sixty-seven children in grades three to five, five parents, and three teachers. From these data response groupings were created and sent to four experts to be given single word names. The resulting nine theme names were re-worked into "child-friendly" language. Four children were then asked to discuss theme names to see if they liked and understood them. The next step involved asking children and experts to rank order the nine themes, the children in general and the experts in terms of relevance to physical activity. From these results, possible versions of the scale were then created using the combined expert/children rankings. Each version was examined for content validity. Two versions of a scale resulted. These were sent to experts, parents, teachers and children in order to determine which one they liked better and to suggest any foreseeable problems. Once this information was collected, a beta (final prototype) version of the scale was created. Results. Nine common theme names were created from the response groupings. All four children agreed that they did understand and like each of the nine theme names. Experts and teachers agreed that full coverage of the content had been achieved. Children suggested a single wording change from "Being Accepted" to "Being Included". Five themes were selected for inclusion. The beta version of the scale included 12 forced choice statements, the first ten comparing all themes against one another followed by two anchor statements. Conclusion. At the outset it was recognized that it is essential to know what children think is important in their lives in order to serve as potential benefits in the development of effective physical activity promotion programs. This study developed a scale which could be used to determine what a population of children feel is important in order to focus health promotion programs for physical activity. The scale has strong face and content validity.
    • Youth's experiences of motivation in school physical education and sport

      Patrick, Amy.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2007-05-21)
      This study's objective was to examine how thirteen year-old females perceive and describe their lived experiences of being physically active in school PE (physical education) and organized youth sport settings through a self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985) lens. Motivational factors and links between both settings were discussed with five participants using in-depth interviews. Participants discussed factors that facilitated and disrupted their motivation to be active in PE and sport settings. The selfdetermination theory was used as a framework in this qualitative study and results are based on participants' own words and perspectives. Results indicate that participants' positive experiences in school PE and organized sport have the potential to meet their needs of autonomy, competence and relatedness. The autonomy supportive behaviours of social agents, feeling challenged and successful at activities and the strong relationships formed in both settings are all things that motivated young people in this study to continue being physically active throughout high-school and into adulthood.