• The validation of heart rate variability in individuals with spinal cord injury

      Cotie, Lisa.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2009-06-15)
      The current classification system for spinal cord injury (SCI) considers only somatic information and neglects autonomic damage after injiuy. Heart rate variability (HRV) has the potential to be a valuable measure of cardiac autonomic control after (SCI). Five individuals with tetraplegia and four able-bodied controls underwent 1 min continuous ECG recordings during rest, after Metoprolol administration (max dose=3x5mg) and after Atropine administration (0.02mg/kg) in both supine and 40° head-up tilt. After Metoprolol administration there was a 61.8% decrease in the LF:HF ratio in the SCI participants suggesting that the LF:HF ratio is a reflection of cardiac sympathetic outflow. After Atropine administration there was a 99.1% decrease in the HF power in the SCI participants suggesting that HF power is highly representative of cardiac parasympathetic outflow. There were no significant differences between the SCI and able-bodied participants. Thus, HRV measures are a valid index of cardiac autonomic control after SCI.
    • Validation of ice skating protocol to predict aerobic power in hockey players

      Petrella, Nicholas J.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2006-06-04)
      Validation ofan Ice Skating Protocol to Predict Aerobic Power in Hockey Players In assessing the physiological capacity of ice hockey players, researchers have often reported the outcomes from different anaerobic skate tests, and the general physical fitness of participants. However, with respect to measuring the aerobic power of ice hockey players, few studies have reported a sport-specific protocol, and currently there is a lack of cohort-specific information describing aerobic power based on evaluations using an on-ice protocol. The Faught Aerobic Skating Test (FAST) uses an on-ice continuous skating protocol to induce a physical stress on a participant's aerobic energy system. The FAST incorporates the principle of increasing workloads at measured time intervals during a continuous skating exercise. Regression analysis was used to determine the estimate of aerobic power within gender and age level. Data were collected on 532 hockey players, (males=384, females=148) ranging in age between 9 and 25 years. Participants completed a laboratory test to measure aerobic power using a modified Bruce protocol, and the on-ice FAST. Regression equations were developed for six male and female, age-specific cohorts separately. The most consistent predictors were weight and final stage completed on the FAST. These results support the application of the FAST to estimate aerobic power among hockey players with R^ values ranging from 0.174 to 0.396 and SEE ranging from 5.65 to 8.58 ml kg' min'' depending on the cohort. Thus we conclude that FAST to be an accurate predictor of aerobic power in age and gender-specific hockey playing cohorts.
    • Vitamin D status and latent tuberculosis infection : a preliminary study in a group of healthy Mexican agricultural workers

      Merion, Timna.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2009-02-16)
      Vitamin D metabolites are important in the regulation of bone and calcium homeostasis, but also have a more ubiquitous role in the regulation of cell differentiation and immune function. Severely low circulating 25-dihydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations have been associated with the onset of active tuberculosis (TB) in immigrant populations, although the association with latent TB infection (LTBI) has not received much attention. A previous study identified the prevalence of LTBI among a sample of Mexican migrant workers enrolled in Canada's Seasonal Agricultural Workers Program (SA WP) in the Niagara Region of Ontario. The aim of the present study was to determine the vitamin D status of the same sample, and identify if a relationship existed with LTBI. Studies of vitamin D deficiency and active TB are most commonly carried out among immigrant populations to non-endemic regions, in which reactivation of LTBI has occurred. Currently, there is limited knowledge of the association between vitamin D deficiency and LTBI. Entry into Canada ensured that these individuals did not have active TB, and L TBI status was established previously by an interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA) (QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube®, Cellestis Ltd., Australia). Awareness of vitamin D status may enable individuals at risk of deficiency to improve their nutritional health, and those with LTBI to be aware of this risk factor for disease. Prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency among the Mexican migrant workers was determined from serum samples collected in the summer of 2007 as part of the cross sectional LTBI study. Samples were measured for concentrations of the main circulating vitamin D metabolite, 25(OH)D, with a widely used 1251 250HD RIA (DiaSorin Inc.®, Stillwater, MN), and were categorized as deficient «37.5 nmoI/L), insufficient (>37.5 nmollL, < 80 nmol/L) or sufficient (2::80 nmoI/L). Fisher's exact tests and t tests were used to determine if vitamin D status (sufficiency or insufficiency) or 25(OH)D concentrations significantly differed by sex or age categories. Predictors of vitamin D insufficiency and 25(OH)D concentrations were taken from questionnaires carried out during the previous study, and analyzed in the present study using multiple regression prediction models. Fisher's exact test and t test was used to determine if vitamin D status or 25(OH)D concentration differed by LTBI status. Strength of the relationship between interferongamma (IFN-y) concentration (released by peripheral T cells in response to TB antigens) and 25(OH)D concentration was analyzed using a Spearman correlation. Out of 87 participants included in the study (78% male; mean age 38 years), 14 were identified as LTBI positive but none had any signs or symptoms of TB reactivation. Only 30% of the participants were vitamin D sufficient, whereas 68% were insufficient and 2% were deficient. Significant independent predictors of lower 25(OH)D concentrations were sex, number of years enrolled in the SA WP and length of stay in Canada. No significant differences were found between 25(OH)D concentrations and LTBI status. There was a significant moderate correlation between IFN-y and 25(OH)D concentrations ofLTBI-positive individuals. The majority of participants presented with Vitamin D insufficiency but none were severely deficient, indicating that 25(OH)D concentrations do not decrease dramatically in populations who temporarily reside in Canada but go back to their countries of origin during the Canadian winter. This study did not find a statistical relationship between low levels of vitamin D and LTBI which suggests that in the presence of overall good health, lower than ideal levels of 2S(OH)D, may still be exerting a protective immunological effect against LTBI reactivation. The challenge remains to determine a critical 2S(OH)D concentration at which reactivation is more likely to occur.
    • Wearable activity monitors and goals: Perceptions on physical activity, attitudes and motivational outcomes

