• Understanding space, place and leisure of women over 85 living in the community

      Bergman, Nicole U. H.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2007-11-04)
      There is an increase in the number of older adults 85 and over, who are choosing to live alone within the community. Moreover, older adults who live alone are reportedly spending an extensive amount of time alone within the home environment. In an effort to provide additional support and resources to older adults living in the community, a compliment of services are being offered through public and private organizations. These in-home supports focus on the instrumental or functional tasks of daily living, such as personal and rehabilitative care, nourishment, maintenance and upkeep of the home, as well as volunteer social visitation. However leisure resources and programs are not included among these services. Consequently, this creates a gap in leisure provision among this segment of the population. Throughout the life course, an individual's identity, role and purpose are developed and sustained through instrumental work roles in the formal and informal sector, as well as through personally meaningful leisure pastimes and experiences. Although roles shift post retirement, participation in instrumental and expressive activities can provide opportunities through which older adults are able to fulfill their need for agency (individuality and autonomy) and affiliation (social relatedness). Therefore barriers that inhibit instrumental or leisure experiences can negatively impact older adults' quality of life. This study explored the leisure lifestyles of four older adults, all of whom were over 85, lived alone within the community and were oriented to person, time and place. It became apparent that participants ordered their lives around a routine that consisted of instrumental, expressive and socially integrated tasks and activities. Moreover participants purposely chose to remain at home because their home environment facilitated freedom, choice and independence. As a result all four participants viewed their independence within the home as a critical determinant to their overall quality of life. Challenges associated with the home environment, participants' personal capacities and relationships were negotiated on a daily basis. Failure to positively adapt to these challenges inhibited meaningful engagement and personal fulfillment. Traditionally, leisure service delivery has been offered within institutions and through various community based venues. As a result leisure provision has been focused on the needs of the frail elderly who reside in institutions or the well elderly who are able to access leisure amenities within the community. However the growing number of older adults electing to live alone is on the rise. As individuals age the home becomes the preferred context for leisure experiences. If older adults are choosing to live alone, then both their instrumental and leisure needs must be addressed. As a result, it is imperative that leisure professionals extend the scope of service delivery to include home centered older adults.
    • Understanding the financial status of a group of high performance athletes

      Harman, Alanna.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2008-05-21)
      With the 2010 Vancouver Winter Olympic Games quickly approaching, there has been a heightened interest in the performance of Canadian athletes at international competitions (Duffy, 2007; Fidlin, 2005; Longley, 2006). Two significant documents outline Canada's goal to become the number one sporting nation at the 2010 Olympic Games, and improve Canada's performance at the 2008 Olympic Games: Own the Podium and Road to Excellence (Priestner Allinger & Allinger, 2004; Road to Excellence, 2006). These two documents represent heightened interest in the performance of our elite athletes, in conjunction with Canada's hosting status of the Vancouver 2010 Winter Olympic Games. The requirements to train and compete at the international level have become more demanding both in terms of financial resources and time commitment. The need to financially assist athletes with their training and competition costs has been an important topic of debate over the past decades (Beamish & Borowy, 1987; Gatehouse, 2004; Macintosh, 1996; Munro, 1970; Owens, 2004). Two sources of fiinding for high performance athletes in Canada are the Athlete Assistance Program (AAP) provided by the Federal Government and the Canadian Olympic Excellence Fund provided by the Canadian Olympic Committee. The importance of these fiinds for athletes has been discussed in various forums (Ekos, 1992, 1997, 2005; Priestner Allinger & Allinger, 2004; Thibault «& Babiak, 2005). However, alternative sources of funds for high performance athletes have never been the object of research. As such the purpose of this study was to describe a group of athlete applicants from the time period of November 2004 to April 2006, and to contextualize these applications within the development of the Charitable Fund for Athletes.
    • Understanding the relationship between body image and menopause in South Asian Canadian women

      Dhillon, Taranjot Kaur; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Research regarding women’s body image during menopause is limited; few studies reflect the experiences of ethnic women, especially South Asian women living in Canada. Cultural differences play an important role in both body image and menopause experiences and may be particularly important to South Asian women, who often fear stigmatization and struggle with openly discussing health concerns. This study used interpretive phenomenological analysis, which focuses on understanding and interpreting the experiences of the participants, to explore the relationship between body image and the transition of menopause in South Asian Canadian women. Nine first generation South Asian immigrant Canadian women (aged 49-59 years), in perimenopause or postmenopause were recruited for semi-structured individual interviews. Overall, three themes were constructed: 1) Complexity and intertwining of body image and menopause experiences, which showed that although women understood body image as a multidimensional construct, their own body image focused on weight and appearance that was impacted by menopause and aging; 2) “It's just something we go through silently”: The challenges of body image and menopause experiences, which highlighted the lack personal support from family and South Asian community and the disconnected feeling from their bodies through the menopause transition; and 3) The push and pull of South Asian and Western cultures, which focused on conflicts between the two cultures and influence of the South Asian culture on beauty, body image, and aging. Results showed that participants often upheld Western body image ideals by equating positive body image practices and attitudes with these ideals, and this was often worsened by South Asian cultural norms. Additionally, women’s understanding of body image and menopause showed a gap between their personal understanding and research. Participants emphasized a lack of ethnically appropriate education for body image and menopause, suggesting there is a need for the implementation of culturally-appropriate and community-based interventions, and resources (e.g., workshops, seminars, support groups). Moreover, an underlying narrative of cultural conflict (Western vs South Asian cultures) and impact of the South Asian culture was evident. Therefore, further examination of the complexity and influence of the South Asian culture on body image and menopause experiences is required.
    • Understanding value congruence : a sport organization case study

      Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2006-05-19)
      With the recent growth in cultural complexity, many organizations are faced with increasingly diverse employee pools. Gaining a greater understanding of the values that employees possess is the first step in effectively satisfying their needs and achieving a more productive workforce (lung & Avolio, 2000). Values playa significant role in influencing individual behaviours. It is therefore necessary to assess the qualities of employee value systems and directly link them to the values of the organization. The importance of values and value congruence has been emphasized by many organizational behaviour researchers (cf. Adkins & Caldwell, 2004; Erdogan, Kraimer, & Liden, 2004; Jung & Avolio, 2000; Rokeach, 1973); however the emphasis on value studies remains fairly stagnant within the sport industry (Amis, Slack, & Hinings, 2002). In order to examine the realities that were constructed by the participants in this study a holistic view of the impact of values within a specific sport organization were provided. The purpose of this case study was to examine organizational and employee values to understand the effects of values and value congruence on employee behaviours within the context of a large Canadian sport organization. A mUltiple methods case study approach was adopted in order to fully serve the purpose and provide a comprehensive view of the organization being examined. Document analysis, observations, surveys, as well as semi-structured interviews were conducted. The process allowed for triangulation and confirmability of the findings. Each method functioned to create an overarching understanding of the values and value congruence within this organization. The analysis of the findings was divided into qualitative and quantitative sections. The qualitative documents were analyzed twice, once manually by the researcher and once via AtIas.ti Version 4 (1998). The a priori and emergent coding that took place was based on triangulating the findings and uncovering common themes throughout the data. The Rokeach Value Survey (1973) that was incorporated into the survey design of the study was analyzed using descriptive statistics, as well as Mann-Whitney U, and Kruskal Wallis formulas. These were deemed appropriate for analysis given the non-parametric nature of the survey instrument (Kinnear & Gray, 2004). The quantitative survey served to help define the values and value congruence that was then holistically examined through the qualitative interviews, document analyses, and observations. The results of the study indicated incongruent value levels between employees and those stated or perceived as the organization's values. Each finding demonstrated that varying levels of congruence may have diverse affects on individual behaviours. These behaviours range from production levels to interactions with fellow employees to turnover. In addition to the findings pertaining to the research questions, a number of other key issues were uncovered regarding departmentalization, communication, and board relations. Each has contributed to a greater understanding of the organization and has created direction for further research within this area of study.
    • University Students' Perceptions of Myocardial Infarction Patients