      Bell, Connor; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Evidence attesting to the benefits of wearable activity monitors for increasing PA has been reported (USDHHS, 2018). Goal setting is one behavior change technique that often accompanies wearable activity monitors and has been deemed an essential component to any health behavior change intervention (National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, 2014). Specific to PA behavior, goal setting has been deemed effective regardless of age, sex, and activity status (McEwan et al., 2016). Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine if affective goals confer unique benefits on physical activity (PA), attitudes and behavioral regulations consistent with the Organismic Integration Theory (OIT; Ryan & Deci, 2017) among users of wearable activity monitors. Affective goals were compared with instrumental goals, step count and a no goal condition. Adopting a randomized experimental post-test only design, undergraduate students (N = 153) were assigned to one of eight conditions. Participants read a scenario then completed a battery of questionnaires housed on a secure online interface. Differences by condition were not found for short- or long-term PA or attitudes (p’s >.05). Differences were noted for extrinsic regulation (p = 0.025; ηp2 = .105). Results indicated that extrinsic regulation was higher in the no goal condition when compared to most other conditions. These findings imply that goal setting, regardless of type, may offset increases in extrinsic motivation associated with the use of wearable activity monitors. Users of wearable activity monitors looking to improve PA, positive attitudes and motivation associated with PA may benefit by utilizing goal setting in combination with other commonly used BCTs. A further investigation upon goal setting and users of wearable activity monitors is warranted.
    • What children value : a scale to guide health promotion programs

      Foster, Kelly A.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2003-05-21)
      Objective. Physical activity is important for the health of all human beings. Although it is important to develop good health promotion programs for children to increase participation in physical activity, to date there appear to be no programs based on what kids value beyond health and physical activity itself. This study proposed to create a scale with strong content and face validity that could uncover what any given population of children value in life regardless of their participation in physical activity and that experts feel could be related to physical activity. These findings will allow the development of targeted health promotion programs to increase children's participation in regular physical activity. Method In this study, a combination of qualitative and quantitative approaches was used. Data were gathered from seven experts in the field, sixty-seven children in grades three to five, five parents, and three teachers. From these data response groupings were created and sent to four experts to be given single word names. The resulting nine theme names were re-worked into "child-friendly" language. Four children were then asked to discuss theme names to see if they liked and understood them. The next step involved asking children and experts to rank order the nine themes, the children in general and the experts in terms of relevance to physical activity. From these results, possible versions of the scale were then created using the combined expert/children rankings. Each version was examined for content validity. Two versions of a scale resulted. These were sent to experts, parents, teachers and children in order to determine which one they liked better and to suggest any foreseeable problems. Once this information was collected, a beta (final prototype) version of the scale was created. Results. Nine common theme names were created from the response groupings. All four children agreed that they did understand and like each of the nine theme names. Experts and teachers agreed that full coverage of the content had been achieved. Children suggested a single wording change from "Being Accepted" to "Being Included". Five themes were selected for inclusion. The beta version of the scale included 12 forced choice statements, the first ten comparing all themes against one another followed by two anchor statements. Conclusion. At the outset it was recognized that it is essential to know what children think is important in their lives in order to serve as potential benefits in the development of effective physical activity promotion programs. This study developed a scale which could be used to determine what a population of children feel is important in order to focus health promotion programs for physical activity. The scale has strong face and content validity.
    • Youth's experiences of motivation in school physical education and sport

      Patrick, Amy.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2007-05-21)
      This study's objective was to examine how thirteen year-old females perceive and describe their lived experiences of being physically active in school PE (physical education) and organized youth sport settings through a self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985) lens. Motivational factors and links between both settings were discussed with five participants using in-depth interviews. Participants discussed factors that facilitated and disrupted their motivation to be active in PE and sport settings. The selfdetermination theory was used as a framework in this qualitative study and results are based on participants' own words and perspectives. Results indicate that participants' positive experiences in school PE and organized sport have the potential to meet their needs of autonomy, competence and relatedness. The autonomy supportive behaviours of social agents, feeling challenged and successful at activities and the strong relationships formed in both settings are all things that motivated young people in this study to continue being physically active throughout high-school and into adulthood.