      Cloudt, Miranda; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2014-09-19)
      This study examined: (1) whether individuals who were described as having a myocardial infarction (MI) were perceived differently compared to individuals who were described as having rheumatoid arthritis or individuals who had no health condition; and (2) whether individuals described as engaging in exercise following an MI were perceived more positively than those described as not engaging in exercise following an MI or for whom no mention of exercise was made. University students (n = 473) were randomly assigned 1 of 10 target conditions. They completed demographic information, read a target description, created an image of that target in their head, and then rated that target on physical and personality characteristics. The results showed that the MI targets were perceived more negatively than the arthritis targets and healthy controls, specifically on the physical characteristics. Further, engaging in exercise following an MI helped to reduce the negative perceptions associated with MIs.
    • Utilizing a Phenomenological Approach to Examine the Experience of Sexuality for Women Concerned about Urinary Incontinence following Spinal Cord Injury

      Cramp, Jackie; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2013-01-24)
      Sexuality after spinal cord injury (SCI) is a complex issue that is influenced by a number of social, psychological and physiological factors, one of which is urinary incontinence (UI). Using a phenomenological approach, seven mixed methods interviews combining both the interview guide and standardized open-ended approaches were conducted to examine the experience of sexuality for women who are concerned about UI following SCI. Sexual function was one of the top priorities for the women after SCI, and UI was one of the main concerns the women had regarding sexuality. The findings of this study demonstrate that various dimensions of intimacy and the sexual experience as a whole were affected by UI, and the women discussed both physical and psychological concerns. The main issues regarding sexuality included concerns related to relationships, frustrations with limited sexual activities and the difficulty of being sexually satisfied, the number of unanswered questions and concerns, and a fear of being hurt or injured while participating in sexual activities. The main concerns regarding UI were embarrassment, the work and inconvenience involved with the clean-up of UI, bladder infections, the lack of accessible washrooms, and the negative effects of UI medications. When examining sexuality and UI together, the major issues were the constant comparison to the way things were before SCI, as well as the new concerns that the women did not have to worry about previously, worrying about how their partner would react if UI were to occur during sexual activity, and the impact of their own feelings toward UI on sexuality, a connection between pleasurable sexual sensations and UI as well as difficulty differentiating between the sensation of UI with the sensation of UI, dealing with infected urine during sexual activity, having to discuss UI with a new potential sexual partner, and a fear of rejection. Other identified issues included those related to body image, a lack of resources, Doctors who were inadequately educated regarding SCI, and issues related to both having and raising children. There is a significant shortage of information available for women with SCI to use as a resource regarding sexual function in general, and sexual function as it relates to UI. It is necessary that future work focus on creating resources to assist in this area, and that the dissemination of those resources becomes both appropriate and effective. Addressing sexual function and UI which are among the top concerns for this population has the opportunity to greatly improve quality of life (QOL) for these individuals.
    • The validation of heart rate variability in individuals with spinal cord injury

      Cotie, Lisa.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2009-06-15)
      The current classification system for spinal cord injury (SCI) considers only somatic information and neglects autonomic damage after injiuy. Heart rate variability (HRV) has the potential to be a valuable measure of cardiac autonomic control after (SCI). Five individuals with tetraplegia and four able-bodied controls underwent 1 min continuous ECG recordings during rest, after Metoprolol administration (max dose=3x5mg) and after Atropine administration (0.02mg/kg) in both supine and 40° head-up tilt. After Metoprolol administration there was a 61.8% decrease in the LF:HF ratio in the SCI participants suggesting that the LF:HF ratio is a reflection of cardiac sympathetic outflow. After Atropine administration there was a 99.1% decrease in the HF power in the SCI participants suggesting that HF power is highly representative of cardiac parasympathetic outflow. There were no significant differences between the SCI and able-bodied participants. Thus, HRV measures are a valid index of cardiac autonomic control after SCI.
    • Validation of ice skating protocol to predict aerobic power in hockey players

      Petrella, Nicholas J.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2006-06-04)
      Validation ofan Ice Skating Protocol to Predict Aerobic Power in Hockey Players In assessing the physiological capacity of ice hockey players, researchers have often reported the outcomes from different anaerobic skate tests, and the general physical fitness of participants. However, with respect to measuring the aerobic power of ice hockey players, few studies have reported a sport-specific protocol, and currently there is a lack of cohort-specific information describing aerobic power based on evaluations using an on-ice protocol. The Faught Aerobic Skating Test (FAST) uses an on-ice continuous skating protocol to induce a physical stress on a participant's aerobic energy system. The FAST incorporates the principle of increasing workloads at measured time intervals during a continuous skating exercise. Regression analysis was used to determine the estimate of aerobic power within gender and age level. Data were collected on 532 hockey players, (males=384, females=148) ranging in age between 9 and 25 years. Participants completed a laboratory test to measure aerobic power using a modified Bruce protocol, and the on-ice FAST. Regression equations were developed for six male and female, age-specific cohorts separately. The most consistent predictors were weight and final stage completed on the FAST. These results support the application of the FAST to estimate aerobic power among hockey players with R^ values ranging from 0.174 to 0.396 and SEE ranging from 5.65 to 8.58 ml kg' min'' depending on the cohort. Thus we conclude that FAST to be an accurate predictor of aerobic power in age and gender-specific hockey playing cohorts.
    • Vitamin D status and latent tuberculosis infection : a preliminary study in a group of healthy Mexican agricultural workers

      Merion, Timna.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2009-02-16)
      Vitamin D metabolites are important in the regulation of bone and calcium homeostasis, but also have a more ubiquitous role in the regulation of cell differentiation and immune function. Severely low circulating 25-dihydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations have been associated with the onset of active tuberculosis (TB) in immigrant populations, although the association with latent TB infection (LTBI) has not received much attention. A previous study identified the prevalence of LTBI among a sample of Mexican migrant workers enrolled in Canada's Seasonal Agricultural Workers Program (SA WP) in the Niagara Region of Ontario. The aim of the present study was to determine the vitamin D status of the same sample, and identify if a relationship existed with LTBI. Studies of vitamin D deficiency and active TB are most commonly carried out among immigrant populations to non-endemic regions, in which reactivation of LTBI has occurred. Currently, there is limited knowledge of the association between vitamin D deficiency and LTBI. Entry into Canada ensured that these individuals did not have active TB, and L TBI status was established previously by an interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA) (QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube®, Cellestis Ltd., Australia). Awareness of vitamin D status may enable individuals at risk of deficiency to improve their nutritional health, and those with LTBI to be aware of this risk factor for disease. Prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency among the Mexican migrant workers was determined from serum samples collected in the summer of 2007 as part of the cross sectional LTBI study. Samples were measured for concentrations of the main circulating vitamin D metabolite, 25(OH)D, with a widely used 1251 250HD RIA (DiaSorin Inc.®, Stillwater, MN), and were categorized as deficient «37.5 nmoI/L), insufficient (>37.5 nmollL, < 80 nmol/L) or sufficient (2::80 nmoI/L). Fisher's exact tests and t tests were used to determine if vitamin D status (sufficiency or insufficiency) or 25(OH)D concentrations significantly differed by sex or age categories. Predictors of vitamin D insufficiency and 25(OH)D concentrations were taken from questionnaires carried out during the previous study, and analyzed in the present study using multiple regression prediction models. Fisher's exact test and t test was used to determine if vitamin D status or 25(OH)D concentration differed by LTBI status. Strength of the relationship between interferongamma (IFN-y) concentration (released by peripheral T cells in response to TB antigens) and 25(OH)D concentration was analyzed using a Spearman correlation. Out of 87 participants included in the study (78% male; mean age 38 years), 14 were identified as LTBI positive but none had any signs or symptoms of TB reactivation. Only 30% of the participants were vitamin D sufficient, whereas 68% were insufficient and 2% were deficient. Significant independent predictors of lower 25(OH)D concentrations were sex, number of years enrolled in the SA WP and length of stay in Canada. No significant differences were found between 25(OH)D concentrations and LTBI status. There was a significant moderate correlation between IFN-y and 25(OH)D concentrations ofLTBI-positive individuals. The majority of participants presented with Vitamin D insufficiency but none were severely deficient, indicating that 25(OH)D concentrations do not decrease dramatically in populations who temporarily reside in Canada but go back to their countries of origin during the Canadian winter. This study did not find a statistical relationship between low levels of vitamin D and LTBI which suggests that in the presence of overall good health, lower than ideal levels of 2S(OH)D, may still be exerting a protective immunological effect against LTBI reactivation. The challenge remains to determine a critical 2S(OH)D concentration at which reactivation is more likely to occur.
    • Wearable activity monitors and goals: Perceptions on physical activity, attitudes and motivational outcomes

      Bell, Connor; Applied Health Sciences Program
      Evidence attesting to the benefits of wearable activity monitors for increasing PA has been reported (USDHHS, 2018). Goal setting is one behavior change technique that often accompanies wearable activity monitors and has been deemed an essential component to any health behavior change intervention (National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, 2014). Specific to PA behavior, goal setting has been deemed effective regardless of age, sex, and activity status (McEwan et al., 2016). Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine if affective goals confer unique benefits on physical activity (PA), attitudes and behavioral regulations consistent with the Organismic Integration Theory (OIT; Ryan & Deci, 2017) among users of wearable activity monitors. Affective goals were compared with instrumental goals, step count and a no goal condition. Adopting a randomized experimental post-test only design, undergraduate students (N = 153) were assigned to one of eight conditions. Participants read a scenario then completed a battery of questionnaires housed on a secure online interface. Differences by condition were not found for short- or long-term PA or attitudes (p’s >.05). Differences were noted for extrinsic regulation (p = 0.025; ηp2 = .105). Results indicated that extrinsic regulation was higher in the no goal condition when compared to most other conditions. These findings imply that goal setting, regardless of type, may offset increases in extrinsic motivation associated with the use of wearable activity monitors. Users of wearable activity monitors looking to improve PA, positive attitudes and motivation associated with PA may benefit by utilizing goal setting in combination with other commonly used BCTs. A further investigation upon goal setting and users of wearable activity monitors is warranted.
    • What children value : a scale to guide health promotion programs

      Foster, Kelly A.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2003-05-21)
      Objective. Physical activity is important for the health of all human beings. Although it is important to develop good health promotion programs for children to increase participation in physical activity, to date there appear to be no programs based on what kids value beyond health and physical activity itself. This study proposed to create a scale with strong content and face validity that could uncover what any given population of children value in life regardless of their participation in physical activity and that experts feel could be related to physical activity. These findings will allow the development of targeted health promotion programs to increase children's participation in regular physical activity. Method In this study, a combination of qualitative and quantitative approaches was used. Data were gathered from seven experts in the field, sixty-seven children in grades three to five, five parents, and three teachers. From these data response groupings were created and sent to four experts to be given single word names. The resulting nine theme names were re-worked into "child-friendly" language. Four children were then asked to discuss theme names to see if they liked and understood them. The next step involved asking children and experts to rank order the nine themes, the children in general and the experts in terms of relevance to physical activity. From these results, possible versions of the scale were then created using the combined expert/children rankings. Each version was examined for content validity. Two versions of a scale resulted. These were sent to experts, parents, teachers and children in order to determine which one they liked better and to suggest any foreseeable problems. Once this information was collected, a beta (final prototype) version of the scale was created. Results. Nine common theme names were created from the response groupings. All four children agreed that they did understand and like each of the nine theme names. Experts and teachers agreed that full coverage of the content had been achieved. Children suggested a single wording change from "Being Accepted" to "Being Included". Five themes were selected for inclusion. The beta version of the scale included 12 forced choice statements, the first ten comparing all themes against one another followed by two anchor statements. Conclusion. At the outset it was recognized that it is essential to know what children think is important in their lives in order to serve as potential benefits in the development of effective physical activity promotion programs. This study developed a scale which could be used to determine what a population of children feel is important in order to focus health promotion programs for physical activity. The scale has strong face and content validity.
    • Youth's experiences of motivation in school physical education and sport

      Patrick, Amy.; Applied Health Sciences Program (Brock University, 2007-05-21)
      This study's objective was to examine how thirteen year-old females perceive and describe their lived experiences of being physically active in school PE (physical education) and organized youth sport settings through a self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985) lens. Motivational factors and links between both settings were discussed with five participants using in-depth interviews. Participants discussed factors that facilitated and disrupted their motivation to be active in PE and sport settings. The selfdetermination theory was used as a framework in this qualitative study and results are based on participants' own words and perspectives. Results indicate that participants' positive experiences in school PE and organized sport have the potential to meet their needs of autonomy, competence and relatedness. The autonomy supportive behaviours of social agents, feeling challenged and successful at activities and the strong relationships formed in both settings are all things that motivated young people in this study to continue being physically active throughout high-school and into adulthood.